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Digitized by 




Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Digitized by 


Digitized by 



From July 1, 1915, to December 31, 1915 



J 13 

i -^^^^ x^i 



(Established in April, 1856) 






Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Fjfty-ninth Quarto Volume— July 1, 1915, to December 31, 1915. 

[Space forbidi nuking the index of the Railway Agt GoMtttt to detailed ai to ihow every reference in 
the entire half year to every detail of every subject. General headings, therefore, are UKd which are in* 
tended to be inclusive, and if the reader fails to find a particular auCject under the specific heading with 
which he connects it in his mind, if he will look under the general subject of which this is a branch he 
should find the article he is looking for. For instance, one of the articles published during this half year 
was entitled "Depreciation and Confiscation." This article dealt with the general subject of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission's accounting rules and in particular with their rules for charging for depreciation 
on equipment The article is indexed, therefore, under Accounting — Depreciation and Confiscation. 
There is also, it might incidentally be mentioned, a cross reference Depreciation — see Accounting.] 


Acworth, W. M., 725, 1203 
Adams, E. E., 1083 
Alfred, Frank H., 1184 
Allen. P. C, 267 
Anderson, C. B., 1005 
Andrews, C. T., 205 
Angerer, V., 341 
Angier, F. J., 537 
Atwood, J. T., 888 

Babcock, A. H., 1082 
PainLridge, C. N., 45, 1059 
Baker, R. M., 191 
Ballarline, N. D., 933 
Barnum, E. S., 1095 
Busl'ura, George M., 150 
Bante-. Gordon, 638 
Bjyiey Victor, 600 
Bebb, J. E., 347 
Btyei, O. S., Jr., 507 
Blunt, John E., Jr., 1191 
Borden, H. P., 1189 
Boftwick, F. F., 999 
Boutell, Hugh G., 682 
Bowser, J. T., 532, 1152 
Buylan, John F., 417 
Brooker, Richard, 204 
Brown, Edward Hurst, 969 
Buckwalter, T. V., 737 
Buell, D. C, 455 

Camp, E. W., 460 

Campbell, MacRae D., 129, 345, 965 

Carroll, H. E., 952 

Cavanagh, J. R., 700 

Church, H. M., 130 

Qark. E. E., 493 

acmenta, Judson C, 1227 

Cooke, V. R., 1188 

Coss, J. L., 20, 86, 109, 159, 2^0, 322, 336 

County, A. J., 1100 

Cttshtng, W. C, 747 

Dixon, Frank Haigh, 1237 
Dixon, George Dallas, 1084 
Dodgson, F. L., 1197 
Doogberty, N. F., 1093 
Dudley. P. H.. 1001 
Dagger, H. E., 33S 
Dunn, Samnel O.. 907 

Eaton. G. M., 604 
Eck. W. J., 1233 
Edwards, C. B.. 998 
Elliott, Howard, 96 

Fair, E. W.. 349 
Fawcett, WaldoD, 643 
Fontaine, L. C, 109 
Forshec, I. C, 269 
Fowler, George L., 319 
Franey, M. D., 558 

Frank, Lawrence K., 44 
Freeman, Lewis R., 199 

Gardner, Henry, 697 
Garner, F. H., 394 
Gibbs, A. W., 17 
Gibbs, George, 1233 
Givin, E. F., 454 
Grime, E. M., 340 
Guthrie, G. B., 554 

Hale, Arthur, 514 

Hatch, M. C. M., 191 

Herington, C. F., 108 

Hershey, Q. W., 54 

Hiatt, Walter S., 26, 60, 240, 278, 329, 386, 

468, 476, 564. 610, 639, 811, 901, 943, 1015 
Himmelberger, C. M., 563 
Hinchcliffe, T. D., 553 
Hood, William. 603 
Howson, E. T., 522 
Humphreys, Alex. C, 312 
Hunt, Robert W.. 726, 1196 
Hutchins, F. L., 206 
Hyett, R. B., 888 

Jameson, Charles Davis, 602 
Johnson, C. G., 1007 
Johnson, C. H., 343 
Johnson, Emory R., 60S 
Johnson, L. E., 895 

Keough, E., 117 
Knowles, C. R., 756, 954 
Koch, Henry, 951 
Kropidlowski, V. T., 960 
Knittschnitt, J., 1226 

La Bach, Paul M., 197. 469. 536, 848 

Landes, Carl K., 694 

Landon, W. G., 267 

Lane, Francis W., 726, 798, 1083 

Larson, H. H., 89 

UvU, F., 554 

Lawton, L. C, 350 

Leach, A. B., 568 

Lean. K., 682 

Lee, C. H., 267 

Lee, Etisha, tlM 

Lewis, W- H., 431 

Light, J. E., 1246 

Lindenthal, Gustave, 187 

Luiggi, Lttigi, 599 

Lundie, John, 335 

McAndrews, P. J., 338 
HcHenry, E. H., 602 
McKeen, W. R., 816 
McVeigh, E. J., 553 
Markham, Charles R., 1229 
Meacham. Rodman, 966 
Meinen, Philip, 235 ^ _ „ . 


Merriam, J. H.. 383 
Morrison. G. R., 117, 527 
Morse, F. T., 29 
Moulton, H. G., 91 

Nay, Frank. 1234 

Phelps, Hartley M., 245 
Pigeon, Homer. 416. 1225 
Pilkington, C. G.. 936 
Pitts. Ralph E.. 336. 951, 1141 
Plant. L. G., 939 
Post. W. M., 419 
Powell, T. C, 804 
Prentis, Robert R., 1228 
Purcell. F. V., 961 

Rear, George W.. 1160 

Rench. W. F.. 120, 531, 765, 1142 

Riley, L. E., 1000 

Roberts, S. W., 434 

Rogers. W. A., 1236 

Schott, W. E., 951 
Scott, W. B., 1231 
Sheldon. J. B., 349 
Short, W. A. D., 130, 971 
Snyder, George D., 1017 
Sproule. William, 1009 
Stenger. E., 203 

Stoddard. W. L.. 812, 946, 1016. 1063, 1095. 1132. 

1196, 1239 
Straub, C. F., 161 
Streeter, W. H., 856 
Stuart, J. G., 1200 
Stucki, A., 194 
SulUvan, J. H., 352 
Symons. W. E., 455 

Tainer, M., 798 
Tanner, S. C, 339, 348 
Tassin, J. S., 1183 
Thom, Alfred P., 49 
Thompson, A. W., 888 
Trumbull. Frank, 1226 

Van Auken. Oaude L., 127 

Van Aukcn. Kenneth L.. SSS, 963, 1151 

Vaughan, G. W., 123 

Watts, W. E., 472, 796 
Weise, F. E., 758 
White, George P., 970 
White, Kenneth G., 149 
Wile, Frederic William. 428 
Williams, C. C, 121 
Winterrowd, W. H., 863 
Wonson, E. L., 798 
Wood, T. O.. IISO 
Worthington, W. A.. 268 
Wright. Roy V., 231, 1055 

Yeomans, George G., 237 
Young, C. D., 6 


tized by 



July 1— Dec. 31, 1915] 


[Illustrated articles are indicated thus *; Editorials thus t; Letters to Editor thus t.] 

Accident (See Automobile; also Safety First): 
Baltimore & Ohio at Belmont, Ohio, 70 
Baltimore & Ohio South Western at Orient, 

Ohio, 947 
British Statistics for 19M, 131 
Caledonian R>-. at Quintinshill, 653, 703 
Central of Georgia near Columbus, 1020 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Oakwood, 

Wis., 48 
ChicaKO, Rock Island & Pacific at Agawam, 

Okla., 767 
Erie at Otisville, N. Y., 1163 
Explosion at Ardmore, Oklahoma, 614, 703, 

935 973 
French Railways in War Time, 1015 ■/ 
Highway Crossings, Safety at, 1119t 
I. C. C. Bulletin No. 55, 549t, 560 
I. C. C. Monthly Reports, 272, 695*, 824 
London & Northwestern near Weedon, 1103 
Monthly Summaries: June, 229; July, 328; 
August, 480t, 503; September, 732; Oc- 
tober, 1086; November, 1201, 1256 
North Eastern at Chaloner Whin., 41t, 53 
Philadelphia & Reading at Phoenixville, Pa., 

Steamships and Railways, 264t 
Street Railroads of New York City, 1065 

Legislation, 453t, 460 
N. v., N. H. & H. Campaign, 696* 
Southern Railway, Report of, 871 
Sutistics, 549t, 560 
Texas Railways, Campaign of, 540 
Union Pacific at Randolph, Kan., 767 
Western Maryland near Thurmont, Md., 
327, 373t 
With Railroads It's Different, 726 
Accounting (See also Association of Transport 
tation and Car Accounting Officers; also 
Valuation) : 
Bureau for Clearing Car Repair Accounts, 

Cost Accounting by "Experts," 145t 
Cost of Additions and Betterments; I. C. C. 

Ruling, 357 
Depreciation and Confiscation, 44$, 3llt 
Fiscal Year, Change in, 413t, 949t, UOl, 

Labor Accounts Distributed, 336t 
Adjuster, Manual Slack, 948* 

Erie Suburban Cars, 33 
Tourist Transportation, 5} 
Agriculture : 

Live Stock Quarantine, 172, 616, 709 
Railway Development Association's Meeting, 

909, 938 
Stock Claims, 280 
Air Brake (See Brake) 
Air Brake Hose (See Hose) 
Alaska: Government Railway, 71, 230*, 703 
Allegheny Construction Company: Tunnel at 

East Brady, 456* 
American Association of Passenger 'Traffic Of- 
ficers: Meeting at French Lick, Ind., 
844t, 854, 881t 
American Association of Railroad Superintend- 
Annual Convention, 379, 45 It 
Railroad and the Hobo., 453t, 460 
American Bankers' Association: Railroads and 

the People, 1009 
American Bridge Company: 

A. T. & S. Fe at Sibley. Mo., 13* 
C. B. & Q. at Kansas City, 263t. 284* 
New York Connecting R. R.. 421*, 663, 865' 
American Car & Foundry Company: 
Annual Report, 80 
Truck Frames, Rolled Steel, 331* 
American International Corporation, 1101 
American Locomotive Company: 
Annual Report, 546 
Foreign Orders, 1011* 

Mountain Type for Seaboard Air Line, 87* 
PaciHc Type; D., L. & W., 1185* 
American Railway Association: 
Car Service Rules, 209 
(Tommittre on the Prevention of Accidents 

at Grade Crossings, 1065, 'lH9t 
Fmpty Car Movement, Committee on, 210 
Freight Car Surpluses and Shortages, 136, 

215, 4«0t, 709, 928t 
Loss and Damage Payments, 993t, 1013 
Meeting, 947 

Plan for Remedying Freight Congestion, 
Hirst. 1102 

Tribute to Memory of W. F. Allen, 1020 
American Railway Bridge & Building Association: Convention, 741t, 753*, 955', 960 
("•mimittcc Appttintments, 1144 
Efficiency in the Bridge ^nd Building De- 
partment, 1160 
American Railway Engineering Association: 

Inthicncc on Rails of the Method of Bloom- 

ini?. I 1 S7, L.-irllc Test, 1106 
Kail Failure Statistics for 1014, 1007' Steels for Track Work, 741t. 747 
American Railway Master Mechanics' Associa.-- 
ti.n: Result of the Letter Ballot, 804 

American Railway Perishable Freight Associa- 
tion: Meeting, SemiAnnual, 513 
American Railway Tool Foremen's Association: 

Annual Convention, 170, 193 
American Smoke Washing Plant: Locomotive 

Smoke-washing Plant: N. Y. C, 558* 
American Society for Testing Materials: 
Annual Convention, 31, 41t, 61* 
Rail Specifications, 17 
"Test Department; Pennsylvania R. R., 6* 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 
Electric Locomotives, 247 
Trucks, Four-Wheel Passenger Car, 1055*, 
.American Wood Preservers' Association; An- 
nual Convention, 1 1 52 
Amur (.Siberian) Ry.: Construction Work, 971* 
Annual Reports (See names of companies) 
Apprentice (See Education) 
Arch (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Associated Railroads of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey: Department of Public Policy and 
Relations, 210, 376 
Association of American Railway Accounting Of- 
Changing the Fiscal Year, 413t, 949t, 1 101 
Importance of Work, 787t 
Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Iron 
Wheels: Address of G. W. Lyndon, 690 
Association of Railway Electrical Engineers: 

Annual Convention, 770, 802 
Association of Railway 'Telegraph Superintend- 
ents: Annual Convention, 19 
Association of Transportation and Car Account- 
ing Officers: Summer Meeting, 25 
Association of Western Railways: Reorganiza- 
tion, 703 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe: 
Annual Report, 680t*, 716 
Ballast Dresser Results with, 529' 
Bridge at Sibley, Mo., 13* 
Engineman Injured After Ignoring Signals, 

I077t. 1 107 
Explosion at Ardmore, Okla., 614, 703, 935, 

Harmony Work, 198 
Loss and Damage Payments, 822 
Ripley, E. P., Dinner to, 844t, 849* 
Ripley, E. P., Ode to, 798 
Suggestions from Stockholders, 539 
Australia: Annual Report of the New South 

Wales Government Rvs., 1182t 
Automatic Stop (See Signaling) 
Automobile : 

Accidents in New York, 818 

Accidents in St. Louis, 871 

Railway and the Automobile, 804, 1180t 

Safely at Grade Crossings (See Safety First) 

Signal, Distant, S. P., 497* 



Charge for Checking, 88 It 
Declaration of Value, 74, 364, 481, 834, 
Baldwin Locomotive Works: 

Pacifi'c Type; C. B. & Q., 275* 
Pacific Type, R. F. & PT, 1129* 

Cost and Efficiency of Materials, 123* 
Dresser, Results with; A. T. & S. Fe, 529* 
Gravel Pit, Operation of, 107t, 117 
Gravel Screening and Washing Plant, 345* 
Ballou Safety Rail Joint Co.: Bolt Nut, 751* 
Baltimore &■ Ohio: 

Accident at Belmont, Ohio, 70 
Annual Report, 930t*, 988 
Bond Sale, 1117t 
Chaperones Appointed, 1208 
Credit Marks for Train Men, 267t 
Employees' Relief Department, 767 
First Aid Without Alcohol, 973 
Mail Room, 703 
Staff Meeting, 30 . 
Tie Preservation, 51St, 537 
Willard. Daniel, LL.D., 30 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern: Davis, J. M., 

on Regulation, 472 
Barco Brass & Joint Company: Smokebox 

Blower Fitting, 1019* 
Belt Railway of Chicago: Strike, 1163, 1180t, 

Benners, Edwin H.: Frame, Truck, 1099* 
Btssemer & Lake Erie: Ciar Dumper at Con- 

neaut Harbor, 390* 
Bill of Lading (See Freight) 
Blaw Company: Lining Diana Tunnel; L. & N., 

Blower (See Locomotive) 
Bond (See I'inanee) 
Bonus (See Wages) 
Boston 5: Maine: 

Annual Report, 679t* 
Milk Rates, 581. 710 
Strike of Freight Handlers, 818, 865 

Car, Lever Hand, 398* 
Electro-Pneumatic, 511 
Safety HanRcr for Brake Beams, 291* 
Shoe, Slrcetcr Safety, 168* 


Lease of Railways to J. G. White Co., 1 101 
Bndges and Buildings (See also Construction, 

New; also American Railway Bridge It 

Building Association) : 
Atchison, Topeka & SanU Fe Bridge at 

Sibley, Mo., 13* 
Caisson, Concretv : C. B. & Q., 383* 
Canadian Pacific Draw Span, 239* 
Chattanooga Creek Bridge; N. C. & St. L., 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Bridge at 

Kansas City, 263t, 284* 
Concrete Bridges, Reinforced, 761 
Concrete, Corrugated Sheet Asbestos, 537* 
Concrete Structures, Records of, 949t 
Construction in 1915, 1224t 
Contest on Bridge Construction Methodi. 

Delaware & Hudson Office Building at Al- 
bany, N. Y. 58* 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Bridge 

at Buffalo, 46:;* 
Efficiency in Dep'rtment of, 1160 
Floors, Concrete" 965 

Floors. Creosoted' Wood Block. 1140t, 1145* 
French Bridge at Rouen, 564* 
Galveston Causeway Failure, 490t 
Harahan Bridge at Memphis Damaged by 

High Water, 1256 
Hell Gate Arch, 423*, 663, 865* 
Lag Screws in Trestle Construction, 107t, 

MainUining Bridges in Cities, 333t 
Paducah & Illinois Bridge at Metropolis, 

Quebec Bridge, Progress on, 1189* 
Renewing Ties on Susquehanna River 

Bridge; L. V., 526* 
Safety First in Bridge Inspection, 356* 
Sand Blasting Plant, 104*, 397* 
Smoke-washing Hant: N. Y. C, 558* 
Tanks for Locomotive Supply, 955* 
Tanks, Stability of Unancbored, 954 
Treatment of Bridge Stringers. 752 
Trestles, Concrete; I. C, 279* 
Trestles, Pile and Timber, 754 
Tunkhannock Viaduct; D., L. & W., 809*. 

Waterproofing of Bridges, 1140t 
British Board of Trade: 

Accident at Chaloner Whin., 41t, 53 
Accident near Weedon, 1103 
Annual Report of Railways for 1914, 67St. 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit: 

Annual Report, 223t, 259 
Life Insurance for Employees, 361, 539, 573 
Brown, Harold P.: Concrete Atomizer, 1158* 
Brown Hoisting Machinery Company: Bucket. 

Drag Line, 125* 
Bucket (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Buckeye Jack Manufacturing Company: Emer- 

Sency Jacks, 68* 
ignal and Train Control Company: Cab 
Signal and Automatic Stop, 904* 
Buflalo & Susquehanna Sale, 30, 436 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh: 

Annual Report, 310t*, 370 
Lubrication, Slide Valve, 283* 

Bureau (See also Organization) 
Bureau of Locomotive Boiler Inspection: Inspec- 
tion Rules, 357, 426, 663, 906 
Bureau of Railway Economics: 

Ownership of Railway Stock, 186t 
Railroads in War, 292 

Revenues and Expenses for April, 134*; 
May. 249*; July, 768*; August, 869*: 
September, 1165* 
Revenues and Expenses to June 30, 1915,. 

Statistics for 1898-1906 and 1906-1914, 85t 
Sutistics of the World's Railways, 787t, 

Statistics Quoted by Newspapers, 1039t 
Bureau of Railway News and Statistics: Swed- 
ish Railroads Advance Rates, 1205 
Burlington Association of Operating Officers: 

Training Men for Promotion, 145t, 150 
Business Situation (See Finance: also Public, 
The Railways' Relations with; also Legis- 

Cab (See Locomotive) 

Cable (See Signaling) 

Cab Signal (See Signaling) 

Caisson (See Bridges and Buildings) 

Cameron, R. W.. & Co.: Electric Interlocking at 
Adelaide, South Australia, 936* 


Cost of National Transcontinental Ry., 2t 
Government Railway Building, 42t 
Tie Purchases During 1914, 970 

Cana'Han Northern: 

Chairs for Dining Cars. 272* 

Mount Royal Tunnel into Montreal, 857* 

Towel Receptacle, 572* 

Digitized by 


[July 1— Dec. 31. 1915 


Canadian Pacific: 

Annual Report. 377«t, 410 

Draw Span Over Lachine Canal. 239* 

Grade Crossing Elimination in North To* 

ronto, SSS' 
Locomotive Mountain Type, 862* 
Rogers Pass Tunnel. 400 
Canal (See Waterways) 
Canton Frog & Crossing Company: Crossing, 

Continuous Rail. 528* 

Atomizer and Nozile, 1158' 

Cafe Coach; Pennsylvania. 57* 

Cars and Locomotives Ordered and Built in 

1915. 1219t. 1221t. 1240 
Chairs for Dining Cars; Can. No., 272* 
Coupler (See Draft Gear) 
Door. Extensible Trap, 207* 
Dumper at Conneaut Harbor, 390* 
Gasolene (See Motor Cars) 
Hospital Trains in France, 639* 
Lighting Generator with Underfrarae Sus- 
pension, 208* 
Motor (See Motor Cars) 
Painting (See Paint) 
Passenger Car Roof Construction, 332* 
Passenger; No. Pac, 733* 
Sand Blasting Plant, 104*. 397* 
Towel RecepUcle: C. N., 572* 
Trailer; Long Island. 241* 
Trucks, Four-Wheel, for Passenger Equip- 
ment, 1055*, 1133 
Wheel (See Wheel) 
Car, Electric (See Car) 
Car, Freight: 

Adjuster, Manual Slack, 948* 

Brake, Klasing, 398* 

(jondolas. Steel, for Russian Government, 

Handling Tonnage on Local Trains, 373t, 

Hospital Cars in France, 307t, 329* '-' 
Pilferage, Protection from, 86t, 888J 
Steel cTars. Life of, 183t 
Steel Ends, 183t 
Truck Side Frame; Penna., 1099* 
Car, Passenger (See Car) 
Car Service : 

Bureau for Clearing Car Repair Accounti, 

Demurrage Rules Changed to Relieve Freight 

Congestion, 1078t, 1102 
Distributer's Duties, 159 
Empty Freight Car Movement, 210, 281 
Handling, Rough, Cause of Freight Dam- 
age, 146t, 856 
Loading Inspection to Prevent Damage, 856 
Loading L. C. L. Freight by Double-Check 

Systems, 1013 
Loading, Train, Increased in 1915, 1041t, 

Pooling Freight Cars, 700 
Report of Committee on Relations Between 

Railroads, 1013 
Rules Amended, 209 
Scarcity of Freight Cars. 928t, 992t, 1052, 

lD78t, 1102, 1105, U66, 1255 
Shortage, Circular on; I. C. C, 767, 928t 
Spotting Charges, 84t, 99 
Summary of Freight Cars in Service, 660 
Surpluses and Shortages; A. R. A., 136, 295, 

490t, 709, 928t 
Surpluses, Coal Car, 514 
Trap Car Decision, 213, 222t 
Car Shortage (See Car Service) 
Car Spotting (See Car Service) 
Carlin, J. C: Dock at Toledo; C. H. & D., 

Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio: Lining Sandy 

Ridge Tunnel. 533* 
Causeway (See Bridges & Buildings) 
C"ement (See Concrete) 
Central of Georgia: 

Accident near Columbus, Ga., 1020 
Annual Report, 883t* 

Statement of Earnings and Expenses, 413t 
Central Vermont: 

Automatic Stop, Brownell's, 614 
Chair (See Car) 
Chesapeake & Ohio : 

Annual Report, 59 It*, 624 
Liquors Prohibited, 33 

Belt Railway Strike, 1163, llSOf, 1205 
Eight-Hour Day Campaign, 882t, 1016, 1020, 

Grade Crossing Elimination, 634t*, 1119t 
Report of the Association of Commerce on 

Smoke Abatement, I040t, 1064, 10781, 

1089, 1101, 1125, 1193* 
Switchmen Demand Pay Increase, 914, 973 
Chicago & Alton: 

Annual Report, 79St* 

Telegraph Operators Demand Pay Increase, 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois: 
Annual Report, 996t* 

Croupier, Automatic Freight Truck. 467* 
Chicago & North Western: 

Annual Report, 635t*, 672 
Concrete Slab Crossing, 129* 
Loss and Damage Claims Reduced, 973 
S.ifety First, 209, 221 1, 1064 
Wage Increase, 913 
Chicago .Association of Commerce: 

Appreciation of Railroad Service During 

Traction Strike, It 

Chicago Association of Commerce (Continued): 

Smoke Abatement Report, 1040t, 1047*, 
1064, 1078t, 1089, 1101, 1125, 1193* 
Chicago Board of Trade: Lake Line Service, 

678t. 709 
Chicago, Burlington It Quincy: 
Annual Report, 994 1', 1033 
Automatic Stop, Gollos. 248 
Bridge at Kansas City. 263t. 284* 
Caissons. Concrete, in the Platte River, 

Locomotives, Pacific Type, 275* 
Chicago Great Western: 
Annual Report, 995t* 
Manganese Crossing Repaired by Electric 

Welding, 119* 
Tunnel Lining Repaired with Concrete 
Atomizer. 1158* 
Chicago Malleable Castings Company: Thomas 

Rail Anchor Tie Plate, 752* 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul: 
Accident at Oakwood, Wis., 48 
Annual Report, 589t*, 628 
Block Signals in Montana, 256 
Electrification Between Harlowton and 

Avery, 683*. 1065. 1101, 1163 
Motor Cars for Weeding and Mowing, 1144* 
Motor Cars on Illinois Division, S15t, 527 
Roadmasters' Association, Convention of, 

Safety I'irst in Bridge Inspection, 356* 
Track Depression in Minneapolis, 1059* 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific: 

Accident at Agawam, Okla., 767 

Billing Record, Freight, 386 

Cross Section Areas Calculated, 29* 

I. C. C. Report, 323, 374t 

Locomotives, Mikado Versus Consolidation, 

927t, 933 
Loss and Damage Bureau^ 1097 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha: An* 

nual Report, 63 7t. 674 
Chicago, Terre Haute & Southeastern: Increased 

Train Loading, 1101 
Chili: Railwajr Map. 554t 
Chimneys. Design and Construction of, 1139t. 


Rea'a. George. Scheme of Railways, 913 
Status of Chinese Railways, 602 
Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce: Commercial 

Agent and the Shipper, 694 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton: 
Coal Dock at Toledo, 273* 
Pensions for Employees, 209 
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific: Buell 

Cab Si^al and Automatic Stop, 904* 
Cincinnati Railway Club: Railway and the Au- 
tomobile, 804 

Concealed Damage, 856 
Erie Barge Canal Claims, 614 
Galveston Flood Damages. 991 1 
Insurance Life; B. R. f.. 361. 539. 573 
Insurance. Stationary Boiler, 221t 
L. C. L. Freight Handling, 44t, S3* 
Loss and Damage: 

Atchison, Topeka & Sanu Fe, 822 
Chicago & Northwestern, 973 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 1097 
Lehigh Valley. 861 

Payments in 1915 and 1914, 993t, 1013 
Payments of Class I Roads in 1914, 

90, 146t 
St. Louis & San Francisco, 588t 
Southern Railway, 1019 
Mail Pay Losses of New England Roads, 

145t, 164 
Perishable Freight, 416t 
Pilferage, Plan to Reduce, 86t. 888t 
Stock on the Right of Way. 280 
Cleaning (See Sanitation) 
Clearances (See Legislation) 
Clerk (See Employee) 

Cleveland. Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis: 
Valuation Work, 701* 
Wage Increase for Telegraphers, 1163 
Coal (See Fuel) 
Colorado & Southern: Annual Report, 997t*, 

Columbia & Philadelphia R. R., in 1834, 964 
Commerce School of Northwestern University: 

Education for Railway Work, 907 
Commission to Investigate Regulation, 1077t, 

1095. 1118t 
Committee on Immigration, 1256 
Committee on Packing, Marking and Handling 
of Freight: Loss and Damage Payments, 
993t, 1013 
Committee on Prevention of Accidents at High- 
way Crossings, 1065, 1119t 
Committee on Relations of Railway Operation to 
Legislation (See also American Railway 
Association) : 
Semi-Annual Report, 945, 1013 
State Lawsin 1915, 860 
Committee on L'niform Classification: Progress 

of. 1105 

Bridge Construction Methods, 347* 
Dialogues on .Safety First, 028t 
Handling of L. C. L. Freight, 44t, 992t, 
Computer, Ross Precision, 529* 

Atomizer to Repair Tunnel Lining; Chicago 
Great Western, 1158* 

Concrete iContinued) : 
Bridges, 761 

Corrugated Sheet Asbestos, 537* 
Crossing: C. & N. W., 129* 
Culvert Pipe and Concrete Piles, 762 
Culvert Pipe for Cattle Passes, 1149* 
Development of Construction Methods, 742t 
Floor Troubles, 965 
Gravel (See Ballast) 
Influence of Temperature, 960 
Lining Diana Tunnel; L. & N., 966* 
Lining Sandy Ridge Tunnel, Va.. 533* 
Mixer, Low-Charging, 746* 
Mixers, Rating of, 741t 
Portland Cement Production in 1914, 116 
Records of Structures, 949t 
Selectioii of Materials, S16t 

Concrete Mixing & Placing (Company: Lining 
Diana Tunnel; L. & N., 966* 

Connector (See Signaling) 

Construction. New (See also Yards and Ter- 
minals; also Bridges and Buildings; also 
Station) : 
Alaskan Government Railway, 71, 230*, 703 
Amur (Siberian) Railway, \Vork on, 971* 
Belt Line Proposed for Dallas, Texas, 1077t, 

Canadian Government Railways, 2t, 42t 
Contractor's View of 1915, 1236 
Cost of Structures, 760 
Grade Crossing Elimination <See Grade 

Grade Revision and Superheater Locomo- 
tives. 469. 037t*, 848t 
Mileage Built in 1915. 1224t. 1247* 
New York Connecting R. R., 421*. 663, 

Pennsylvania at East Brady, 456 
Pennsylvania's Track Elevation Work, 654* 
Shoo-fly Line Around So. Pacific Tunnel in 

Cal., 115* 
South African Line from Prieska to Upinff* 

ton, 119 
Summit Cut-Oll; D., L. & W., 809*, 913 

Contracting (See Construction, New) 

Correspondence (See Organization) 

Cost (See Finance; also Maintenance of Way; 
also Valuation; also Construction, New) 

Coupler (See Draft Gear) 

Coupling (See Hose) 

Crane (See Hoisting and Conveying) 

Cross Section (See Valuation) 

Creosote (See Ties and Timber) 

Crossing (See Grade Crossing; also Track) 

Culvert (See Pipe) 

Curves (See Track) 

Dallas, Tex.: Elimination of Grade Crossings. 
1077t, 1087* 

jes (See Cla. 

Dartmouth College: 

Damages (See Claims 
Dartmouth College: 
Delaware & Hudson: 


itiard, Daniel, LL.D., 30 

Investigation of Securities Held Abroad, It, 
28, 1219t 

Terminal at Albany, N. Y., 58* 
Delaware College: Railroad Wages, 1128 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western: 

Brigde Over the Buffalo River, 465* 

Coal Selling Contract Illegal, It 

Effect of Water Level on Superheat, 191* 

Locomotive, Pacific Type, 1185* 

Summit Cut-Off, Completion of, 809*, 912 
Demurrage (See Car Service) 
Denver & Rio Grande: 

Annual Report, 845t* 

Liquors on Dining (Jars Prohibited, 1064 
Department (See Organization) 
Depreciation (See Accounting; also Valuation) 
Despatching (See Train Despatching) 
Detroit, 'Toledo & Ironton: Annual Report, 

Deus Ex Machina, 1083 
Discipline (See Employee) 
Ditch (See Track) 
Dividend (See Finance) 
Docks (See Yards and Terminals) 
Door (See Car) 
Draft Gear: 

Coupler, Automatic, 467* 

Coupler Release Rigging, 291* 
Drinking (See Emiiloyee) 
Dumper (See Hoisting and Conveying) 

Earnings (See also names of companies; also 

Revenues and Expenses) : 
Central of Georgia s Monthly Statements, 

Statistics for 1915, 1237* 
Economic Practices: 

Foreman's Price List of Equipment, 515t 
Freight Claim Prevention; St L. & S. F.. 

Handling of L. C. L. Freight, 992t, 1005 
Loss ana Damage (See Claims) 
Rail, Inclination of the, 335t 
Retrenchment Danger, 741t 
Scrap (See .Scrap) 
Water Waste, Prevention of, 7S6t 
Education : 

Apprentices, Special; Southern Ry., 1064 
College Training for Railway Work, 907 
Hill. J. J., Professorship of Transportation, 

4t, 31, 134, 868 

Digitized by 



July 1— Dec. 31, 1915] 


illlustrated articles are indicated thus *; Editorials thus \; Letters to Editor thus *.] 

Education (Continued) : 

Italiantnglish Course; Penna., 354' 
Self-Education, 742t 

Traffic, Work at La Salle, Extension Uni- 
versity, 541 
Training of New Men for Firemen, 473 
Training Young Men for Promotion, HSt, 
150, 221t, 231, 265t, 417t, 452t, 454», 
459, 5S4t, 682), 881t, 887}, lOOOt, 1188 
Electric Headlight (See Locomotive) 
Electric Interlocking (See Signaling) 
Electric Vehicle Association: Industrial Trucks; 

Pennsylvania, 737», 818 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, 683*, 1065, 

1101. 1163 
Electrification of Chicago Terminals to Abate 
• Smoke, 1040t, 1047* 1064, 1078t, 1089, 

HOI, 1125, 1193* 
Electric Motive Power in Railroad Opera- 
tion, 602, 682t 
New Haven Tied Up by Snowstorm, 1179t 
Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, 889* 
Progress in 1915, 1233' 
Elliott Company: Brake Beam Safety Hanger, 

El Paso & Southwestern: Safety First, 703 
Embargo (See Freight) 

Emery, A. H.: Scale, Plate Fulcrum, 1156* 
Employee (See also Education; also Legisla- 
tion; also Legal Decisions; also Officer; 
also Interstate Commerce Commission 
Rulings; also Accident): 
Athletic Association; M. K. & T., 818, 973 
Clerk's Plea, A., 452t, 459, 554t, 682t, 881 1, 

837}, 1000}, 1188 
Courtesy, Bulletins on; Pennsylvania, 42t 
Courtesy of French, 278 
Credit Marks for Train Men, B. & O., 

Despatcher (See Train Despatching) 
Dining Car Employees Examined. 5/3, 868 
Discipline: Letters, Individual, 418} 
Discipline: Punishment of Twenty-eight 

Men; Penna., 1065 
Discipline: Roll of Honor, Penna., 361, 

Duey, Harry E., Awarded Medal, 1101 
' Eight-Hour Day Campaign, 882t, 1016, 1020, 
1163, 1239 
Fireman in France, A., 267} 
Foremen and Organized Gangs, 1152 
Foremen. Section, Treatment of, 532 
Foreman s Work on a New Section, 963 
Freight Agent and the Shipper, 694 
Cross Ton in Clerical Work, 553} 
Index-Record of Station Agents, 702 
Information About Delays; L. I., 1180t, 

Insurance, Life; B. R. T., 361, 539, 573 
Labor and the Industrial Relations Com- 
mittee, 1016 
Labor and Wages, 1128 
Labor Creates All Wealth, 5} 
Labor Unorganized, Treatment of, 416}, 

Liquor Drinking in Maintenance C^mps, 

Massachusetts Nine-Hour Law Unconstitu- 
tional, 1026, 1040t 
Mutual Beneficial Association, Penna., 1093 
Pensions: C. H. & D., 209 
Public, How to Humor the, 399 
Railroad Soldier at the Front, 811 
Relief Department: B. & O., 767 
Report of Commission on Industrial Rela- 
tions, 433, 614 
Station Agents Inefficient, 84} 

Belt Railway of Chicago, 1163, 1180}, 

Chicago Street Lines — Appreciation of 

Steam Railroads Service, If 
Freight Handlers at New York, 573, 613 
Freight Handlers in Boston, 818, 865, 

III. Cent, and Harriman Lines, 30 
Kansas City Terminal Ry., 248 
Striving for 100 Per Cent., 263 1. 292 
Telegraphers, Prizes to; Pennsylvania, 843}, 

Telephone, Rules for Answering, 74, 867 
Ticket Seller's Best Asset, The, 357 
Track Inspection, Pennsylvania, 764, 951 
Training for Promotion, 145}, ISO, 221 1, 
231, 2«5t, 417}, 452}, 459, 554}, 682}, 
8SI}, 887}, 1000}. 1188 
Training of New Men for Firemen, 473 
Training Section Laborers, 109}, 951} 
Trainmen, Bad, C^use Collision, 373} 
Transportation Salesmen, 1246 
Wages : 

Bonus for English Railway Men, 899, 939 
Chicago & Alton Telegraphers Demand 

Increase. 913 
Chicago Switchmen Ask Advance, 914, 

973, 1163 
Eight-Hour Day Demanded, 882}, 1016, 

1020, 1163, 1239 
Graduated Wage Basis, 951 
Increase: Chic. & No. West, 913 
Increase: C. C. C. & St. L., 1163 
Increase: I. R. T., 1256 

Employee — Wages (Continued): 

Increase: Lehigh Valley, 1256 
Increase: Pullman Co., 1256 
Increase: Texas & Pacific, 1204 
Increase: Wabash, 573 
Public's Interest in, 1128 
St Louii Switchmen Demand Increase, 
Welfare Work in France, 60, 386 
Welfare Work; Pennsylvania, 413}, 430, 

Women ar Railway Workers in France, 

Women Chaperones: B. & O., 1208 
Women in 'Ticket Officers, 263} 
Women Telegraphers, Hours of, 436 
Engine (See Locomotive) 
Engineer (See Officer) 
England : 

Accident at Chaloner Whin.; North Eastern 

Ry., 41}, 53 
Accident at Quintinshill; Caledonian Ry., 

653, 702 
Accident near Weedon, London & North- 
western. 1103 
Accident Statistics for 1914, 131 
Annual Report of Railways for 1914, 675}, 

Economic Journal's Review of "Railroads, 

Finance and (>rganization," 1203 
Track Construction; Great Eastern, 130* 
War Bonus for Railway Men, 899, 939 
Equipment (See also Car; also Locomotive; also 
Maintenance of Equipment): 
Locomotive Builders and Foreign Trade, 

643, 1011* 
Manufacture by Railroads, 222} 
Record Orders, 843}, 881}, 992} 

Accident at Otisville. N. Y.. 1163 
Grade Crossing Order, Appeal from, 1256 
Underwood, President, on Passenger Fares, 

Ward & Company's Shipments, 12 
Eureka & Palisade: 

Mail Carrying Complaint, 69 

Selling American Railway Supplies, 901* 
Transportation Notes, 194 
Exhibits (See Exposition; also names of as- 
Explosion (See Accident) 
Exposition : 

Panama-Pacific: Exhibits Awards for, 33, 69, 

135, 436, 499* 
Railways' Part in California Expositions, 
461*, 499* 

Rate Increase 214, 223} 
Revenues and Expenses for March, 169; 
April, 437; May, 613; June, 769; August, 

Fairbanks, E. & T., Company: Scale, Plate 

Fulcrum, 1156* 
Fairmont Gas Engine & Railway Motor Car 
Company: Weeding and Mowing Cars, 
Fargo Manufacturing Co.: Cable Connectors, 

Fanning (See Agriculture) 

Federal Trade Commission: American Locomo- 
tive Builders' and Foreign Trade, 643 
Files (See Organization) 
Finance (See also Accounting) : 

Baltimore & Ohio Bond Sale, 1117} 
"Blanket Mortgage" Bonds, 149} 
Bonds; Report of Investment Bankers As- 
sociation, 1202 
Business. Revival of, 843}, 881}, 992}, 

1052, 1099 
Capitalization and Bankruptcy, 991 
Central of Georgia's Monthly Statements, 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific: Report of 

the I. C. C, 323, 374} 
Cost of Electrification of Chicago Ter- 
minals. 1125 
Cost of Erie Barge Canal, 83}, 91 
Cost of National Transcontinental Ry., 2} 
Dividend Changes in 1915, 1239 
Dividend Rates in 1904 and 1914, 1039} 
Division of Income Between Capital and 

Labor, 265}, 268 
French Railroads as Security Brokers, 240, 

Investment in Material, 237 
Leach, A. B., on Railroad Question, 568 
Legislation at Washington, 812, 946 
Little Kanawha Railroad; I. C. C. Report, 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas Receivership, 

Missouri Pacific Receivership, 307} 
Missouri Pacific Reorganization Plan, 184} 
New Haven Directors on Trial, 818, 868, 

913, 974, 1021, 1065, 1102. 1163, 1205 
New Haven Investigation, 1064. 1102 
Ownership of Railway Stock, 186 
Panama Canal Results, 719} 

Finance (Ci'ntinued) !' 

Pennsylvania Raili-oad's Public Trust, 1100 
Preferred Stock in Exchange for First Mort- 
gage Bonds; M. P., 184} 
Public as Investors, 1009, 1100 
Public Control of Railway Capitalization, 

Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales in 1915, 

Receivership Mileage, 587}, 632}, 676}*, 

720, 819, 991} 
Receiverships in Texas, Reasons for, 1053 
Receiverships, "The Outlook" on, 928} 
Reorganizations and Railroad Bonds, 1191 
Seaboard Air Line Bond Sale, 1117} 
Securities Regulation, Frank Trumbull on, 

Situation in the Southwest, 1231* 
Securities Held Abroad, 1}, 28, 1219} 
Stock Without a Par Value, 2} 
Trend of Affairs in Two Eight-Year Pe- 
riods, 85} 
Wabash-Pittsburgb Terminal Reorganization 

Plan, 146}* 
White, J. G., Co. in Brazil, 1101 
Fires (See also Railway Fire Protection As- 
sociation) : 
Chemical Extinguishers, 998} 
Explosion at Ardmore, Okia., 614, 703, 935. 

Miscellaneous, 131, 477, 614, 818, 868, 913. 

1020. 1101. 1163 
Tunnel on the So. Pac, 115* 
First-Aid (See Safety First) 
Fiscal Year (See Accounting) 
Flag (See Signaling) 

Effect on Railways. 393*. 703, 729* 
Galveston, 393*, 490}, 503, 991} 
Floor (See Bridges and Buildings) : 
Foreman (Sec Employee) 
Frame (See Trucks) 

Accidents in War Time, 1015 

Battle of the Marne, 26 

Bridge at Rouen, 564* 

Courtesy of Employees, 278 

Excursions in War Time, 468 

Fireman's Duties, A, 267} 

Freight Cars Used as Hospitals, 307}, 329* 

Hospital Trains, 639* 

Passenger Service Between Havre and 

Paris. 798} 
Railroad Employees as Soldiers, 811 
Securities Sold by Railways, 240, 610* 
Welfare Work in War Time, 60, 386 
Women as Railway Workers, 943* 
Franklin Railway Supply Co.: Ball Joint, 106* 

Agent and the Shipper, 694 

Embargoes to Refieve Congestion, 1052, 

1078}, 1102, 1105, 1166, 1255 
Hunting Stray Freight; Pennsylvania, 162* 
L. C. L. Freight Checking Method; M., St 

P. & S. Ste M., 44}, 53* 
L. C. L. Freight, Contest on Handling of, 

44}, 992}, 1005 
L. C. L. Freight, Double-Check Systems for 

Loading, 1013 
Loss and ■ Damage (See Claims) 
Official Classification Committee, 978, 1166 
Pilferage, Plan to Reduce, 86}, 888} 
Report of he American Railway Perishable 
Freight Association, 513 

fhipments of Ward & Co. Over the Erie, 12 
erminal Charges at New York, 213, 375}, 
Tonnage (See Train Loading) 
Waybills, Accurate; C. R. I. & P., 386 
Freight Car Surplus (See Car Service) 
Freight Claim Association: Annual Meeting, 98 
Freight Claims (See Claims) 
Freight Rate Reductions (See Freight Rates) 
Freight Rates (See also Interstate Commerce 
Commission Rulings; also State (Commis- 
sion Rulings) 
Advance Rale Case (Western) : 

I. C. C. Decision, 285, 308}, 1258 
Investigation of Rates on Live Stock, 

etc., 916 930} 
Rehearing Requested and Denied, 587}, 

593, 916, 930} 
Supplemental Hearing, 581, 616 
Anthracite Coal Rates Reduced, 313. 480. 

772, 1025 
Arkansas Rate Situation, 363 
Coal from West Virginia. 915 
Farmer's Viewpoint, A., 222}, 235 
Illinois Five Per Cent Rate (iase, 978 
Illinois-Missouri Interstate Rates, 1025 
Increase Freight Rates and Reduce Passen- 
ger Fares, 184} 
Muk Rates in New England, 581, 710 
Missouri Increases, 929}, 942, 1024. 1039t. 

1067, 1257 
New York Terminal Charges, 213, 375}, 395 
State and Federal Rulings Conflict, 309}. 

Swedish Railway Advances, 1205 
Texas. Situation in, 822 

Transcontinental Lines Propose Reductions, 
480, 597. 788} 

Ward' & Cfo.'s Shipments^^vr the Erie, f2 
LjiyiLi^eu by VjOOQ 


IJuly 1— Dec. 31, 1915 


Freight Terminal (See Yard« and Temuiials) 

Prog (See Track; alao Switch) 


Coal Dock at Toledo; C. H. & D., 27 J» 
Coal Selling Contract Illegal; D., L. & W., 

Coal ShorUge in Europe, 476 
Coaling Stations, 759 „ . ^ 

Conitructive Criticiun of the Fuel Depart- 
ment, 939 
Grate, Hulaon Locomotive, 330* _ 
Smoke-Abatement Investigation in Chicago, 
1040t. 1047*, 1064, 1078t. 1089, 1101, 
1125, n93* 
Smoke Prevention with Oil Burning Loco- 
motives, 473 . _ ._.„. 
Smoke Removal from Covered Tracks, 1098* 
Smoke-washing Plant; N. Y. C, 558' 

Gahagan, Walter H., Inc.: D.. L. fc W. BuHalo 

River Bridge, 465* 
Galveston Flood, 393*, 490t, 503, 729*, 991t 
General Electric Company: 

C, M. & St. P. Electrification, 683*, 1065, 

1101, 1163 
60-Ton Gas-Electric Locomotive, 658* 
General Railway Signal Company: Clockwork 

Time Lock, 699* 
General Superintendents' Association of Chicago: 
Report on Proper Handling of Equipment, 
Germany: Railways in War Time, 428. 725t 
Gibbs & Hill: Electrification of the Pennsyl- 
vania. 889* 
GoUos Railway Signal Supply Company: Auto- 
matic Stop, 248 
Gondola (See (Jar, Freight) 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company: Air Brake 

Hose, 168* 
Government Ownership: 

Alaskan Railroad, 71. 230*, 703 

Canada's National Transcontinental, 2t, 42 1 

Indian and Italian Railways, 588t, 599, 600 

Johnson, L. E., on, 895 

Mileage of Government and Privately Owned 

Lines, 3t 
Parcel Post Management, 551t 
Government Regulation: 

Bankruptcy Record of Railroads, 587t, 632T, 

676t , 720, 819 928t, 991t 
Bond Issues in States, Ul/f . 

Commission of Inquiry Suggested by Presi- 
dent Wilson, 10771. 1095, lU8t 
Dealing with Petty Cases, 550t, 788t 
Deus Ex Machina, 1083 
Development of Railways m 1915, 1220t 
English View of American Regulation, 1203 
Inefficiency, 264t, 414t 
Interstate Commerce Commission and Its 

Work, 493 
Law Making, Rapid, 472 
Legitimate Freedom for Railroads, 660 
National and Sute Regulation, 1228* 
National Defense Requirements, 1017, lOSOt, 

1084. 1229* 
"Outlook, The," on Railroad Receiverships, 

Parcel Post Management 551 1 
Public Control of Railway Capitalization, 

Securities Regulation, 1226* 
State or Federal Regulation 309t, 415t, 

739, 895, 1118t, 1228* 
State Rights, 43t, 49 
Suggestions for Wise Regulation, 895 
Thome, Clifford, on, 739 
Trumbull, Frank, on. 850 
Grabum, A. L.: Chairs for Dining Cars, 272* 
Grade Crossinn: 

Accident Prevention Campaign, 1119T 
Automatic Signal; L. V,. 843t ... 

Belt Line Instead of Grade Separation, 1077t, 

Concrete Slab; C. & N. W., 129* 
Elimination Problem: 
Albany. N. Y.. 961 
Chicago. 634t' „ ,. ,„,„ 

C. M. » St. P. in Minneapolis. 1059 
Cities. Work in. 41 1. 45*. 1119t 
Dallas. Texas. 1077t. 1087* 
North Toronto: Can. Pac. 555* 
Tower Grove Crossing. St. Louis, 799* 
Erie's Appeal from Public Utility Commis- 
sion's Order, 1256 
Improvements on the N. Y., N. H. * H., 

Protection of, 763 
Safety (See Safety First) 
Grade Revision (See Construction, New) 
Grade Separation (See Grade Crossings) 
Grate (See Locomotive) 
Gravel (See Ballast) 
Great Britain (See England) 
Great Eastern: Track Construction, 130* 
Great Northern: Annual Report, 1045t* 


Hartiell, E. F.: Switch Light. 1199* 
Harvard University: Hill, J. J.. Professorship 

of Transportation. 4t, 31, 134, 868 
Headlight (See Locomotive) 
Highway Crossing (See Grade Crossing) 
HiU, James J.: Professorship of Transportation, 

4t, 31, 134, 868 

Hocking Valley: Annual Report, 590t*, 626 
Ho^e & Flint: Cross Section Instrument, 1162* 
Hoisting and Conveying: 

Bucket. Brown hoist-Shnable, 125* 

Crane, Locomotive, for Laying Rail; L. V., 
353*, 528 

Crane. Locomotive, for Renewing Bridge 
Ties; L. V., 526* 

Crane, Locomotive, Uses of, I07t, 110*, 753 

Dumper, Car, at Conneaut Harbor, 390* 

Motor ITsed for Hoisting, 960* 

Rope, Manila, 758 
Horton, D. E., Construction Co.: D., L. ft W. 

Bridge, 465* 

Air Brake, 168* 

Coupling, 398* 
Hub (See Wheel) 

Hulson Grate Company: Locomotive Grate, 330* 
Hunt, Robert W., & (;o.: Rail Profile Machine, 


Ilg Electric Ventilating Company: Locomotive 
Smoke Removed from Covered Track*, 
Illinois Central: 

Annual Report, 72It*, 784 
Joint, Standard, 126* 
Stability of Unanchored Tanks, 954 
Treatment of Bridge Stringers, 752 
Trestles, Reinforced Concrete, 279* 
India: State Railway Management, 588t, 600 
Indicator (See Track; also Train) 
Industrial Development (See Agriculture) 
Industrial Railways Case, Second, 84t. 99 
Industrial Relations Committee. 1016 
IngersoU-Rand Company: Tie Peeler, 342* 
Inspection Car (See Motor Car) 
Insurance (See Claims) 
Interborougb Rapid Transit Company: Wage 

Increase for Employees, 1256 
International Association for the Prevention of 
Smoke: Washing Locomotive Smoke, 558* 
International Engineering Congress, 587t. 588t, 

599. 682* 
International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' As- 
sociation: Annual Convention, 387 
International Railway General Foremen's Asso- 
ciation: Annual Convention, 102. 135, 155 
International Trade Conference: Railroads and 

Preparedness, 1080t, 1084 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 

Accident Bulletin No. 55, S49t, 560 
Accident Report; Bait. & Ohio So. West, at 

Orient, 947 
Accident Report; C, M. ft St. P. at Oak- 
wood, Wis., 48 
Accident Report; Western Maryland at 

Thurmont, 327. 373t 
Accident Reports, Forms for, 272, 695*. 824 
Advance Rate Case, Western, 285. 308t, 581, 

587t, 593, 616, 916, 930t 
Annual Report, 1121, 1181t 
Car Shortage, Circular on, 767 
Continuous Voyage Doctrine, 253 
Deus Ex Machina, 1083 
Duties of the Commission. 493 
Electric Headlight Case, 1138 
Illinois-Missouri Interstate Rates, 1025 
Little Kanawha Railroad, Report on. 1200 
Locomotive Inspection. Rules for. 357, 426, 

663, 906 
Passenger Fare Hearings. Western. 55, 83t, 

93. 145t, 153. n20t, 1134, llSOt 
Railway Lake Service, 678t, 709, 1210, 1251 
Revenues and Expenses for April, 70; June, 

539. 549t, 632t 
Rock Island Report, 323, 374t 
Transcontinental Freight Rate Reductions. 

480, 597, 788t 
U. S. Steel Corporation and Alleged Re- 
bates, 1131 
Valuation (See Valuation of Railways) 
Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings: 
Animals. Valuable, Rates for, 442 
Anthracite Coal Rates, 313, 364, 480, 772. 

Car Spotting Charges, 84t, 99 
Cattle Rates from Kentucky, 441 
Cement Rates for Cape Girardeau, Mo., 

Charges for Disposal of Slag, 75 
Checking of Baggage on Combination Tick- 
ets. 296 
Classification of Chairs, 873 
Classification of Empty Acetylene Gas Cylin- 
ders, 1209 
Coal and Coke Rates in the Southeast, 

Coal, Bituminous Slack, to Martins Creek, 

Pa., 174 
Coal. Bituminous, to Mississippi Valley Ter- 
ritory, 1067 
Coal from Illinois Points. 1209 
Coal Rates from Oak Hills, Colo., 441 
Coal Rates from the Sullivan-Linton Group, 

Coal Rates to Omaha, Neb., 212 
Complaints Dismissed, 137, 173, 212, 823, 

873, 979, 1210 
Concentration of Cotton at Alexandria, La., 

Conference Ruling, 212 

Cotton Rates, East Bound Transcontinental, 

Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings 
(Continued) : 
Cotton, Export, Rates East of L. ft N., 253 
Cottonseed Meal and Cake, Rates on, 402 
Cottonseed Oil Rates from Points in Okla- 
homa, 295 . „„ 
Cottonseed Oil Refining in Transit, 1210 
Cummins Amendment, 364 
Demurrage Charges, 296, 480 
Des Moines Commodity Rates, 33, 1209 
Detention Charges on Heater Cars, 979 
Discrimination at Henderson, 441 
Distillers' Supplies, Rates on, 916 
Eastern Live Stock Case, 1167 
Excelsior and Hax Tow Cases, 1025 
Express Companies Granted Higher Rate*, 

214, 223t „ . 

Extension of Credit to Consignees, 772 
Fertiliier from New Orleans, Rates on, 

Flour Rates from Inman, Kan.. 75 
Foreign Commerce Not Touched by I. C. 

Law, 441 
Fourth Section Applications, 1025 
Fuel Oil to Arizona. Rates on, 212 
Fuel, Railroad, in Southeastern Territory, 

Rates on, 364 
Furniture Rates from Grand Rapids, 75 
Glucose from Chicago, 1209 
Goldfield Cases, The, 137 
Grain Elevation Allowances at Kansas City, 

Grain Milled in Transit at Lawrenceburg, 

Ind., 295 „...,. 

Grain Reshipping Rates at St. Louis, 138 
High Explosives to New England Points, 

Rates on, 363 
Ice Rates to New Jersey Stations, 402 
Imported Wood Pulp Rales from Boston, 

Mass., 75 
Import Rates on Brewers Rice, 1067 
Iron and Steel Cases, 442 
Joint Rales from Canadian Points, 825 
Joint Rates with the East Jersey Railroad 

St Terminal Co., 542 
Lateral Allowances on Shipments of An- 
thracite Coal, 772 
Lehigh Valley Lake Lines, 1210, 1251 
Lettuce from Texas Points, 1209 
Lighterage and Storage Regulations at New 

York, 213, 375t, 395 
Live Stock, Rates on, 404, 1167 
Log Rates, Low-Grade Cedar, 253 
Log Rates to Chattanooga, 402 
Loss and Damage Claims on Eggs Deliv- 
ered at New York City Piers, 773 
Lumber Rates from Michigan Points, 823 
Lumber Rates from Points on the Oregon- 
Washington, 1210 
Lumber Rates from South Pittsburgh, 

Tenn.. 74 
Lumber Rates from Southern Points, 175. 

Lumber Rates from Wilson, Ark., 441 
Lumber Rates on the Gould Southwestern. 

Lumber Rates to Las Cruce*. N. Mex., 137 
Lumber Rates to Memphis. 1209 
Lumber Rates to Texas. 1167 
New Mexico Class and Commodity Rates, 

New York-Jersey City Ferry Rates, 1210 
Nitrate of Soda, Import Rates on, 1209 
North Bound Rates on Hardwood from 

the Southwest, 212 
Ogden Gateway Case, 295, 363 
Oil Rates, Midcontinent, 480 
Ore Rates from Baker, Ore., 253 
Panama Canal Act, 74, 295, 678t, 709 
Pennsylvania's Steamer Lines on Chesa- 
peake Bay, 402 
Pig Iron Rates from Virginia, 823, 1210 
Pig Iron Rates, Southern, 441 
Pipe Line Transportation of Petroleum, 1167 
Plaster Rates from Grand Rapids, 75 
Proportional Class Rates to Iowa Points. 74 
Pulpwood Rates from Minnesota. 174 
Rail and Lake Rates. 403 
Rates from Danville. Va.. 212 
Rates from Iowa Points to Stations on 

the Santa Fe in Kansas. 137 
Rates to La Crosse, Wis., 710 
Rates to Lebanon, Ky., 402 
Rates to Montrose and Delta Counties, Colo., 

Rates to Phoenix, 441 
Rates to Spartanburg, S. C, 213 
Rates to the Teton Basin, 823 
Rebates to U. S. Steel Corporation. 1131 
Rebilling Privileges at Atlanta and Nash- 
ville, 441 

Reconsignment by Telephone, 442 

Safety Appliance Acts, Extension of Time 
to Comply with, 1068 

Salt Rates from St. Clair. Mich.. 772 . 

Sample Baggage Defined; Article* May Be 
Sold, 403 

St. Louis Terminal Case. 175 

Scrap Iron to Galveston. Rates on, 823 

Second Industrial Railways Case, 84t, 99 

Seed Rates to Texas. 979 

Shipments Billed to Intermediate Points to 
Secure Lower Rates, 34 

Shipper's Load and Count, 174 

Shreveport Case, 174 

Soap to Texas Points, Rates on, 823 

Stone and Marble Rates to St. Paul, Minn., 


Digitized by 




July 1— Dec 31, 1915] 


[Illustrated articles are indicated thus *; Editorials thus t; Letters to Editor thus X.] 

Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings 
iContiuued) : 

Stopping Cars to Complete Loading, 441 

Storage in Transit on Apples at Indianap- 
olis, 74 

Storage of Coal at Perth Amboy, N. J., 

Switching Charge* at South Omaha, Neb., 

Tannine Material, Rate* on, 402 

Tap Line Case, 402 

Tranicontiuental Rates to Willamette Val- 
ley Point*. 74 

Transit on Grain and Mixed Feed at Mem- 
phis, 137 

Transit Rates on Logs and Staves at Alex- 
andria, La., 7S 

Transportation of Potatoes in Refrigerator 
Cars, 33 

Trap or Ferry Car Service Charges, 213, 

Water and Rail Rates from Yonkers, 442 

Weighing of Livestock at Kansas City, 173 

Western Passenger Fares, 1120t, 1134, 1180t 

Western Rate Advance Case, 285, 308t, 
587t, 593, 1258 

Western Trunk Line Rules, 173 

Wheat Rate* from Hillsdale and Litchfield, 
Mich., 212 

Withdrawal of Regulations Covering Con- 
centration and Storage of Dairy Product*, 

Wooden Building Material, Rate* on, 441 
Investment Bankers* Association: 

Address of President Leach, 568 

Reorganizations and Railroad Bonds, 1191 

Report on Bonds, 1202 
Iron and Steel: 

IngoU, Ladle Test, 1196 

Manganese Steel Track Work, 334t, 341 

Special Steel* for Track Work, 741t, 747 

Steel InduMty, Activity of, 992t 
Italy: Private and Government Railway Manage- 
ment, S88t, 599 

Jack*: Emergency Jacks with Auxiliary Heel 

and Hook, 68* 
Jerome-Edwards Metallic Packing Company: 

Sullivan Metallic Packing, 1019* 
Johns- Manville, H. W., Company: Adjuster, 

Manual Slack, 948* 
Joint (See Pipe; also Rail) 

Kansas City Southern: Anntial Report, 724t* 

Kansas City Terminal Railway: Strike of Ma- 
chinists, 248 

Keasbey k Hattison Company: Corrugated Sheet 
Asbestos Concrete, 537* 

Kiln (See Ties and Timber) 

Kingan-Ripken Company: Valve Gear, 399* 

Labor (See Employee; also Finance; also Main- 
tenance of Way; also Legislation) 
Lake Lines (See Waterways) 
Latin-American Public Works Corporation: Bra- 
zilian Railways, 1101 
Legal Decisions (See also page 550t) : 

Abandoninent of Highway in Railroad's Pos- 

ses.sion, 1 168 
Additional Land for Right of Way — Mea*- 

ure of Damages, 178 
Air Brake Law. 298 

Alabama Bonner Anti-Shipping Act, 874 
Alternating Current Signal Apparatus Free 

of Koyalty. 1210 
Animals on Track. 77, 177, 916, 1168 
Approval of Leases b^ Public Utility Com- 
mission, 77 
Arkansas Passenger Fare Case, 824 
Assault by Fellow Passenger, 308t, 365 
Assessments — Special Franchises, 824 
Assumption of Risk, 405, 406, 482, 1026, 

Attorney's Fee; Compromise by Client, 1211 
Boiler Ejcplosion, Injuring Engineer, 297 
Caretaker of Stock a Passenger, 443 
Central Pacific Suit, 1107 
Child Held Passenger, Though Paying No 

Fare, 178 
Children as Trespassers in Yards, 1026 
Claims Under Workmen's Compensation 

Act, 543 
Coal Docks Not a Nuisance, 35 
Coal Selling Contract of D., L. & W., 

Consignor's Liability for Freight Charges, 

Consignor's Right to Sue, 1069 

Right of Way, 297 
Construction of Private Tramroad Over 
Crossi'ig Accident — Contributory Negll- 

Kcnc, 443, 481, 482, 543, 666, 981 
Damage' for Blocking View by Embank- 
ment, 77 
Damages for Pain and Suffering Before 
Death, 35 

Legal Decisions (.Continued) : 

Delivery on Forged Bill of Lading, 873 

Demurrage in Bad Weather, 1213 

Demurrage — -Private C^rs, 1107 

Diamonds as "Baggage," 981 

Discrimination in Diverting and Expediting 
Shipments, 297 

Disorderly Passenger — Negligent Conductor, 

Drainage Assessment Apportionment, 443 

Duties to Passengers at Stations, 254 

Duty as to Sectionmen at Work, 406 

Employment Contracts — Half Wages Dur- 
ing Disability, 1026 

Employers' Liability Act, 824, 1212 

"Engaged in Interstate Commerce," 617, 

Engineman Injured Running Past Block Sig- 
nal; A., T. tt S. Fe., 1077t, 1107 

Excursion Ticket* — Time Limit, 1211 

Expert Evidence a* to Type of Derail 
Required, 710 

Extra Fare*, 774 

Fall of Article from Rack, 177 

Federal Employer*' Liability Act, 177, 406, 

Federal Safety Appliances Act Supersedes 
State Laws, 1026 

Fire, Damages from, 139, 176, 216, 443, 
873, 1069, 1211 

Flooding Land, 773, 1026, 1107 

Free Pass Invalid, 1069 

Government Suit v. Reading Companies, 

Grazing Land — "Speculative Value," 1027 
Guarding Low Bridges to Protect Brake- 
men, 482 
Guarding Yards or Ctn Against Children, 

Headlight Statute, Noncompliance with, 

Hearst v. N. Y. C, 139 
Hepburn Act; Erie R. R.. 216 
Hour* of Serrice Act, 177, 443, 496, 665, 

66«, 1168 
Household Furniture, Damages to, 1211 
Increase in Rate*. Rule* to Justify, 178 
Independent Negligent Act of Employee, 

Injuries to Passengers — Contributory Neg- 
ligence, 980, 1106 
Injuries to Trespassers and Employees, 

543, 824, 873, 916 980, 1077t, 1107, 1211 
Injury to Freight from Inherent Qualities, 

Inspection of Record* of Liquor Shipment*, 

Instructions of Drover, Reasonablenea* of, 

Interstate Carriers Not Insurers of Goods, 

Interstate Commerce in Intoxicating 

Liquors, 76 
Intraatate 'Shipment* — Division of Rates, 

Johnson Grass — Proof of Source, 1026 
Kansas Mutual Demurrage, Law Held Void, 

Labor Union Contracts, 481 

Lehigh Valley's Taxes for Morris Canal 
Property, 981 

Liability for Injury to Passenger Shot by 
Another Passenger, 254 

Liability for Loss at Sea by Connecting 
Carrier, 1026 

Liability of Injury to Freight, 1026 

Liability of Intermediate Carrier for De- 
lay, 1168 

Libel in Letters Complaining of Employees, 
980, 1212 

Lien for Construction Material, 1211 

Limitation of Liability in Interstate Ship- 
ment of Horses, 178 

Limitation of Powers of Railroad Com- 
panies, 297 

Live Stock, Injuries to, 297, 443, 1211 

Local Assessment of Station Property for 
Street Improvement, 444 

Location of Farm Crossing, 774 

"Lookout Ahead" and Speed on a Curve, 

Louisville & Nashville vs. Western Union 
Telegraph Company, 1258 

Maintaining Flagmen at Crossings, 582 

Manager's Right to Salary While on Leave 
of Absence, 482 

Massachusetts Nine-Hour Law Unconstitu- 
tional, 1026, 10401 

Measure of Damages to Valuable Goods, 

Mileage Ticket Good for Holder's Wife, 

Milk Rate, Excessive, 1212 

Misrouling Does Not Cause Liability for 
Shippers' Act, 916 

Mississippi Spur Track Statute Invalid, 176 

New York "Jitney" Law, 617 

New York Workmen's Compensation Law, 

Notice and Time for Bringing Suit, 1026 

Notice of Demand for Cars, 1212 

Legal Decisions (.Continued) : 

Notice of Intention to Claim Damages, 443, 

481, 482, 666, 1027, 1168 
Obstruction of Street Delaying Fire Depart- 
ment, 216 
Operation of Sunday Train*, 216 
Order of Commi>*ion Compelling Opera- 
tion at Loss, 444 
Oregon & California Land Grant Case, 1210 
Overexertion in Lifting Heavy Article*. 1212 
Overflowing Land* by Manner of Bridge 

Conatruction, 216 
Parol Gift of Right of Way, 178 
Passenger Entering Wrong Train, 444 
Passenger Fare Suit of Missouri vs. Chi- 
cago & Alton, 34 
Passenger Injured on Step* of Veitibuled 

Car, 297 
Passenger Killed Resisting Arrest, 254 
"Passenger Train" of Freight Cars. 710 
Passengers on Freight Trains, 710 
Power of State Commission to Change Pas- 
senger Rates, 481 
Powers of Railroad Commission, 1168 
Preferential Rate*— Unfavorable Locality, 

Prescriptive Title to Railroad Land, 1212 
Proportional Rates, 773 
Pullman Car Cook, Liability for Death of, 

Pullman Porter May Recover for Injuries, 

"Railroad Hazard" Defined, 444 
Railroad's Right to Remove Switch, 980 
Reasonableness of Tender of Large Bill 

for Small Fare, 298, 308t 
Receivers — Allowance of Claims for Sup- 
plies, 1213 
Recovery for Loss of Proiits, 617 
Recovery of Undercharge from Consignee, 

Reduction of Coal Rate to Naahville — Dis- 
crimination in Switching, 77 
Remedy Under Carmack Amendment Ex- 
clusive, 1026 
Repair Shop Employees — Fellow Servant 

Rule, 617 
Rest, Water and Feed Act, 406, 824 
Revocation of License to Use Waiting 

Room, 666 
Right of Way Aasessment, 1168 
Right of Way Granted by Congress, 874 
Right to Build Across Highways, 710 
Right to Fence Right of Way, 177 
Right* of Railroad in Cro**ing Another, 

Rutland Suit Dismiased, 1106 

Safe Place to Work, 916 

Safety Appliance Act, 444 

Secret Rebate*, 35 

Shipper Accompanying Cattle, 774 

Special Cars for Shipments of Oil, 980 

State Regulation of Relief Associations, 

State Statute Requiring Cua to be Fur- 
nished, 76 
Steamship Owned by Railroad — Status 
Under Federal and State Liability Acts, 
Stop, Look and Listen Rule, 215 
Tax on Gross Earnings, 481 
Taxation of Express Companies in South 

Dakota, 1213 
Taxation of Railroad Property, 482 
Taxation on Corporations "Doing Busi- 
ness," 542, 873 
Taxes, Liability for, as Between Lessor and 

Lessee. 542, 710, 981 
Termination of Liability for Interstate 

Freight— Oklahoma Rule, 178 
Termination of Relation of Passenger, 482 
Texas Repair Shed Law 974 
Time, Reasonable, for Run, 482 
Transverse Drains I^w Upheld, 35 
Twenty-eight Hour Law, 178, 916 
Undercharge Recovery — Plainness of Tariff, 

Undercharging Passenger — Company May 

Recover Difference, 254 
Validity of Bond Issue on Consolidation, 

Validity of Contracts for Services by Ship- 
pers, 177 
Void Commission Order to Connect with 

Another Road, 1069 
Waiver of Stipulation as to Claims for 

Damages, 1026 
West Virginia Two-Cent Fare Law, 298 
When a Person Becomes a Passenger, 406 
Width of Roundhouse Doorway, 666 
Wisconsin Upper Berth Law, 2t, 12 

Boston & Maine Investigation, 573 
Boston Terminal Commission, 71, 436 
Bristow Committee's Report on Parcel Post 

M.-inagcment, 551t 
Clearances, 760 

Dealing with Petty Cases, S50t, 788t 
Department of Public Policy and Relationa, 

Eight-Hour Day in Train Service, 882t, 
1016. 1020, 1239 

Digitized by 


tJiily 1-Dec. 31, 1915 


Legislation (Continued): 

Financial Legislation, 812, 946 

Industrial Relations Committee, 1016 

Labor Department's Re()ort, 1132 

Labor Legislation, Agitation for, 1016, 1 196, 

laws Passed in Fifteen States, 23 
Licensing of Engineers. 452t, 675t 
Massachusetts Law I^m.ting Working 

Hours, 1026, 1040t 
Moon Mail Pay Bill, 868 „..„.„ 

N. Y., N. H. 4 H. Directors on Trul, 818, 

868, 913, 974, 1021, 1065, 1102, 1163, 1205 
N. Y., N. H. & H. Investigation, 1064, 1102 
Panama Canal Act, Results of, 678t, 709, 

President Wilson's Message, 1077t, 1095, 

1118t ^ . ,. • 

Public Control of Railway Capitalization, 

'227* ^. ' ^ , 

Public Service Commissionerships Consti- 
tutional Offices, 244, 357, 675t 
Rebates; Penn. Co. and Pitts., Cinn,, Chic. 

& St. L., 1168 
Rebates: U. S. Steel Corporation, 1131 
Regulation, Inefficient, 264t, 414t 
Regulation or Government Ownership, 895 
Regulation, Rapid- Fire, 473 
Right of Way Protection, 1139t, 1142 
Shipping Bill, 1063 _, . „ ^ . 

Signal Companies Investigated in New York 

in P. S. Commission Inquiry, 1206 
Sou:h Carolina Grade Crossing Law, 400 
State Laws on Railway Operation, 860 
State or Federal Regulation, 309t, 41 5t, 

739, 895, lUSt, 1228* 
State Regulation Abused, 43t, 49 
Texas Repair Shed Law, 974 
Trespassing Laws, 453t, 460 
Western & Atlantic Railroad, Lease of, 

31, 169, 292, 1064 
Lehigh Valley : 

Annual Report, 266t'. 303 

Dining Car Employees Examined, 573 

Dock, Ore, at New York, 420 

Lake Line Service; I. C. C. Ruling, 1210, 

I-oss and Damage Committees, 861 
Passenger and Freight Terminals at Buf- 

f»'<>; '58* ^ ,„. 

Rail Laying with Locomotive Cranes, 353 , 

Rail Loadin:; Record, 69 
Renewing Bridge Ties, 526* 
Signals at Crossings, 843t 
Wage Increase for Car Inspectors, 1256 

Brascolite and Day Way Illumination Fix- 
tures, 867" 
Cab Lights, 796t, 10S2t* 
Generator wi'.h Underframe Suspension, 208' 
Headlights, Electric; L C. C. Hearing. 1138 
Headlights, Electric; So. Pacific, 10821* 
Switch Light. 1199» 

Little Kanawha Railroad: History, 1200 

Live Stock (See Agriculture) 

Loading (See Car Service) 

Locomotive: . „ . ,. j ^,, 

American Builders and Foreign Trade, 643 
Cab Liihts and Headlights. 796|. 1082f 
Decapod Type; Russian Sute Rys., 474* 
Flectric Headlight Case, 1138 . 
Energy Ointained in Revolving Wheels, 

Engine Failures, 45 It 
Engine Numbers, 472 
Factor of Adhesion, 4S4t. 638t 
Grate with Large Air Openings. 330* 
Headlights; Southern Pacific, 1082{* 
Hub Plate, Adjustable, 331*, 867* 
Inspection Rules, 357, 426, 663, 906 
La'eral Stresses in Rails on Curves. 307t, 

Lubricator, Force Feed Cylinder, 612* 
Maintenance, 452t 

Mikado Versus Consolidation, 927t. 933 
Mountain Type; Canadian Pacifir, 862* 
Mountain Type; Seaboard Air Line, 87 

Noise of a Yard Engine, 812 

Orders and Construction in 101 S, 1221t> 1240 
Orders of Foreign Countries, 1011* 
Organiiation of Repair Shop, 607* 
Pacific Type; C. B. & Q., 275* 
Pacific Type; D., L. & W., 1 1S5* 
Pacific Type; R. F & P., I12o* 
Packing, Sullivan Piston and Valve Stem, 

Reports at T. E. A. Conventirn 473. 505* 
Smoke Abat-ment in Chicago. 1040t, 1047*, 

1064, I078t, 1089, 1101, 1125, 1193* 
Smokebox Blower Fitting. 1019* , .„„„. 
Smoke Removed from Covered Tracks, 1098* 
Smoke-washing Plant; N. \'. C 558 
Superheaters and Grade Revision, 469 , 

637r, 848t 
Tonnage Studies in 1836, 972 
Valve, Automatic Drifting, 246', 912* 
Valve Gear Device, 399^ , ,„,. 

Water I.cvel on Superheat, Effect of, 191 
Water Tanks, Roadside, 955* 
Whistling Code Abused, 489t 

Locomotive, Boiler (See Ixicomotive) 

Locomotive, Flctric: 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 688*, 1065, 

1101, 1163 ,„, ^„,. 

Electric Motive Power, 602, 682t 
Mechanical Problem of, 604* „ . ,. 
Norfolk & Western, on Elkhom Grade, 54 
Performance on Various Roads, 247 

Locomotive, Electric (Continued): 

60-Ton Gas-Electric Locomotive for the 
Dan Patch Electric Lines, 658* 
I-ocomotive Firebox (See Locomotive) 
Locomotive, Passenger (See Locomotive) 
Locomotive Performance: Pennsylvania Electric 

Locomotives, 513 
Locomotive Smokebox (See Locomotive) 
London & Northwestern: Accident near Weedon, 

Long Island: 

Cars, Steel Trailer, 241* 

Delays, Informing Passengers About, 1180t, 

Safety at Crossings, 69, 105*, 248, 614, 868, 
1020, 1119t 
Loree, L. F.: Securities Held Abroad, It, 28, 

Loss and Damage (See Claims) 
Louisville & Nasnville: 
Annual Report, 846t* 
Lining Diana Tunnel Under Traffic, 966* 
Lubrication : 

Force Feed Lubricator, 612* 
Slide Valve: B. R. & P., 283* 
Lumber (See Ties and Timber) 
Luminous Unit Company: Illumination Fix* 
tures, 867* 


Machine Tools (See Tools) 

Baltimore & Ohio's Mail Room, 703 
Complaint of the Eureka & Palisade Railroad, 

Government Money Carried as Mail, 389 
Moon Bill, Protest Against, 868 
Parcel Post Management, 551t 

Adjustments on Middle West Roads, 974 
Claims of New England Roads, 145t, 164 
Committee's Position, 71 
Profit on Various Routes, 927 1 
Question Studied by Business Men, 390 
Resolutions of the Merchants' Associa- 
tion of New York, 819 
Resolutions of the National Industrial 

Traffic League, 514 
Western Association of Short Line Rail- 
roads, Campaign of, 1064 
Maintenance of Equipment: 

Expenditures; Pere Marquette, 1184t 
Locomotive, 452t 
Steel Freight Cars, 183t 
Maintenance of Way (See also Rail; also Ties 
and Timber; also Hoisting and Conveying; 
also Track; a'so Bridges and Buildings; 
also Roadmasters' and Maintenance of 
Way Association): 
Associations, Wor't of. 950t 
Ballast (See Ballast) 
Cost of Ties, Annual, 352* 
Development of Special Steels for Track 

Work, 74 If, 747 
Distribution of Track Materials. U39t, 1151 
Elevating Curves in Yards, 951 1 
Engineer in Maintenance Work, 183t 
liscal Year, Changing the, 413, 949t, 1101, 

Foreman's Improvement of a Section, 963 
Foreman's Prire List of Equipment, 515 1 
Foremen, Section, Treatment of, 532 
In"reasing the Section Forces, 1141t 
Labor Accounts, Distribution of, 336t 
Labor Problem, 522 
I.iquor Drink ng in Camps^ 334f 
Motor Cars for .Section Forces, 515t, 527 
T'rgani-eJ Gangs, 1152 
Pere Marquette Expenditures, 1184t 
Pumping Costs, Comparative, 516, 536 
Pumping Costs for Fuel, Oil and Steam 

Operated Plants, 108t 
Putting in Service Pennsylvania's New 

Line Between Phila. and N. Y., 531* 
Rail Templets. 060*, 970* 
Records of Reinforced Concrete Structures, 

Repairing Frogs and Switches; M., K. & T., 

Repairing Manganese Crossing Frogs by 

Electric Welding, 119* 
Retrenchment Danger, 741t 
Right of Way Protection from Encroach- 

n-ents. 1130t. 1142 
Self-Education of Employees, 742t 
Snowstorm on North Atlantic Coast, 1164, 

Spiraling Curves, 765* 
Standards for Foremen, 1139t 
Systematic Program Necessary, 1140t 
'Tanks, Ccnstruction of Roadside, 955* 
Tanks, S'.abili'.y of Unanchored, 954* 
Tools for Employees, 334t, 337* 
Tools, Proper Repair of, 952* 
Track Inspection; PennsyFvania, 764, 951 
Training Seiion Laborers, 109t, 951t 
Turning Ties Over, 949t. 95 U 
Wage Scale, Graduated, 9SU 
Maintenance of Way Master Painters' Asso- 
ciation: Annual Convention, 968* 
Massev, C. F., Company: 

Culvert Cattle Passes. 1140* 
Trestles, Concrete; I. C 279* 
Master Car and Locomotive Paintera' Associa- 
tion: Annual Convention, 549t, 565 
Master Car Builders' Association: Result of the 
Letter Ballot, 808 

McClintic Marshall Construction Co.: New 

York Connecting R. R., 421*, 663, 865* 

McKeen Motor Car Co.: Concreting C^r, 533* 

McMyler Interstate Company: Dumper at Con- 

neaut Harbor, 390* 
Meacham Contracting Company: Lining Diana 

Tunnel; L. & N., 966* 
Merchants' Association of New York: Mail 

Pay Resolutions, 319 

Business Revival, 1099 
Condition of Railways, 1096 
Troops Moved by American Railroads, 904 
War's Effect on Railways, 582, 613 
Michigan Central: Economic Value of Ter- 
minal Improvements at Detroit, 739 

Block Signals, Jan. I, 1916, 1219t, 1252 
Construction in 1915, 1224t, 1247* 
New England Railroads, 471* 
Receiverships, 587t, 632t, 676t* , 720, 819, 

991 t, 1222t 
Statistics of the World, 3t 
Miller, J. Henry, Inc., D. & H. Office Building 

at Albany, 58* 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie: 
Annual Report, 886t*, 925 
Checking L. C. L. Freight at Chicago, 44t, 

Concrete Culvert Cattle Passes, 1149* 
Valve, Automatic Drifting, 912* 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Dubu(iue 
Electric Traction Company: Locomotive, 
60-Ton Gas-Electric, 658* 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas: 
Annual Report, 1042t* 
Athletic Association, Meet of, 818, 973 
Receivership, 588t, 1053 
Repairing; rrogs and Switches, 970 
Missouri Pacific: 

Annual Report, 793t* 

Grade Crossing Elimination, St. Louis, 799* 
Receivership, 307t 
Reorganization Plan, I84t 
Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Company: A. 
- T. & S. Fe Bridge at Sibley, Mo., 13* 
Mobiliration (See War) 
Montana Power Company< C, M. & St. P. 

Electrification, 683* 
Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad: Rail 

Scale, 532* _ 
Motor (See Hoisting and Conveying) 
Motor Cars (See also Locomotive, Electric) 
Motor C^rs: 

Concreting Car, 533* 

Electric •Equipment for Pennsylvania at 

Philadelphia, 892* 
Electric "rrucks; Pennsylvania, 737*, 818 
Mowing and Weeding, 1144* 
Operation and Care; C, M. & St. P., 515t, 

Value of, 816 
Mott Sand Blast Manufacturing Co.: Sand 

Blasting Plant, 397* 
Mount Royal Tunnel and Terminal Company: 
Canadian Northern Tunnel into Mon- 
treal, 857* 
Mudge, Henry U.. 900* 
Mutual Beneficial Association of Pennsylvania 

Railroad Employees, 1093 
M. W. Supply Company: Vaughan Track In- 
dicator, 970* 


Nashville. Chattanooga & St. Louit: 

Bridge Across Chattanooga Creek, 343* 
Dining Car Employees Examined, 868 
Nathan Manufacturing Company: 

Force Feed Cylinder Lubricator, 612* 
Valve, Automatic Drifting, 246* 
National Association of Railway Commissioners: 
Annual Meeting, 739 
Change in Fiscal Year, 1101 
Prentis, Robert R., on National and State 
Regulation, 1228* 
National Defense, 1017, lOSOf, 1084, 1233* 
National Hose Coupling Company: Coupling De- 
vice, 398* _ 
National Industrial Traffic League: 
Annual Meeting, 1004 
Interstate Commerce Commission and Its 

Work, 493 
Mail Pay Resolutions, 514 
National Railway Devices Company: Coupler 

Release Rigging, 291* 
National Safety Appliance Company: Automatic 
Stops and CM Signals at (Jroville, Cal., 
632t, 645*. 796t, 998* 
National Safety Council: Annual Congress, 813 
National Trade Council: Foreign Trade Con- 
vention. 1101 
National Transcontinental: Cost of Construc- 
tion, 2t, 42t 
New England Railroads in 1845, 471* 
New England Railway Club: Fuel Department, 

The, 939 
New South Wales Government Railways: An- 
nual Report, ll82t 
New York Central: 

Clock Work Time Lock, 699* 
Grade Crossing Elimination 


Locomotive Smoke-washing Plant at Chi- 
cago, 558* 
Passenger Fares Increased, 1067, 1179t 
New York Connecting Railroad: Construction 
Progress. 421*. 663, 865* 

in Albany, 

uiyiLi^eu uy 

865* I 


July 1— Dec. 31, 191S] 


[Illustrated articles are indicated thus *; Editorials thus t; Letters to Editor thus *.] 

N«w York, New Haven & Hartford: 

Annual Report, 790f, 830 

Crane, Frank, on . Humoring the Public, 

EfiicMrncy Bureau's Improvements, 70 

rootball Traffic. 979 

Investigation, lOM. 1102 

Snowstorm Causes Tieup, 1164, 1179t 

Trespassing Campaign, 696* 

Trial of the Directors, 818, 868, 913, 974, 
1021, 106S, 1163, 120S 

Valuation Work, 131 
New York Port Improvement Commission, 477 
New York's Public Service Commissions, 244, 

New York Railroad Club: 

Country's Railroads and National Defense, 
1017, 1080t, 1084, 1229* 

Essentia) Qualities of Steel Rails, 187* 

Freight Terminal Operation, 563 

Value of Motor Cars, 816 
Norfolk & Western: 

Annual Rnjort, 491t* 

Automatic Signals on Electrified Line, 21 

Bolt Nuts, Ballou, 751* 

Dry Kiln. 431* 

Electric Locomotives on Elkhorn Grade, 54 
North Eastern: Accident at Chaloner Whin, 

41t, 53 
Northern Pacific: 

Passenger Cars. 733* 

Ventilating the Stampede Tunnel, 234* 

Officer (See also Organization): 
tar Distributer's Duties, 159 
Despatchers, Treatment of, 318, 416t, 45 It, 

Difficulty of Weeding Out All Bad Men, 

?;ngineer in Maintenance Work, 183t 
Engineers, Licensing of. 452t, 675t 
Experience Necessary, 4l7t 
Inspector of Car l^ad Shipments. 856 
Letters of Commendation, 418t 
QualilTcations of a Terminal Superintend- 
~ ent, 434 

Station Service, Supervision of, 84t 
I'niform Train Orders. 20 
Official Classification Committee, 978, 1166 
Oil (See Fuel; also Lubrication) 
Operating Efficiency: 

Electrification (See Electrification) 
Handling Local Freight Trains, 373t, 394 
Legislation Relating to Operation, 860 
Location of Passing Sidings on Single 

Track, 1197* 
National Defense Requirements, 1017, 1080, 

1084, 1229* 
Putting in Service Pennsylvania's New Line 

Between Phila. and N. Y., 531* 
Relation Between the Number of Trains 

and Passing Points, 197* 
Scientific Train Loading; Tonnage Rating. 

Statistics Worth While. 553t 
Superheater Locomotives and Grade Re- 
vision, 469". 637J*, 848t 
Train Loads Increased in 1915, 1041t 
Operating Studies: 

(ireat Northern. 1045t* 

Mikado Versus Consolidation Locomotives, 

'i27t, 933 
Pacific Electric Ry., 225* 
Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Co.: 

Women in Ticket Offices, 263t 
Organization: „ , ^ 

Athletic Association; M., K. & T., 818, 

Bridge and Building Department, 1160 
Bureau for Clearing Car Repair Accounts. 

161* . . . 

Co-ordination of Mechanical Associations, 

Correspondence Filing, 205 
Department of Public Policy and Relations, 

210, 376t . ^ , . 

Fuel Department — A Constructive Criti- OS") 
Index-Record of Station Agents, 702 
Labor (See Employee) 
I^icomotivc Repair Shop, 617* 
Loss and Damage Bureaus (See Claims) 
M.-iinlenance of Way Associations, 950t 
Management of Freight-Car Service. 700 
Material, Handling the Stock of, 237 
Mutual Beneficial Association; Penna., 1093 Clas.sificalion Committee, 978, 1166 
Philadelphia Passenger Association, 978 
Plan for Improving Office Clerks, 881 1, 

Record Bureau, 206 
Selecting. Training and Promoting Men. 

I4?t, 150, 221t, 231. 265t. 417t, 

452t. 454t. 459, 554J, 682t, 881t, 887t, 

lOOOt, 1188 
Test Department: Pennsylvania, 6* 

Pacific Electric Railway: Operating Study. 225* 
T'arking (See Locomotive) 

P.icliicah & Illinois Railroad: Bridge at Metrop- 
olis. III., 160" 

Paint (See also Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters' Association; also Ma'n:enance 
of Way Master Painters' Association) 
Palestine: Railway .System, 199* 
Panama Canal (See Waterways) 
Panama-Pacific Exposition, 33, 69, 135, 436, 

461', 499* 
Panama Railroad: Signals at Miraflores Tun- 

nel, 327* 
Pangborn Corporation: Sand Blasting Plant, 104* 
Parcel Post (See Mail) 

Passenger Fares (See also State Commission 
Rulings; also Legal Decisions); 
Advances in Western Fares. 55, 83t, 93, 

145t. 153, 1120t, 1134, ll80t 
Automobile and Rail Travel, 1180t 
Extra Charge for Failure to Buy Ticket, 

34, 74, 139, 774, 978 
Increase Allowed in Missouri, 929t, 942, 

1024, 1039t, 1067, 1257 
Increases in New York Suspended, 1179t 
Nebraska Two-Cent Law, 916 
New York Central Increases, 1067, 11791 
Reduce Passenger Fares and Increase 

Freight Rates, 184t 
Swedish Railway Advances, 1205 
I'nited States and Other Countries, 787t 
Passenger Service: 

Automobile and Other Competitors, 804, 

Conditions on Suburban Trains, 4181 
Critic'sm of Transportation Selling, 5t 
I'rench State Railways, 798t 
Reduce Luxury and Increase Passenger 

Rales. 83t 
Third-Class Travel in Russia, 1206 
Transportation in Europe, 194 
Wisconsin Upper Berth Law Annulled, 2t, 
Pay (See Employee; also Mail) 
Pennsylvania Railroad: 
Cafe Day Coach, 57* 
Columbia & Philadelphia Line in 1834, 

Department of Inspection and Tests, 6* 
Door, Extensile "Trap, 207* 
Duey, Harry £.. Awarded Medal, 1101 
Efficiency Tests, 292 
Electrification at Philadelphia, 881* 
Employees' Roll of Honor, 361, 418t 
Freight Shortage Reports. 162* 
Information Bulletins. 42t 
Interlocking at Trenton, 4l4t, 419* 
Italian-English Course, 354* 
Mutual Beneficial Association. 1093 
Operation of New Line Between Phila. and 

New York, 531* 
Performance of Electric Locomotives, 513 
Rail Joint, Emergency. 532* 
Rail Specifications for 1915, 165* 
Realinement Problem, 456* 
Station, l"re-ght, at Pittsburgh. 245* 
Stockholders' Trust, 1100 
Telegraphers, Prizes to, 843t. 871 
Track Elevation Through Wilkinsburg, Pa., 

Track Inspection, Annual, 764, 951 
Track Scale, Plaie hulcrum. 1156' 
Truck Frame, Benners. 1099* 
Truiks, Four. Wheel, for Passenger Cars, 

Trucks. Industrial, 737*, 818 
Tunnel at East Brady. 456' 
Underground Cable. 269* 
Welfare Work a* Pitcairn Freight Transfer, 
413t. 430, 600* 
Pennsylvania Steel Company, D., L. & W. 

Bridge at Buffalo, 465* 
Pension (.See Employee) 
Pere Marquette: 

Annual Report, 931t'. Il84t 
Maintenance Expenditures, 1184t 
Philadelphia & Reading: Accident in Tunnel at 

Phoenixville. Pa., 665 
Philadelphia Passenger Association, 978 
Pilferage (.See Train Robberies) 

Concrete Culvert for Cattle Passes, 1149* 
Concrete Culvert, Use of, 762 
Main Reservoir Ball Joint Connection, 106* 
Pittsburgh 4 Conneaut Dock Company: Dumper, 

Car. 390* 
Pittsburph Construction Company; Dock at To- 
ledo; C, H. & D., 273* 
Plant (.See Bridges and Buildings) 
Pooling (See Car Service) 
Preparedness for Prosperity, 992t 
Preparedness for War, 1017, 1080+, 1084. 1233* 
President Wilson's Message, 1077t, 1015. IU8t 
Pressed Steel Car Company: Gondolas for the 

Russian Government, 818* 
Public Service Commissions (See State) 
Public. The Railways' Relations with (See also 
Finance; also Legislation; also Govern- 
ment Ownership): 
American Locomotive Builders and Foreign 

Trade, 643, 1011* 
Boat Lines on the Great Lakes. 678t, 709, 

1210. 1251 
Business Barometers. 843t, 881 1. 992t 
Central of Georgia's Monthly Statements, 

Commercial Agent and the Shipper, 694 

Public, The Railways* Relations with 
iContinued) : 
Department of Public Policy and Relations, 

210, 376t 
Efficiency to Overcome Competition, 804 
Eight-Hour Day for Railway Men. 882t, 

1016, 1020, 1163, 1239 
Farmer on Rales, A, 222t, 235 
Freight Congestion at the Atlantic Sea 

board, 1052, 1078t, 1102, 1105 
French Railroad Securities Investing in, 

240, 610* 
Grade Crossing Elimination (Sec Grade 

Harmony Work; A., T. & S. Fe, 198 
Humoring the Public, 399 
Information About Delays; L. I,, USOf, 

Information Bulletins, Pennsylvania, 42t 
Interests of the Public in the Railroads, 

1009, 1100 
Knittscbnitt, J., on, 1226* 
Labor Problem. 1128 
Leach, A. B., on Railroad Question, 568 
National Problems, 16 
Preparedness for National Defense, 1017, 

1080t, 1084, 1233* 
Public Control of Railway Capitalization, 

Public Service Commission of New York In- 
vestigated, 1206 
Public Service Commissioners, Qualifications 

of, 244, 357, 675t. 
Railroads and the People, 96, 1009 
Railway Development Association's Meeting. 

909, 938 
Selling Supplies to European Countries^ 

Situation from Different Viewpoints, 1226* 
Situation in the Southwest, 1231* 
Stockholders' Trust in the Pennsylvania, 

Transportation Salesmen, 1246 
Troubles of the Railroads, 203 
With Railroads It's Different, 726 
Pullman Company: 

Passenger Cars; N. P., 733* 
Wage Increase for Employees, 1256 
Pump (See Wa:er Service) 
Punch (See Tools) 

Quarantine (See Live Stock) 


Rail (See also Maintenance of Way; also 

Track) : 
Blooming, Method of, 1187 
Canting, I09t 

Classifying Scrap, lOlt, 335t 
Cold Straightening, 719t, 726t, 888t, 1001*. 

Crossing, Continuous, 528* 
Essential Qualities, 187* 
I'ailures in New York, 868 
Failures in 1914, 1097* 
Gagging of Rails and Transverse Fissures 

888t, 1001* 
Heavier Sections for Increased Loading, 


Inclination, Economy of, 335} 

Ingots, Ladle Test, 1116 

Joint, Emergency, Pennsylvania, 532* 

Joint, Standard; I. C, 126* 

Lateral Stresses in Curved Tracks. 307t, 

Laying with Cranes, L. V., 353*, 528 

leading Record ; L. V., 69 

Longer Rails, 3^3^ 

Nut, Ballou Safety Bolt, 751* 

Profile Machine, 1192* 

Punch, Spike Slot, 351* 

Scale. 532' 

Specifications, 17, 165* 

Templet for Curve-Worn Rail, 970* 

Templet for Valuation Purposes, 960* 

Tie Plate and Rail Anchor, 752* 

Tie. Steel. 530* 

Transverse Fissures, 888t*, 1001* 
"Railroads, Finance and (Organization," R^ 

viewed by W. M. Acworth. 1203 
Railway Business Association: Mail Pay Ques- 
tion, 310 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh: Transportation in 

Europe, 114 
Railway (iommissions (.See State Commissions) 
Railway Develcpment Association: Semi-Annuat 

Meeting, lOI, 938 
Railway Electrical Engineer, Purchase of, 63 It 
Railway l-"ire Protection Association: Annual 

Meeting, 691, 918t 
Railway Real Estate Association: Annual Meet- 
ing -27 
Railway Signal Association: 

Annual Convention. 561 

Location of Passing Sidings on Single 
Track, 1197* 
Rebates ( See Legislation) 
Keceiver5hj> (See Finance) 
Records <Src Statistics; also Organization) 
Retrenchment (See Economic Practices) 

u/iyiLi^eu uy 

■ v_^v_/ 


[July 1— Dec. 31, 1915 


Sevenues and Expeniei: 

Bureau of Railway Economics Summary 

for April, 134'; May, 249' ; July, 768* ; 

August, 869*; September, 1165' 
Bureau of Railway Economics' Summary for 

Year Ending June 30, 1915, 574* 
Express Companies for MarcD, 169; Apnl, 

437; May, 613; June, 769; August, 1164 
I. C. C.'s Summary for April, 70; June, 

539, S49t, 632t 
Trend of Earnings in 1915, 1237* 
Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac: Loco- 
motive, Pacific Type, 1129' 
Right of Way (See Maintenance of Way; also 

Legal Decisions) 

" ^tinner on Seventieth Birthday, 844t, 849* 
Ode in Honor of Birthday, 798 
Tariff Commission Advocated. 1118t 
Ripley, W. Z.: "Railroads, Finance and Or- 
ganization," as Reviewed by W. M. Ac- 
worth, 1203 
Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way As- 
Annual Convention, SlSf, 517 
Committees and Subjects, 1149 
Robber (See Train Robberies) ._.,,. 
Roof (See Car: also Bridges and Buildings) 
Rope (See Hoistine and Conveying) 
Roundhouse (See Yards and Terminals) 
Royal Economic Society of Great Britain: W. 
Z. Ripley's Book, "Railroads, Finance and 
Organization," Revised, 1203 

Cars, Steel Gondola, 898* 

Construction Work on the Amur Railway, 

Locomotives, Decapod Type, 474* 
Third-Class Travel, 1206 

Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company: Car 

Lighting Generator, 208* 
Safety First: .. ^^. .,. 

Automobile and Railway Accidents, 726, 818, 

871, 1119t .. . 

Board of First-Aid Standardixation, 973 
Bridge Inspection, C, M. ft St. P., 356* 
Chicago & North Western, 209, 22lt, 1064 
Dialogue Competition, 928T 
El Paso & Southwestern, 703 
First-Aid and Alcohol; B. & O., 973 
Grade Crossings: 

Baltimore ft Ohio, 663 

Committee on Accident Prevention; A. 

R. A., 1065, m9t 
Lehigh Valley, 843t , „^. 

Long Island, 69, 105*, 248, 614, 868, 

1020, 1119t „ „ „,. 
Signal, Distant; S. P., 497* 
Southern Ry., 131 
Inspectors' Titles, 149t 
National Safety Congress, 813 
Soutiem Pacific, 436, 497* 
Train Number on Engine, 472 
Train Orders, Excessive, 1225t 
Union Pacific, 248 , ,_ „ 

St. Joseph Railroad Club: What Is the Mat- 
ter with the Railroads, 203 
St. Louis: _ „ y, . 

Elimination of the Tower Grove Crossings, 

Terminal Facilities Inadequate, 147t 
St. Louis & San Francisco: 

Annual Report, 884t* , ^ 

Freight Loss and Damage Payments, 588T. 
Grade Crossing Elimination, St. Louis, 
St. Louis Southwestern: Annual Report, 792t , 


Dining Car Employees Examined, 573, 868 
Sand Blasting Steel Cars, 104*, 397* 
Smoke (See Fuel) 

Adjustment Tests, 958* 
Classifying Rail, 109t, 335t 
Plate Fulcrum; Pennsylvania, 1156* 
Screw (See Ties and Timber) 
Seaboard Air Line: ._^ 

Annual Report, 1080f, 1115, 1117t 
Bond Sale. m7t „ . ,^,^ 

Lag Screws in Trestle Construction, 107T, 

Ix)comotive, Mountain Type, 87 
Telegraph Typewriter, 400 
Security (Sec Finance) . . 

Selby Signal Flag Company: Flagging Device, 

Shnahle & Quinn: Bucket, Drag Line, 125* 

locomotive Repair Shop Organization, 697* 
Repair of Tools for Track Maintenance, 
Siberia (See Russia) 
Sickels, Elwood H.r Trap Door Extension, 

Signals, Block (See also Railway Signal As- 
sociation) : , „ 
Automatic Block at Oroville, Cal.; W. P., 

632t, 645* 
C, M. & St. P. in Montana, 256 
Mileage to January 1. 1916. 121«t. 1252 
Tunnel at Miraflo-es, 327* 

Signaling (See also Railway Signal Association): 
Automatic Crossing Signals; L. V., 843t 
Automatic Stop, Brownell's, 614 
Automatic Stop, Buell'a, 904* 
Automatic Stop, Gollos, 248 
Cable Connectors, Fargo's, 572* 
Cable, Underground; Penna., 269* 
Cab Signal Need in England, 41t, S3 
Cab Signal and Automatic Stop; Cinn., 

N. O. & T. P., 904* 
Cab Signals and Automatic Stops; West 

Pac, 632t, 645*, 796t, 998t 
Clockwork 'Time-Lock for Interlocking Ma- 
chine, 699* 
Distant Signal for Automobilists; S. P., 

Electrical Tieup; N. Y., N. H. ft H., 1164, 
Electric Interlocking at Adelaide, South 

Australia. 936* 
Electro-Mechanical Interlocking at Trenton; 

Penna., 414t, 419* 
Flag, Selby, 106* 

New York Le^slature Investigates Com- 
panies as to Signaling Contracts, 1206 
Norfolk ft Western Electrified Une, 21* 
Progress in 1915, 1232* 
Smith Locomotive Adjustable Hub Plate Com- 
pany: Hub Plate, 331*, 867* 
Smttb-Mc(;ormick Company: Dock at Toledo; 

C^ H. & D., 273* 
Smith, T. L., Company: Concrete Mixer, 746* 
Smoke Prevention (See Fuel) 
Snow (See Maintenance of Way) 
South Africa: Line from Prieska to Upington, 

South Australia: Electric Interlocking at Ade- 
laide, 936* 
Southern Pacific: 

Annual Report, 789t*, 839 

Construction Work on Burnt Tunnel near 

Tehachapi, Cal., 115* 
Headlights and Cab Lights, 1082t* 
Oregon & California Land Grant Gate, 1210 
Safety First, 436, 497* 
Signal, Distant, for Automobilists, 497* 
Switch Light, 1199* 
Southern Railway: 

Accident Record, 170, 209 

Annual Report, 722t*, 781 

Education of Special Apprentices, 1064 

Reducing Claims by Appeal to Shippers, 

Safety at Grade Crossings, 131 
Terminal at Birmingham, Ala., 743* 
Terminal, Export Coal, at Charleston, S. C, 

Trespassing Report, 871 
Spotting (See Car Service) 
Standard Steel Car Company: Long Island 

Trailer, 241* 
Sundard Steel Tie Company: Tie, 530* 
State Bar Association of Tennessee: Right of 

the States, A, 43t, 49 
State Commissions: 

Controversy Between the Texas and Louisi- 
ana Commissions and the I. C. C, 309t 
Illinois: Rate Advance Hearings, 978 
Massachusetts: N. Y., N. H. ft H. Inves- 
tigation. 573, 1167 
New Hampshire: Boston ft Maine Inves- 
tigation, 573 
New York: Highway Crossings on Long 

Island R. R., 979 
New York: Investigation of Charges 

Against R. C. Wood, 1206 
New York: Rail Failures, 868 
New York: Street Accidents, 1065 
Public Service Commissioners, Qualifica- 
tions of. 244, 357, 675t 
Regulation by the States or the I. C. C, 

309t, 415t, 739, 895, 1118t. 1228* 
Regulation, Contrast in. Ill7t 
Texas: Freight Rate Hearings, 481, 822 
State Commission Rulings: 

Alabama: Rate Increases Denied, 138, 916 
California: Excess Charge with Cash Fares, 

Louisiana : 

Accident Reports, 34 
Stopping of Interstate Trains at Certain 
Stations, 1025 
Maryland: Application of Chesapeake ft 

Curtis Bay R. R., 665 
Missouri : 

Freight Rates and Passenger Fares In- 
creased, 929t, 942, 1024, 1025, 1039t, 
1069 1257 
Grain Rates Increased, 365 
Locomotive Headlights, 616 
Montana : 

Lumber Rates Reduced, 616 
Coal, Slack, Rates Reduced, 665 
New York: 

Baggage Value, 481, 824 
Charge for "Spotting" Cars, 296 
I. R. T. Signal Installation. 1167 
Passenger Fare Increase Denied; Ulster 

& Delaware, 76 
Passenger Fare Increases Suspended. 

Passenger Service on Mahopac Falls R. 

R.. 665 
Salamanca Grade Crossing Case, 34 ' 
Switching Service of New York Cen- 
tral and International Ry., 16 
South Dakota: Accident Reports 824 

State Commission Rulings iContinued) : 

Concentration of Cotton, 253 
Rate Increase on Sash, etc., 1210t 
West Virginia: 

B. ft O. Mileage Coupons from Other 

States, 76 
Express Rates Increased. 405 
State Regulation (See State Commissions) 
Station (See also Yards and Terminals): 
Agents, Index-Record of, 702 
Agents Inefficient, 84t 
Coaling Stations, 759 

Lehigh Valley Passenger, at Buffalo, 158* 
Painting of, 969 

Pennsylvania Freight, at Pittsburgh, 245* 

Accidents, Steamship and Railway, 264t 
Block Signal Mileage to January 1, 1916, 

1219t 1252 
British hallway Returns for 1914, 675t. 690 
Cars and Locomotives Ordered and Built in 

1915. 1219t, 1221t, 1240 
Comparison of the World's Railways, 787t, 

Construction in 1915. 1224t, 1247* 
Development in 1915, I220t 
Earnings in 1915. 1237* 
Freight Loss and Damage Payments in 

1914, 90, 146t, 993t, 1013 
Government and Privately Owned Lines, 

Mileage of, 3t 
Operation Control Through Statistics, 206, 

Rail Failures in 1914, 1097* 

Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales in 1915, 

Records, Making, 206 
Records of Reinforced Concrete StructurM, 

Tables Omitted in Newspaper Quctations, 

Train Tonnage Increased in 1915. 1041t 
Trend of Affairs in Two Eight-Year Peri- 
ods, 85 1 

Steel (See Iron and Steel) 

Stop, Automatic Train (See Signaling) 

Stores (See Supplies) 

Strike (See Employee) 

Sturtevant, B. F., Company: Ventilation of 
Stampede Tunnel, 234* 

Subways (See also Construction, New) : 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 654* 

Superheater (See Locomotive) 

Supplies, Railway: 

American Locomotive Builders and Foreign 

Trade. 643, 1011* 
Equipment Orders Exceed Records, 843t, 

8811, 992t 
Exhibits at Panama-Pacific Exposition, 500* 
Hints for the Ordering of Lumber, 1150 
Manufacture of Equipment, 222t 
Material, Control of Stock of, 237 
Selling to European (Countries, 901* 
Store Department's Success, 1200 

Surpluses and Shortages (See Car Service) 

Sweden: Rate Advances, 1205 


Light, Williams' Disappearing, 1199* 
Slip Installation, 120 

Syria: Railway System, 199* 

Tanks (See Water Service) 
Tariff: Commission Advocated, lllSf 
Telegraph (See also Association of Railway Tel- 
egraph Superintendents): 

Pennsylvania R. R. Employes Win Prize*. 
843t, 871 

Typewriter; Seaboard Air Line, 400 

Automatic Exchange: N. Y. C, 357 

Courtesy Rules, 74, 867 
Templet (See Rail) 
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co.: Tests on 

Rails of Blooming Methods. 1187 
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis: 

Improvement Efforts Blocked. 147t 

Switchmen Demand Eight-Hour Day, 1020 
Texas & Pacific: Wage Increase for Telegraph- 
ers, 1204 
Ticket : , 

Agent's Best Asset. The, 357 

Extra Charge for C:asb Fares, 34, 74, 139 
774, 978 
Ties and Timber: 

Cost of Ties, Annual, 352* 

Cost of Ties; B. 6 O., SlSf, 537 

Creosoted Wood Block Floors, 1140t, 1145* 

Distributing Ties, 1139t, 1150 

Lumber. Ordering. 1150 

Norfolk ft Western Dry Kiln, 431* 

Peeler. Pneumatic, 342* 

Preservation of Ties, B. ft O.. SlSt, 537 

Preservative Treatment on Bridge Stringers, 

Renewing Ties; L. V., 526* 

Screws Lag, for Guard Rails, I07t, 125* 

Tie Plate, "niomas, 752* 

Tie Purchases in Canada During 1914, 970 

Tie, Steel, 530* 

Turning Ties Over. 949t, 951 1 
Timber Preservation (See Ties and Timber) 
Toledo Terminal Railroad: Letter on a Noiiy 

Yard Engine, 812 
Tonnage (See Train Loading 

Digitized by 




July 1— Dec. 31, 19151 


[Illustrated articles are indicated thus *; Editorials thus t; Letters to Editor thus $.] 


Equipment for Maintenuice of Way Force*, 
334t, 337' 

Punch, Spike Slot, 351* 

Repair of, for Track Maintenance, 952* 

Training Laborers in Use of, 109t 
Track (See alao Maintenance of Way; alu 
Construction, New; also Switch; also 

Ballast Dresser; A., T. & S. Fe., 529* 

Construction at Water Cranes, 336t 

Construction in 1915, 1224t, 1247* 

Crossing, Continuous Rail, 528* 

Cross'ng, Manganese, Repaired by Electric 
WeliUiig, 119* 

Curves, elevating, 951t 

Curves, Spiraling, 765* 

Development of Special Steels, 741 1, 747 

Ditches, Digging, 355* 

English Construction Standards, 130* 

Improvement of a Section, 963 

Indicator, Vaughan, 970* 

Inspection, Annual; Pennsylvania, 764, 951 

Manganese Steel Work, 334t, 341 

Motion Study in Training Laborers, 109} 

Repairing Frogs and Switcnes, M., K. ft T., 

Scale, Plate Fulcrum; Penna., 1156* 

Scales, Adjusting, 958* 

Slip Switeh InsUllation, 120 

Smoke Removal, 1098* 

Stresses, Experimental Determination of, 

String-Lining Curves by a Graphical Meth- 
od, 130 

Tools, Repair of, 952* 
Track Depression: C, M. ft St. P. at Minne- 
apolis, 1059* 
Track hlev.ition (See also Grade Crossings): 

Pcnnsvlvania R. R. Through Wilkinsburg, 
Pa..' 654* 

Classes at La Salle Extension University, 

Field Men, Efficient, 1246 

Freight Train Tonnage in 1915, 1041t 

German Achievements During War, 428, 

Lining Tunnel Under Traffic: L. ft N., 

Live Stock Quarantine, 172, 616, 709 

Mobilization (See War) 

Moving Mexican Troops by Railroad, 904 

New Haven Football Traffic, 979 

New York Export Traffic, 1024 

Panama Canal and Transcontinental Rates, 
480, 597, 788t 

Panama Canal Traffic, 1105 

Railway and the Automobile, 804 

Results of Terminal Improvements at De- 
troit; Mich. Cent., 739 

Snowstorm on North Atlantic Coast, 1164, 

Sutistics of the World's Railways, 787t, 
Train Despatchers' Association of America: An- 
nual Convention, 16 
Train Despatching: 

Despatcher as a Revenue Solicitor, 322 

Despatcher, The, and Protective Organiza- 
tion, 318, 416t, 451t 

Despatcher, Work of the, 318, 1183t 

Orders, Uniform, 20 

"Safety First" in Excess, 1225} 
Train Indicators: Engine Numbers, 472 
Train Loading: 

Increase in 1915, 1041t, 1101 

Tonnage, Handling, on Local Freight Trains, 
373t, 394 

Tonnage Rating Determined by Road Trials, 

Tonnage Studies, Early, 972 
Train, Local Freight, 373t, 394 
Train Robberies: 

Freight Car Pilfering, 86}, 888} 

Miscellaneous, 131, 573, 703, 767, 818, 1256 
Train Rules: 

Uniform Orders, 20 
Traill Runs: 

Havre-Paris Express of France, 798} 
Trains and Passing Points, Relation Between, 

197*, 1197* 
Transcontinental Freight Rate Reductions, 480, 

597, 788} 
Trap Car Decision, 213, 222} 
Traveling Engineers' Association: Annual Con- 
vention 473, 477, 505*, 632t 
Trespassing (See Accident) 
Trestle (See Bridges and Buildings) 

Coupler, Automatic, 467* 

FourWheel, for Passenger Equipment, 
1055*, 1133 

Frame, Benners Side; Pennsylvania, 1099* 

Frames, Rolled Steel, 331* 

Industrial; Pennsylvania, 737*, 818 


Economic Value of Detroit River Tunnel; 

Mich. Cent, 739 
Lining Diana Tunnel; L. ft N., 966*, 
Lining Repaired with Concrete Atomizer; 

C. G. W. at Winston, III., 1158' 
Lining Sandy Ridge with Concrete, 533* 
Mount Royal into Montreal, C. N., 857* 
Pennsylvania at East Brady, 456* 
Rogers Pass. C. P., 400 
Signals at Miraflores, 327* 
Southern Pacific on Fire near Tehachapi, 

Cal., lis* 
Ventilation of Sumpede; N. P., 234* 


Uniform Classification Committee's Progress, 1105 
Union Bridge ft Construction Company: Kansas 

City Bridge; C, B. ft Q., 263}, 284* 
Union Pacific: 

Accident at Randolph, Kan., 767 
Safetjf First, 248 
Union Switch & Signal Company: Light Signals; 

C, M. & St. P., 256 
United States Commission on Industrial Re- 
Industrial Relations 0>mmittee Created, 

Report, 433, 614 
United States Department of Agriculture: 

Treatment of Bridge Stringers, 752 
United States Geological Survey: Portland Ce- 
ment Production in 1914, 116 
United States Steel Corporation; Rebates; I. 

C. C. Ruling. 1131 
United Yard Masters' Association: Concealed 

Damage, 856 
University of Illinois; 

Influence of Temperature on the Strength 

of Concrete, 960 
Research Fellowships, 1204 

Valuation of Railways: 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 

Cost, 818 

Cross Section Areas, Calculating, 28* 

Cross Section Instrument, 1162* 

Depreciation, Determining, 1206 

Interstate (Jommerce Commission Hearing, 
635}, 651 

Interstate Commerce Commission's Orders, 
436, 913 

Land Valuation, 727, 1101 

New York, New Haven & Hartford. 131 

Original Cost as Basis. 725} 

Original Cost to Date, Cost of Reproduc- 
tion New. etc.. 1183) 

Progress, 569*. 631 1, 914 

Rail Templet, 960* 

Speed or Accuracy. 631} 

Terminals, Work on Large. 127* 

Automatic Drifting, 246*. 912* 

Gear, Kingan-Ripken, 399* 
Van Home. Sir William C, 498* 
Ventilation: Stampede Tunnel: N. P.. 234* 
Viaduct (See Bridges & Buildings) 


Wabash; Wage Increase. 573 
WabashPittsburgh Terminal Ry. : Reorganization 

Plan, 146}' _ 
Wages (See Employee) 
Walton & Company; Lining Diana Tunnel; L. 

& N.. 966* 
War and the Railroads: 

American Railroads' Part in National De- 
fense. 1017. lOSOt, 1084, 1233* 
Bureau of Railway Economic's Bibliography,! 
292- ' 

Coal Shortage, 476 
Courtesy of French Employees. 278 
English Railway Men's \Var Bonus, 899, 

French Battle of the Mame, 26 
French Bridge at Rouen. 564* 
French Hospital Cars. 307}, 329*, 639* 
French Railroad Excursions. 468 
French Railway Accidents, 1015 
French Welfare Work, 60, 386 
French Women as Railway Workers, 943* 
German Railway Achievements, 428, 725} 
Mexican Troops Moved by Railroad. 904 
Mexico, Effect of War in, 582, 613, 1096 
Railroad Soldier at the Front, 811 
Selling Supplies to European Countries, 

Ward ft Company: Shipments Over the Erie, 

Water .Service: 

Concrete Culvert Pipe, 762, 1149* 
Galveston Supply After Flood, 503 
Pumping Costs of Fuel, Oil and Steam 

Operated Plants, 108} 
Pumping Costs, 'Tests to Determine, 516t> 

Tanks for Locomotive Supply, 955* 
Tanks, Subility of Unanchored, 954 
Waste, 756* 

Waterproofing of Bridges, 1140} 

Boat Lines on the Great Lakes, 678t> 

709, 1210. 1251 
(^st of the Erie Barge Canal, 83}, 91 
Panama Canal: 

Commercial and Trade Aspects, 60S 
Effect on Transcontinenul Rates, 480, 

597, 788} 
Financial Results, 719} 
Tolls, 33, 1105 
Watson-Stillman Company: Spike Slot Punch, 

Waybill (See Freight) 
Weighing (See Scales^ 
Welding: Repairing Manganese Crossing Frogs; 

Cbic. Gt. West^ 119 
Welfare Work (See Employee) 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.: Dock at Toledo; 

C, H. ft D.. 273* 
Western & Atlantic: Legislature of Georgia 
Creates Commission to Lease, 31, 169, 
292, 1064 
W'estern Association of Short Line Railroads: 

Mail Pay Campaign. 1064 
Western Freight Rate Decision. 285, 308}. 587}, 

593, 916. 930}. 1258 
Western Maryland: Accident near Thurmont, 

327, 373} 
Western Pacific: Cab Signals and Automatic 
Stops at Oroville, 632}. 645*. 796}. 998} 
Western Passenger Fare Hearings. 55, 83}, 93, 

145}. 153. 1120}, 1134, 1180} 
Western Railway Club: Store Department, 1200 
Western Society of Engineers: 

Grade Crossing Elimination in Cities, 41}, 

Relations of the Railways and the Public, 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company: Annual Re- 
port, 778 

Accident C:aaaed by Defects; C, M. ft St. 

P.. 48 
Adhesion, Factor of, 454} 
Brake Shoe (See Brake) 
Chilled Iron, 690 
Energy Contained in Freight Car Wheels, 

Hub Plate, AdjusUble, 331*, 867* 
Lateral Stresses in Rails on Curve, 307}, 
Whistle (See Locomotive) 
White, J. G. ft Co.: Brazilian Railway Ointract, 

WUtard, Daniel: Doctor of Laws, 30 
Williams. William Henry. 1092* 
Wood, (juilford S.; Automatic Coupler, 467* 
Wood (See Ties and Timber) 
World's Railway Mileage. 3} 

Yale Engineering Association, 574 
Yards and Terminals: 

Coal Terminal at Charleston; Sotithem Ry., 

868 : 

Delaware ft Hudson Terminal /at Albany, 

N. y^ 58* ' 

Dock, Coal, at Toledo: C, H. ;ft D., 273» 
Dock, Ore.; L. V., 420 / 

Electrification of Chicago T/erminals to 

Abate Smoke. 1040}, l047*./l064, 1078}, 

1089, 1101. 1125. 1193* 
Elevating Curves in Yards, 
Employees' Trains to New 
Finley Yard; Southern Ry 

o'ey . . 

Freight Terminal Operation 
Handling Cars in the Yar< 


ards, 1180} 


Juffalo, 158* 
Commission, 71, 

Lehigh Valley Terminal at 
Massachutetts Terminal 

New York Freight TermiiAals, 395 
New York Port Comroisslion, 477 
Operation of Terminal YArds, 89, 191, 204, 

563 I 

Qualifications of a Terftninal SupenBtcsa- 

ent, 434 J 

St. Louis Terminal FaMcilities, 147} 
Southern, at BirminghaCn Ala., 743* 
Valuation Suggestion, J 127' 

Digitized bj 


[July 1— Dec. 31, 191S 



d B C of Iron and Steel, The, 950 

Claims Between Shippers & Carriers, 1182 

Elements of Railroad Track and Construction, 

Experience* in Efficiency, 86 

Field Engineering, 950 

Fuel Association Proceedings, 681 

Human Nature and the Railroads, 86 
Investors and Money-Makers, 932 

Manual del Ingeniero, 334 

Mantul of Surveying for Field and Office, 335 

North Pacific Ports, 724 

North Eastern Railway, The, Its Rise and De- 
velopment, 267 

Official Handbook of the Panama Canal, 681 
Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting, 31.1 

Poor's Manual of Industrials for 1915, 592 

Poor's Manual of Public Utilities, 1915, 186 

Practical Surveying, 1141 

Practical Track Work, 335 

Proceedings of the American Society for Test- 
ing Materials, 998 

Proceedings of the International Railway Gen- 
eral Foremen's Association, 1225 

Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual Con- 
vention of the International Railway 
Blacksmiths' Association, 1225 

Public Utilities, Their Present Value and Re- 
turn, 224 

Purchasing, 415 

Purchasing; Its Economic Aspects and Proper 
MeUiods, 148 

Railroad Accounting, 148 

Railway Account* and Finance, 1082 

Railway Maintenance Engineering, 1141 

Safety Engineering Applied to Scaffolds, 1141 
Statistic* of Railway* in the United States, 4 
Statistics of Railways of the United States, 
1904 to 1914, 681 

Universal Directory of Railway Official*, 378 


[*Indicalcs photograph and sketch, tindicates sketch only.] 

Abbott, Emery W., 36 
Achuff, W. D., 1217 
Ackart, O. E., 445 
Adamson, George J., 1214 
Adrian, Oscar A 1216 
Affleck, B. F., 1304 
Ainvv, Vviluam x^, B., 405 
Albright, P. R., 1028, 10711 
Albright, T. A., 545 
Alderdice, George F., 218 
Alexander, E. J., 1109 
Allan, Robert, 7/7 
-■Mien, Eugene R., 1071 
.\llen, F. E.. 445 
Allen, Frederic W., 669 
Allen, H. E., 918 
Allen, H. M., 407 
Allen, P. C, 255 
Allison, J. W., 983. 1109 
Amster, N. L., 917 
Anderson, A. W., 10J7 
Anderson, Bond, 35 
Andrew, H. W.. 712 
Andrews, Charles M., 483 
Anslev, H. C. 35 
Arnold, R. B., 876 
Aronstein, Sidney, 583 
Ashby, Bernard N., 1214 
Audet, J. R., 775 
Auer, P. A., 217 
Auerbach, R. R., 445 
Ayres, R. B., 1108 

Bacot, D. N., 1108 

Bailey, George, 918 

Baisinger, W. C, 255 

Baker, I. O., 405 

Baker, J. H., 919 

Baldwin, L. W., 876 

Balfour, C. J., 299 

Ball, E. E., 255 

Ballou, H. W., 876 

Baluell, C. H., 918 

Bambach, F. ]., 1257 

Bancroft, J. Sellers, 1165 

Bankson, C. L., 1172 

Barba, W. P., 621. 669 

Barber, H. E., 1028 

Barker, Catherine, 1217 

Barlow, H. P.. 1072 

Barnes, J. B.. 667 

Barnes, R. A. G., 1108 

Barnes, S. H., 875 

Barnett, Otto R., 368 

Barnett, Robert C, 486 

Barney. E. J., 1216 

Barnuni, William M., 777 

Barr, J. H., 1 165 

Barrett. R. A.. 179 

Bartles, K. R., 445 

Bates. S, A.. 486 

Batten. H. G., 299 

Baum, J. W., 876 

Bayer, M. B.. 483 

Ueacon, T. H., 1258. 

Beattie, W. R.. 1071 

Beck, J. P., 1204 

Becker, Clarence E.. 775 

Beckett. F. T.. 1258 

Beckner, C. N.. 1172, 1174 

Beebe. W. G., 447, 486 

Beeth, C. D., 583. 667t 

Behen, William P.. 1214 

Beighton, Thomas. 825 

Belknap. Robert E., 669, 713*. 777, 

Bell. G. T., 255 

Bell, T. Snowden, 922 

Bell, W. E., 774 

Bellon, R. B., 985 

Benjamin, C. E., 483 

Bennett, F. K.. 544. 668*. 778 

Bennett, W. T., 711 

"enning, W. F., 36 

Benton, I. A., 299 

Berger, R. E., 1169 

Bernet, J. J.. 445 

Berry, H. H., 775 

Best, Leigh, 180, 777 

Betticher. W. H., 1070 

Betton, J. H., 180 

Bevington, E. L., 825* 

Bewley, W. C, 1028 

Beyer, O. S., Jr., 1259 

Capp*. C. K., 1027 

Beyers, Henry W.. 983* 

Birdsall. F. L.. 445 
Black, Herbert F., 1112 
Blackmorc, George A., 714 
Blagden, Thomas. Jr.. 669 
Blanchard, M. C, 255 
Bliss, W. H., 1110 
Blodgett, W. H., 917* 
Bloomer, J. L.. 483 
Blue. F. D., 711 
Bluetge, Joseph, 1109 
Boardman, F. W., 545 
Boas, Edward, 1070 
Bodine. Samuel T., 1112 
Boettcher. Charles, 1108 
Boisot. E. K., 1217 
Boldridgc, K. M., 484 
Bond, Thomas E., 79 
Bonsai, W. R., 1027 
Bonr, Frederick A., 1214 
Booth, C. L., 35 
Bose. John. 306 
Bostwick, F. M.. 407 
Bosworth, W. M., 36 
Bowman, G. M., 712 
Boyd, J. M., 209, 918 
Boyd, S. F., 61. t 
Boyle, A. A., 483, 618 
Bradley, F. X., 877 
Bradley, W. L., 255 
Brady. Franklin P.. 35t 
Brainerd, F. A., 255 
Brand. J. N... 1028 
Brannaman, r. E., 918 
Brennan, E. J., 1109 
Briggs, W._P., 5^44 

Brodcrick, John T., 
Bromhall, E. F., 583 


Bromley, O. R., 217 
Brooks, C. E., 79, 712 
Brooks. R. E, 875 
Brooks. W. E., 775 
Brophy, G. O., 825 
Brostedt, A., 1170 
Brown, A. S., 1110 
Brown, Charles E., 79 
Brown, Ernest C, 486 
Brown, E. L., 1214 
Brown, F. B., 1070 
Brown, F. W., 483 
Brown, G. S., 1204 
Brown, H. H., 918 
Brown, L. L., 255 
Brown, R. A., 484 
Brown, R. E., 142 
Brown, Theodore F., 667 
Brown, T. J.. 1170 
Brown. W. E.. 775. 877 
Browne. Oliver G., 711 
Bryan. M. C. 255 
Bryant. C. R., 142 
Bryson, J. M., 667 
Buck, H. M., 37 
Buckley, G. E., 141 
Buhlman, Edwin H., 1108 
Bukey, Benton M., 1028*. 1072t 
Bullock, G. W., 774 
Bunger, W. O., 1070, 1169* 
Burford, A. L., 667 
Burg. C. S.. 140 
Burley. William S.. 117U 
Burnett. R. W., 922 
Burns, M. W.. 618 
Burr, A. V., 366 
Burr. R. M., 36 
8. Burwell, L. T., 1030 
Bush. B. F., 366, 917 
Bushncll, C. L., 876 
Butterfield, J., 712 
Byers. C. H., 141 

Cahill, M. H., 255 
Cahill, W. R^ 179, 1070 
Caldwell. F. T., 982 
Caldwell. John D., 1070. 1169* 
Calhoun, F. B., 919 
Call, Charles A.. 91 7t 
Callahan. T. T., 483 
Campbell, D. R., 1170 
Campbell, H. A. F., 142 
C.impbell, J. M.. 019 
Candler. G. L.. 1070. 1170t 
Cannon, ;[ohn. 774, 875* 
Cantlcv. Thomas, 256 
Cantrell. S. T.. 217, 255 
Billingbam, R. A.. 876 

Carey, J. J., 545 

Carlander, A., 985 

Carlisle, J. H., 918 

Carlson, F. C, 299 

Carlson, J., 919 

Carr, R. F.. 918 

Carr, W. C, 140 

Carr. W. Frank, 1074 

Carry. E. F.. 1260 

Gary, Arthur, 874 

Casey, T. P., 712 

Casscls, H. C., 1071 

Cassidy. E. R.. 711 

Caswel, C. H.. 1257 

Cate. Isaac M., 1031 

Catlin. Ephron, Jr., 1217 

Caton, Michael. 1072 

Caviezel. Joseph A.. 366 

Chandler, Asa 0., 366 

Chandler, J. M.. 918 

Chandler, R. L., 545. 619* 

Chappell. B. T.. 1170 

Chase. S. A.. 1074 

Chastain, T. G., 711 

Chisam, C. I., 217, 618 

Chisholm, Charles G., 483 

Choate, Arthur O., 1217, 1261 

Claiborne, J. W., 918 

Clair, J. C, 1257 

Clardy, J. D., 775 " 

Clark, G. W., 1214 

Clark, H. J., 366 

Clark, Truman H., 366 

Clask, J. J.. 445 

Cleveland. J. B.. 1027 

Clough. D. I., 619 

Clybum, M. A.. 483 

Cobb, H. Jy 1029 

Cochrane, G. C, 711 

Coffin, T. S., Jr., 621 

Coffin, Norman P., 669 

Cole, Harold R., 1071, 1108 

Collier, L. L., 544 

Collins, A. B.. 445, 618 

Collins, G., 774 

Collins, M. F., 618 

Combs, W. B., 667 

Connett, C. J., 299 

Conniff, P., 1072, 1109 

Connor, M. O.. 1070 

Conwell, W. L., 1261* 

Cook, F. E., 407 

Cook, Thomas R.. 80 

Cooke, Charles B., Jr., 1261 

Cooke, F. A.. 407 

Cookson. W. S., 982, 1072* 

Coolcdge, a. F... 918 

Coombs. W. M.. 918 

Copeland, Peter, 1258 

Coppcll, Arthur, 917, 981 

Corbett, B.. 1172 

Corey, William Ellis, 621, 669. 1217, 

Cornatiar, John M., 1109 
Cornell, J. U.. 141 
Corse. G. H., Jr., 366. 1072, 1171* 
Cosner, F. D.. 170 
Cotter. S. E., 35. 017 
Cottrell. E. D.. 1108 
Cowan. H. W.. 36 
Cox, Claude E.. 1028t 
Cox, T.. 544. 667 
Coykendall, J. F.. 1204 
Crandon, F. P., 1070, 1108* 
Crane, Joseph G., 985 
Crane, J. W.. 1170 
Crane, T. O., 140 
Craven, Arthur, 546 
Crawford. W. H.. 1030 
Cross. C. W.. 1176* 
Cross, Charles W., 1174 
Crow, Benjamin S., 366 
Crowley, J. J., 918 
Cummins, John T.. 445. 483 
Cunningham, W. J., 1204 
Curie. W. J.. 774 
Curran. D. J.. 1070 
Curry, Nathaniel. 827 
Curtiss, G. W.. 877 
Cuthbertson. E. A., 1072 
Cutis, G. T., 667 

Dabb. F. C, 981 
Daniel, J. W., 619 
Darnlev, R. J.. 366 

Davidson. A. J.. 255 

Uavidson, C. B., 140 

Davis, F. K., 408 

Davis, F. S., 484 

Dawson, Edwin A., 1028* 

Dean, A., 714 

Decker, C. E.. 711 

De Camp, Harvey, 1214 

De Grief, F. J., 1028 

Delamere, C. T^ 775 

Denechaud, J. F., 1256 

Denny, C. B., 180 

Depew, W. A., 825 

Derrah, S. V., 36 

Deverell, A. M., 711 

Dewey, A., 299 

Dewev, E. A., 876 

Dicker. Alfred O.. 80 

Dickinson, Jacob M., 618, 917 

Dickson, John B., 1258 

Dickson. William B.. 669 

Diehl. Ambrose N.. 71,' 

Dinkey. Alv:i C. 669} 

Dismukc. Leon O.. '179 

Disnev. Francis X., 176 

Dobvns, W. T., 141 

Dodge, Marcellus Harilev, 669 

Dolan, J. P.. 484 

Donahue. Morris, 140 

Donald, Malcolm. 1074 

Donaldson, William L.. 1259 

Donner. William H., 218, 879, 985 

Dooley, L. M., 1108, 1214 
Doorley, C. H., 544, 1108, 1170t 
Dow, H. F., 37 
Dowling, H. G., 775 
DowUng, J. J., 774 
Downing. W. C., 35, 140* 
Down*, Lawrence A., 875*. 918 
Drew, J. H., 407 
Drury, Frank A., 1074 
Dudley, C. E., 445 
Du France, W. H.. 255 
Dugan, Frank P., 668 
Dugan, John P., 1257 
Dukes, C. M., 774t 
Duncan, Charles E.. 1216 
Duncan, Fred B., 80 
Duncan, K. B., 1214 
Dunley, W. D., 78 
Dunn. Charles B.. 621 
Dunphy, John, 1214 
Durham, E. M., Jr., 917 

Eager, A. E., 712 

Earley.J. S., 1257 

Early, G. G., 583 

Eastman, S. G., 300 

Eaton, George H., 36 

Eaton, W. H., 299 

Ebe, R. A., 79 

Eckard. W. H.. 876 

Eckels, Charles P., 1258 

Edelman. Charles, 299 

Eden. Edward, 711 

Edwards. E. T., 180 

Edwards, O. E., Jr., 922 

Egan, John M., 544 

Egner, Clement F., 142, 669 

Eicke, H., 876 

Eifort. C. B., 583 

Elder, C. K.. 78 

Eley. E.. 775 

Elkin. John J., 140* 

Ellerman, P. A., 918 

Ellett, J. T.. 711 

Elliott, George B., 1169 

Elliott, Howard, 1108 

Elliott, J. H., 179 

Ellis, Charles B., 367 

Ellis, J. H., 874 

Elme*. Oyde C, 775, 825* 

Ely, J. O., 619 

Ely, Theodore N., 1112 

Emerson, C. E., 1028 

Emerson, H. D., 1170 

Emmett, R. C, 919 

Emmet, William Leroy, 546 

English, H. A., 1072 

Ennes, S.. 35 

Entwistle, Joseph, 621 

Estabrook, H. M., 1216 

Evans, D. T., 918--» t 

Evans. J !> "^ OOO P 


July 1— Dec. 31, 1915] 


Evvis, M. A., 300 
Evani, Thomas. 217 
ETanj, Walter H.. S46 
Everett, A. G., 366 
Everett, Edward A., 408 
ETerbam, Arthur C, 777 
Ewinir, C. L., 141 
Ewing, J. C, 1028 
Erman, Frank P., 982* 

Fabian, H. A.. 919 
Failing, Willis H., 711 
Fairbanks, J. E., 1104 
Falk, J. P., 179, 217 
Fansley, W., 1070 
Farley, D. S., 78, 918' 
Farmer, Robert E., 483 
Farrcll, H. E., 1028 
Faulkner, L. E., 712 
Feit, Leo, 667 
Feldhake, L. H., 1072 
Ferguson, L. R., 1204 
Ferris, H. C, 875 
Ferritor, L. J., 141 
Finegan, L., 1072 
Finkle, L. C., 618 
Fish. C. M.. 141 
Fisher, W. M. P., 546 
Fitton. Samuel D.. 300 
Fleetwood, S. C, 1108 
Fleming, T. A., 142 
Flynn, P. J., 483, 71 U 
Flynn, Thomas M., 445, 483 
Follette, A. C, 877 
Foote, Joseph W., 1258 
Forgan, James B., 1217 
Ford, T. S., 917, 1070 
Forgie, James, 1030 
Foster, H. J., 1104 
Fouts, Frank F., 982 
Fowler, F., 79 
Fox, C. H., 1172 
Fox, J. W., 1172 
Fox, P. H., 774 
Francis. W. D., 1029 
Franklin, Walter S.. Jr., 983 
Eraser, A. T., 1172 
Frazer, Persifor, 1216 
Frazier, J. W., 1260 
Fredericks, August, 712 
Freed, H. R., 876 
Freer, P. D., 775 
Frick, Child*, 112 
Frick, Henry C, 827, 985 
Frier. T. J., 917 
Fritch, Louis Charlton, 299' 
Fullen, C. A., 366 

Gage, Homer, 1074 
Gannett, Farley, 368 
Gardner, J. C, 484 
Gardner, L. R., 583 
Garrett, W. H.. 1074 
Gatch. Philip M., 1070 
Gates, E. F., 1072 
Gavin, C, 179 
Gayfer, A. J., 774, 775 
Geer, 1. W., 35. 78* 
Geiger, George, 255 
Gerrard, C. A., 141 
Giader, Joachim G., 142 
Gibson, J. J.. 1074 
Gifkins, P., 982 
Gilbert, U. E., 484 
Gillette, H. W., 711 
Gillispie, R. W., 584, 669 
Gilkinson, Joseph, 1214 
Given, John H., 37 
GofI, E. L., 618 
Gore, W. A., 1108 
Goree, J. L,. 917 
Gorman, E. R., 1258 
Gorman, J. E., 917, 981' 
Gossen, H., 142 
Gould, J. E., 712 
Gould, W. v., 80 
Gower, Harry, 1072* 
Graburn, A. L.. 712 
Graff, E. D., 486 
Graham, George E., 982 
Graham, J., 775 
Grant, A. J., 407 
Grant, Alexander, 35 
Graves, C. C, 1072, 1109» 
Graves, R. P.. 712 
Gray. C. R., Jr., 1029 
Green, J. F., 407 
Greene, F. A., 1214 
Greene, Josiah D., 217 
Greenland, W. W., 712 
Greiner, J. R., 1172 
Grice, E. W., 667 
Grier. F. B., 1027 
Grissom, W. M., 1174 
Griswold, W. T.. 483 
Grooms, J. C, 78 
Grout, H. C, 774 
(iuignon, W. E., 667, 775 
Gunnison, William T., 34 

Haasc. Robert C, 1214 
Hacking. K.. 712 
Hagar. Edward M., 37* 

Hagerty, David J.. 774, 918 

Haggard, B., 140 

Haile, C. 667 

Haines, Harold A., 983 

Hale, Ledyard P., 176 

Haley, W. H., 583, 619* 

Hall, C. G., 1109 

Hallenbcck, H. W., 919 

Hamilton, A. C. 78 

Hamilton, Edward J., 669, 713 

Hamilton, M. E., 879, 919 

Hammer, F. D., 1028 

Hanley, John 1., 405 

Hanna, E. E., 1070 

Hansen, J. M., 619 

Hansen, T. W., 1028, I108t 

Hansen, H. A., 918 

Hanson, B. M. W., 985 

Hardeslv, Shortriilge, 486 

Hardin, A. T., 445 

Hardin, Hugh. 983 

Hardin, W. M.. 917, 1170' 

Hardv, \V. E., 621 

llarpke, G. C, 619 

Harrah, Charles J., 621 

Harriman, J. W., 1261 

Harris, C. L., 140 

Harris, E. J., 544 

Harris, J. L., 484, 544 

Harris. R. E., 256 

Harrison, C. L., 1216 

Hart, Frank A., 876 

Hartnett, Thomas K., 36 

Harvey, A. M., 299 

Harvey, Curran W., 367 

Harvey, F. E., 774 

Hatch, Frank E., 140 

Hatch, H. A., 255 

Hatch, H. B., 1214 

Hawks, G. F., 407, 483t, 583 

Hawley, Henry S., 219* 

Hay, fa. W., 36 

Hay, George W., 141 

Haymond, F. O., 667 

Haystead, E., 775 

Hay ward, William, 1106 

Head, W. I., 217 

Heath, E. B., 918 

Hedge, G. H., 1072, 1172t 

Heigho, E. N., 544 

Heinier, Joseph Peter, 255 

Hem, H. O., 922 

Henderson, George R., 1074 

Henderson, S. Y., 667 

Hening, C. R., 775 

Hensley, C. H., 918 

Herndon, H. A., 176 

Herrick, Robert F., 1074 

Hevron, Joseph W., 918, 982t 

Hewitt, Peter Cooper, 546 

Hibbitts, F. N., 78. 142, 1259 

Hickman, F. M., 407 

Higgins, John Wilfred, 711*, 774 

Hifborn, A. M., 407 

Hill, Frank H.. 827 

Hill, O. C, 179, 255* 

Hill. R. F., 667t 

Hill, Thomas E., 918 

Hilli, H. S., 619 

Hilton, David H., 618 

Hilton, S. F., 1214 

Himcs, A. J., 407 

Hinchroan, Roy, 179, 217 

Hinton, Winiam P., 982, ll7It 

Hirschman, Al J., 618 

Hixson, C. W., 876 

Hobby, J. O., Jr., 300 

Hodgins, George S.. 486 

Hodgnian, C. A.. 179, 483t 

Hodgson, J. L., 712 

Hoffstet, H. F.. 1112 

Hoffstot. Henry P., 1176* 

Holladay, Lewis L., 300 

Holman, J. R., 583 

Holmes, A. A., 483 

Homuth. W., 876 

Hopkins, C. P., 918 

Hopkins, W. A., 484, 11701 

Hopkins, Z. G., 774 

Horr, G. B., 366 

Horsbourgh, James, Jr.. 299 

Horswell, Lawrence A., 486 

Hotchkiss, L. J., 985 

Houston, J. S., 618, 1028 

Howard, C. P., 481 

Howard, Elmer A.. 981. 1027* 

Hudson, Woodward, 1258 

Huffman, E. C, 2^5 

Hughes, Gerald, 1108 

Hughitt, Marvin. Jr., 983t 

Hulatt, H., 667t, o,s2 

Hulehan, J. P., 918 

Hull, Henry B., 1070 

Hume, George H., 618 

Humphrey, H. J., 1070 

Humphrey, W. G.. 875 

Humston, F. B., 79 

Hunt, G. H., 1204 

Hunt. II. J.. 483. 774 

Huntington, F. C. 445, 483 

Huston, A. F., 1174 

Hutchinson, G. H., 713 

Hutchison, W. IL, 918 

Hyde, W. A., 544 
Hynes, M. V., 1070 

Irvine, H. R., 1029 
Irwin, J., 483 
Isbell, L. J., 621 

Jacklin, W. M., 775 
Jackson, W. B., 1165 
Jacobs, R. A., 255 
Jacobus, D. S., 1165 
Jamison, H. V., 447 
Jarvis, John T., 1108 
Jay. John C, Jr , 584 
Jefferies, \V. L., Jr., (<0 
Jeffers, W. M., 825 
Jennings, T. (.)., 445, 544* 
John, II A.. 877 
Johnson, A. P., 1109 
Johnson, A. P., 1258 
Johnson, Ben B.. 544 
Johnson, E. W., 366 
Johnson, Frank, 667 
Johnson, G. It., 583, 667 
Johnson, George T.. 447 
Johnson, II. A., 775, 876* 
Johnson, James Harry, J'>9 
Johnson, J. .M., 407 
Johnson, Kepler. 544 
Johnson, Maro, 667 
Johnson, S. H., 1072, 1171* 
Johnston, C. W.. 982, 1071* 
Johnson, William H., 1109* 
Jones, Allen W., 483 
Jones, B. F., 367 
Jones, C. C, 299 
Jones, C. H., 879 
Jones, J. W., 35 
Jones, L. B., 667 

I ones, Paul, 79 
ones, R. G., 876 
ones, T. J.. 876, 982 
oseph, A. P., 1074 
udd, Frank R., 667, 9I9t 

Kafka, O.. 218 

Kearney, Edward F., 825, 981, 1108 

Keating, Paul F., 366 

Kelling, Albert, 1028 

Kelly, Albert M.. 1108 

Kelly, F. W., 1204 

Kelly, J. J., 583, 1259 

Kelly, R. J.. 774 

Kelly, William F., 1261 

Kelly, W. R., 774 

Kendall, Henry P., 1074 

Kenly, J., 1027 

Kennedy, Julian, 1165 

Kenniff, Thomas J., 366 

Kenworthy, J. D., 36, 299 

Kent, Ralph S., 1112 

Kerr, J., 141 

Kiehofcr, A. F., 1216 

Kimberger, J. X., 79 

Kinard, J. H., 876 

Kincaid. R. M., 825 

King, Robert, 618 

Kingsland, W. A., 711 

Kinnev, F. P., 711 

Kinsell. W. L.. 919 

Kirk, J., 544 

Kirkhride, Franklin B.. 985 

Kirkpatrick. W. M.. 583 

Kirshner, C. F., 918 

KirtlanH. F. W., 78 

Kloos. Henry C, 1216 

Knight. \V. B., 2.i5 

Koch. Paul W., 80 • 

Koch. W. G., 918 

Kofmehl. W. H., 712, 778 

Krick. C. S., 918 

Kroll, Phillip J., 777 

Kummer, G. H., 445, 544t 

Kuriejka, A. A., 1072 

Ladd, James B., 367 

Lake, Edward N., 1112 

Lake, C. S., 1028 

Lake. H. R., 78 

Langton, G. H., 1172 

Lambert, E., 618 

Lamme, Benjamin G., 546 

Lamoreux, D. P., 80 

Lamot, Willy. 300 

La Moure, Winiam T.. 36, 299* 

Landis, Lee H., 299 

Landorph, E. L.. 919. 1172 

Langfilt, J. A., 1216 

Larkin, Adrian H., 78 

Larmour. R. E.. 618 

Latter. Herbert E.. 669 

Lawrence. D. T.. 983. 1071* 

I.avcnck, G. H., 36 

Lavlicid, E. N.. 405 

Leabv. W. H.. 483 

Lee. Charles S., 711 

Lee, Edward F., 667 

Lee, George C, 1074 

Lei-, (ieorge H., 141, 179* 

Lee, N. J., 983 

Lcggo, Charles A., 1070. 1072 

Leitner, George L., 1 109 

Lenchan, L., ')19 

Lepard, C. E., 712 
Leutert, H. G., 141 
Lewis. F. E., 918 
Lewi*, H., 1070 
Lewis, O. S., 1109, 1214^ 
Lillie, E. E., 982 
Lillie, G. W., 544, 619 
Lincoln, Paul M., 1261* 
Linnell, A. P., 774 
Linney, L. F., 667 
Linthicum, P., 544, 619 
Little, C. B., 1074 
Littlejohn, A. C, 445, 618 
Loderhose, (J. W.. 1070 
Loomis, E. E., 78 
Loomis, Homer W.. 918 
Love, Joseph E., 2'I6 
Love, L. S., 180 
Lowe, Charles L.. 2.S5 
Loweth, C. F., 1064 
Lowry, T. F.. 445 
Lucas, T., 1172 
Lunger, H. C, 827 
Lunsford, R. A., 179 
Lynch, W. M., 255 
Lyons, Robert J., 36 

McAllister, J. R., 827 
McAlpinc, J. H., 775 
McAmes, John E., 827 
McAmis, W. H., 712 
McBride, T. J., 1217 
McCadden, W. P.. 142 
McCan, Edward E., 1106, 1168 
McCart, Perry, 445t 
McCarty, O. H.. 918 
McChesncy, W. S., 981 
McClelland, A. W., 711 
McCollum, L. p., 876 
McConachie, W. G., 36 
McCowan, A., 712 
McCreath, Lesley, 368 
McCree, A. A., 583 
McDonald, M. J., 1108 
McDowell, Malcolm, 1256 
McDowell, W. A., 774 
McElhany, Charles B., 37*, 218 
McFarlane. H., 667 
McFaul, C. L., 1257 
McGinnis, F. S.. 299 
McGregor, J. D., 256 
McGroarty, W. B., 876 
McHugh, W. P., 1108 
Mclntyre, L. L., 1070, 1214t 
McKay, F., 775 
McKee, F. J., 982, 1170 
McKenna, Roy C, 180* 
McKeon, R. D., 876 
McKnight, T. H. B., 78 
McLaren, R. F., 34 
McLaughlin, Uan., 290 
McLaurin, H. A.. 483 
McLean, Henry R., 1072 
McLellan, E. E., 140 
McMaster, Thomas J., 180 
McMillan, F. B., 140 
McMillan, H. P.. 1070 
McMinin, F. H.. 447 
McMillin, H. II.. 447 
McMullen, C. E., 1108 
McNamara, James K.. 876 
McNamara, J. F.. 142 
McNeill, J. J., 1109 
McNicholI, G. A.. ''82 
M.icBride, F. A.. 711 
MacDonald, I., 775 
MacEnulty, J. F., 1112. 1175* 
Macdonell, H. E.. 58.t 
Mackenzie, Arthur, 1109* 
Mackenzie. A. C, 774 
Mackin. Jeremiah }., 1074 
MacKinnon, J. A.. 255 
Mackintosh, A. W.. 78 
MacLaren, G. P.. 775 
MacRae, J, A., 2.^5. 407* 
Madden, D. J., 1070, 1109 
Mahan, A. H., 36 
Mahcr. N. D., 874* 
Maboney, T. S.. 583 
Main, F. W., 1070 
Maitland, George F.. 1214 
Malone, Richard I... '<82 
Maltbie. M. R.. 176 
Manley, Charles, 141 
Mantell, John J.. 1070 
.Mapother, W. I... 874 
Marey, W. S.. 1216 
Marring. J. W., 018 
Marsales, B. R., 1170 
Marsh, H. H., 79 
Marston. W. L.. 774 
Martin, Frank V., 7'' 
Martin, Simon S., 300 
Mason, B. H., 142 
Mas<m, C. L.. 78, 141 J 
Mason. C. T., 0|s 
Mason, H. A.. 142 
Mason. W. H., 2''0 
Mathias, A. C. 36 
M.Tthiasmier. Louis, 910 
Matthes, John J.. 1204 
Maun, John Edward, 217* 
Maxwell, Lawrence, 1216 

Digitized by 


[July I— Dec. 31, 1915 


Maxwell. \V. C, 917, 1108, 1169* 

May, E. H., 877 

May, H. C, 12S9t 

Mayham, A. T,, 619 

Mead, Jame« F., 366 

Meidinger, L. E., 621 

Meissonnier, Eugene D., 668 

Mellon, A. W., 985 

Meroney, J. E., 876 

Merrill, E. A., 1027 

Meyer, Erwin C, 917 

Meyers, Charles S., 486 

Middleton, Owen W., 300 

Middleton, Walter I., 366 

Miller, F. M., 544 

Miller, J. A., 36 

Miller, R. E., 1260 

Miller, R. B., 618, 712* 

Milliken, Foster, 584 

Mills, Robert J., 774 

MUlspaugh, F. W., 407 

Minnis, J. L.. 917, 1108 

Minsker, T. K., 877 

Mitchell, C. H., 712 

Mitchell, J. A., 712 

Mixsell, A. D., 367 

Moffat, Fred G., 1108 

Moffatt, J. P., 36, 79 

Moffitt, Dr. George R., 368 

Moisseiff, Leon S., 1112 

Monell, Ambrose, 669 1217, 1260 

Monroe, John T., 1258 

Montcith, D. Y., 876 

Moodie, W. T., 1172 

Moonev, F. D., 918 

Moore,' J. G., 1070 

Moore, J. H., 484 

Moore, R. D., 876 

Moore, W. C, 775 

Moore, W. E., 256 

Moorin, John, 1261 

Moran, Edward J., 483, 544 

Morehart, F. G., 484 

Morehead, William S., 668 

Morgan, E. S., 583 

Morgan, O. K., 1172 

Morgan, W. B., 1072 

Morris, H. H., 1070 

Morris, L. U., 583, 711 J • 

Morrow, Frederick E., 583* 

Morrow, M. C, 1074 

Morse, Robert C, 1074 

Moth, Geo., 1172 

Mott, Frank H.. 176 

Movrin, John, 1261 

Mudge, E. S., 445 

Mudge, Henry U., 618, 900", 917, 

Mueller, William, 1070 
Mulroy, John J., 483, 711 
Murchison, J. C, 1028, 107U 
Murphy, E. A., 445 
Murphy, George R., 1260 
Murphy, J. F.. 774, 875* 
Murphy, M. B., 483 
Murray, J. C, 141 
Murray, Samuel, 583 
Musham, John W., 405 
Myers. E., 775 
Uyrick, Herbert, 1256 

Nance, Julian, 1071 
Naylor, Edward J., 299, 445 
Neale, John C, 1260 
Negstad, Henrr, 300 
Neidhardt, J. W., 367 
Neil, George E., 80 
Nelson, E. T., 667 
Nelson, James P., 544 
Nelson, W. E., 618 
Netherland. William M., 483 
Newbold, Arthur E., 1112 
Newhall, David, 447 
Newmarch, I. C, 1259 
Newton. Albert E., 1074 
Newton, A. W., 1064 
Nicholson, Samuel, 711 
Nix, E. A., 407 
Noble, H. A.. 1259. 
Norton, Benjamin, 486 

Oakley, C. B., 667 : 
Oakley, W. E., 142 
Oatman, Paul B., 142 
Obey, G. B., 78* 
O'Brien. J. E., 484t 
Ocheltree, C. E., 35, 140* 
O'Donnell. J. P.. 141 
O'Uughlin, W. M., 1072 
O'Leary, A. H., 544 
O'Lcary, F. L., 917 
Oliver. W. H., 79, 255 
Olney, T. C. 407 
Olson, E. H., 255, 711, 919 
Oneil, J. L., 1216 
Ord, L. C, 1109 
Orcutt, G. N., 1258 
O'Reilly, A. J., 79 
Orr, D. K., 78 
Osborn. L., 618 
Osbom, Warren Moore, 1260 
Osburn, H. G., 1074 
Ostrander, A. E., 827 
Ottinger, W. S., 218 
Otis, J. I,., 544 
Otteson, J. C. 1108 
OToole. W. J., 79 
Owen. J. H.. 78 
Owens, Francis T., 445 
Owens, Walter D., 1258 
Owens. W. H.. 484 

Elections and 
Pace. T. J., 1074 
Palmer. Howard S., 1108 
Park, J. L., 1028 
Parker, C. A., 484 
Parks, S. J.. 1169 
Parkhurst, S. D., 366 
Parrish, M. P., 917 
Parsley. O. G.. 618 
Parson. J. H. R., 1259 
Parsons, H. de B., 1165 
Parsons, Robert S.. 1259 
Passel, H. F., 1070 
Patenall, T. H., 714 
Pates, J. R., 618 
Patten, E. N., 1216 
Patterson, A. Z., 582 
Patterson, George M., 918 
Patterson, R. A., 37 
Peabody, W. L., 619 
Peacock, E. A., 876 
Pearce, W. D., 484 
Pelley, John J., 544, 71U 
Pembroke, R. H.. 179 
Penrith, William H., 876t 
Perkins, E. D., 544, 667 
Perry, C. D., 445 
Perry, Warren, 1174 
Peters, Frank R., 1074 
Peyton, A. R., 367 
Peyton, Isaac, 1174 
Phelan, Charles A., 982 
Phipps, Lawrence C., 1108 
Phillips, R. B., 1112 
Philips, T. L., 825 
Phillips, H. Cj 255, 1064 
Phoenix, C. R., 983 
Pierce, Winslow S., 825, 1108 
Pinkham, R. H., 877 
Pistole, A. E., 583, 618 
Pitney, J. O. H., 78 
Poetter, E. H., 985, 1176* 
Poland, J. F^ 1260 
Pollard, H. D., 1070, 1172 
Polleys, T. A., 1070, 1169* 
Pontius, John H., 484 
Pool, G. C., 1030 
Poor, Frederic H., 985 
Poor, Henry V., 78 
Porter, Bess A.. 544 
Porter. G. G.. 255 
Poste. J. H., 142 
Poste, J. R., 142 
Postlethwaite, C. E.. 1112. 1175* 
Powell. H. M., 255. 299 
Powell, J. L., 1070 
Powell. O. P., 407 
Powell, T. C, 981 
Powell, W. v.. 1071 
Powers. P. A.. 544 
Pratt, Stewart C, 1258 
Pratt, T. A., 179 
Prentice, J. J., 1258 
Preston. Erie, 919 
Price, E. J., 255, 366* 
Price, William T., 366, 445 
Prince. C. R.. 917 
Prior, J. H., 665* 
Prout, H. G., 669 
Pryor, E. B., 981 » 
Pryor, Samuel F., 621, 669 
Pryti. B. G.. 985 
Purcell. P. E.. 1169 
Pyle, R. H., 621 

Suantic, C. J., 1072 
uigley, Thomas, 876 

Railey, Thomas Y., 825 
Ransom, J. T., 407 
Reams, S. H., 618 
Redding, William A., 922 
Reed, Joseph C, 1216 
Reed, T. L., 1172 
Reeder. N. S., 1112, 1175* 
Reid, R.. W.. 669 
Replogle, J. L., 37, 985, 1112 
Resch, J. C, 544 
Reynolds, A. G., 982 
Reynolds, W^ 879 
Rhodes, T. D., 583 ' 
Rice, George M., 141 
Rich, Edgar T., 1214 
Richardson, G. A., 1258 
Rider,. George M.. 621 
Rider, J. B., 1112, 1175* 
Ripley, L. A., 1028 
Rittenhouse, J. A., 407 
Roach, Frank. 445 
Roberts, H. M.. 486 
Roberts, W. E^ 483 
Roberts, W. F., 367 
Robertson, A., 407, 981 
Robertson, Samuel B., 78 
Robertson, W. Spencer, 180 
Robins, Franklin G., 1258 
Robinson, F. W., 618, 667* 
Rockefeller. Percy A., 621, 669 
Rockwell. F. S., 918 
Rodger, Thomas, 982 
Rohman, Harry D.. 1030' 
Rollings, C. M., 825 
Rose. Frank C.. i7 
Rosenwald, Julius, 1256 
Ross, D. W., 256 
Ross. H. W., 619 
Rothgarv, C. H.. 1029 
Rothwcll, B. J., 1256 
Rourke, G. W., 1258 
Rowell, L. J., 483 
Royall, W. N., 1028 

Appointments — Contin tied. 
Rueger, J. H., 1169 
Ruffer, Augustus E., 1071 
Ruggles, T. D., 919 
Ruickbic, G. P.. 1258 
Rumbling, F. N^ 1074 
Rupple, Harry C., 299 
Russell, Charles A., 542 
Russell, Charles R., 1026 
Russell, S. S., 78 
Ryan, Edward, 181 
Ryan, W. B.. 983 
Rypmski, M. C., 1074 

Sabin, Charles H., 669 
Sale, C. Stanley, 613 
Sanders, Omar, 366 
Saunders, William Laurence, 546 
Saxon, J. A., 1109 
Scanlon, P. H., 712 
Scannell, W. W., 445 
Schaff, C. E., 618, 667, 981 
Shipley, G. B., 1216 
Schluederberg, Carl G., 1074 
Schmalzreid, W. M., 545 
Schneider, J. S., 545 
Schofield, R. B., 78 
Schooley, E. A., 142 
Schoonmaker, J. M., 78 
Schroeder, Horatio S., 777 
Schroll, Otto, 79 
SchulW, E. E., 876 
Schumacher, T. M., 917 
Schwab, Charles M., 669 
Scott, Charles K., 1109 
Scribner, R. H., 140 
Scudder, Ogden F. 1171* 
Seargeant, M., 618 
Second, A. O.. 583 
Seddon, James A., 874 
Seddon. W. L., 1027. 1169* 
Seeley, W. H., 917 
Seiders, Irwin A., 775, 825* 
Selden, W. H., 827 
Sellers, Howard, 621 
Semmes, J. P., 445 
Sesser, I. C, 774 
Sewell, H. J., 918 

Sexton, J. /., 45, 483 
Seymour, Samuel L., 983* 
Shannon, W, C^ 711 
Sharp, Sydney T., 447 
Shaw, A. C, 1259 
Shaw, N., 825 
Sheafe, J. S., 36 
Sheaban, W. A., 918 
Shedd, John G., 917 
Sheffer, H. H., 876 
Sheffield, Ed., 1072 
Shelah, E., 712 
Shepard, F. J., 407 
Sheppard, F. L., 918 
Sherman, J. K., 667 
Shetrone, W. E., 1257 
Shick, F. A., 367 
Shirk, B. S., 918 
Shull, G. F., 1072 
Signer, F. E., 179 
Silverberg, Mortimer J., 142 
Simmons, H. J., 407, 445 
Simmons, J. A., 544, 1070 
Simpson, H. R., 36 
Skinner, David P., 366 
Skipworth, V. D., 874* 
Sice, Frederick, 1112 
Sloan, William C, 445, 484 
Sloat, C. B., 179, 217 
Small, F. F., 255 
Smallwood, Edwin F., 217 
Smith, A. B., 667 
Smith, Bertram, 408, 447* 
Smith, C. F., 1070 
Smith, Charies H., 1214 
Smith, E. H., 618 
Smith, Francis M., 483 
Smith, Frank G., 1028 
Smith, F. W., 983, 1071* 
Smith, J. S., 619, 775 
Smith, J. W., 1070 
Smith, L. E., 1070 
Smith, M. H., 874 
Smith, O. E., 825 
Smith, Robert M., 408 
Smith, Stanley H., 777, 827* 
Smith, S. K., 1216 
Smith, W. C, 484J 
Smith, W. H., 483 
Snedaker, W. R., 583 
Sniffin, E. H., 1074 
Snodgrass, Lewis, 141 
Sollilt, E. A., 1108 
Sowa, Hueh, 825 
Sp.inglcr, J. M., 1030 
Spangler, N. G., 618, 775 
Spaulding, Howard, Jr., 1217 
Spear, M. W.. 447, 486 
Spink, F. A., 1257 
Sprague, Edward W., 1070 
Sprague, Frank Julian, 546 
Sproule, Gordon, 775 
Staley, R. D., 1257 
Stall, Roy L., 876 
Slanficl, J. H., 140 
Stanley, Jr., E. C. 78 
Starbuck. Charles A.. 368. 584 
.Starbuck, R. D., 445 
Starkie, J. L., 919 
Steele, A. B., 366 
.Stein, J. R., 1028 
Stephens, C. E., 1074 
Stephens, E. S., 445, 484* 

Stevens, A. J., 1216 
Stevens, J. A., 1165 
Stewart, J. A., 217 
Stewart, J. B., 141 
Stewart, R. L., 919 
Stinson, C. H., 1109, 1171* 
Stimson, F. J., 79, 179* 
Stine, W. I., 583 
Stitt, Herbert L., 142 
Stjernstedt, S. J., 1074 
Stokes, G. A., 982 
Stokes, William D., 668 
Stone, C. £., 1259 
Stone, C. M., 618 
Storer, H. D., 1074 
Story, Samuel A., 1259 
Stotsbury, E. T.. 985 
Stover, F. D., 544 
Stowe, H. D., 877 
Stowell, C. C. 405 
Straus, Oscar S., 1168 
Streamer, C, 1074 
Street, Clement F., 777 
Street, D. H., 825 
Strohn, H. C, 1214 
Strong, J. L., 483 
Studer, F., 825 
Sullivan, James, 1108 
Sullivan, James F., 621 
Sunderland, J. E., 484 
Sutton, E. C, 918 
Sweet, Arthur E., 1214, 1258 
Sweing, A. J., 1029 

Taggart, Joseph P., 142 
Taflrot, John S., 179 
Talbott, J. O., 825 
Talmage, M. Burr., 447, 486 
Tate, John B., 922 
Taussig, J. E., 179, 917, 1027* 
Taylor, A. C, 877 
Taylor, J. L., Jr., 876 
Taylor, Robert, 366 
Taylor, Roland L., 621 
Tenney, J. W., 1109 
Tesseyman, J. E., 1175 
Thanheiser, C. A., 1070 
Thayer, Charles M., 1074 
Thelan, C. A., 918 
Thomas, H. P., 775 
Thomas, J. W., 778 
Thompson, H. G., 37, 38* 
Thompson, W. M., 874 
Thompson, W. O., 544, 583* 
Thomson, Samuel G., 775 
Thornton. G. D., 621 
Tilt, E. B., 775 
Titus, Andrew P., 875* 
Tobin. T. T., 917 
Todd, E. N., 583 
Tomlinson, S. E.. 876 
Torry, Arthur M., 367 
Toucey, S. R., 825, 875, 982* 
Treadway, E. A., 217 
Tripp, Guy E., 922 
Tripplett, A. E.. 9S3 
Trumbull, Frank, 1256 
Trumbull, M. K., 1074 
Tucker, A. Q., 447 
Tucker, Dr. N., 486 
Tudor, L. M., 366 
Turnbull, R. J., 484 
Turner, J. J., 78 
Turner, Thomas B., 445 
Turreff, S. I,, 256 
Tyrrell, H. E., 141 

Underwood, Russell S.,' (6/ 
UmsUer. A. M., 140 
Utter, H. L., 407 

Van Ausdall. W., 256 

Vance, H. H., 140 

Vapderlip, Frank A., .669, 986, 1217, 

Van Hecke, Carl D.. 1108* 
Van Hecke, D., 918 
Van Patten, Elmer B., 922 
Varney, H. A., 713* 
Vanclain, Samuel M., 669 
Vercoe, H. L., 1172 
Vermillion, C A., 255 
Vilas, Charles A., 874, 917* 
Vincent, E. F., 36 
Vinnedge, C. A., 981 
Volz, J. C. 36 
Votaw, J. E., 618 

Waddell, Ji A. L., 486 

Waddcll, N. Everett. 486 
Wadden, William, 1108 
Waite, W. H., 407 
Walker, J. P., 544, 1028 
Walker. Roberts, 217 
Wall, T. J., 1259 
Welling, V. R., 712, 775* 
Walton, C. M.. 876 
Walton, George A., 1259 
Warburton, H. E.. 775 
Ward. G. S., 141. 876 
Ward, John J., jr., 1108 
Wardrop, W. M., 79 
Warner, W. W., 445 
Watcrhoiise, Frank, 483 
Watson, A., U72 
Watson. A. C, 667. 775 
Watson, J. D., 1028 
Watt, A., 36 
[.jiyiii^eu uy ■v^j 




July 1— Dec. 31, 1915] 

Watta, H. E., 1109 
Weaver, T. W., 621 
Webb, W. A., 667 
Weber, W. Hoyt, 777 
Webater, Edwin S., 1261 
Webster, F. E., 445. 484) 
Webster, James, 1257 
Weed, J. H., 1029 
Weidel. Joseph, 255, 877t 
Weir, Henderson, 1216 
Weiss, A. C. 1256 
Wesley. Charles C, 1216 
West, E. J., 583 
Westfall. Curtis C, 667, 775t 
Westenrelt. E. M.. 1109 
Wharton. W. H., 1257 
Whelen, E. R., 1258 
Wheeler, WiUiam C. 483* 

Aldrich, G., 179 

Allen, Andrew, Sr.. 142 

Allen, W. F., 919' 1020 

Anderson, C. A.. 877 

Andrews, William Claflin, 1260t 

Arnold, C. C, 1029 

Bacon, Edward R., 1110* 
Bailie, Frank Howard, 1216 
Beckert, Louis F., 180 
Bell. Walter J., 1072 
Bouton, C. B., 447 
Brown, Arthur, 179 
Brown, Tbeophilus P., 179 

Cable, Benjamin S., 712 
Carliss, Thomas E., 142 
Catlin. Lynde A., 825 
Chamberlain. Frank H.. 79 
Chapman, J. Frank, 217 
Cockrell. F. M., 1168 
Cohen, Mendes, 366t 
Cole, O. F.. 712 
Conner, William A.. 1175 
Copley. Ariel B., 1110* 
Crosby. Ward. 1172* 

Dean, Wilfred R.. 1216 
De Voy, James F.. 920* 
Diehl, Henry C. 1110 
Dodge, J. M., U76t 
Downing. Walter E.. 825. 983 


[♦ Indicates photograph and sketch, t Indicates sketch only.] 

Whigham, William, 669t 
White, dinton, 542 
White, James D., 140 
White, J. Lowell. 35 
White, W. M., 713 
Whitehead, C. N.. 667 
Whitenton, W. H., 217 
Whiter, E. T.. 35, 78* 
Whitlock, C. £., 877 
Whitney, G. C, 583 
Whitney, W. R., 546 
Whyte, W. A., 1170 
Wicks, William Victor, 619 
Wiggin, Albert H., 669 
Wiley, W. H., 1165 
Wilkinson, Robert Erwin, 255 
Williams, Edgar M., 1214 
Williams, Homer D., 669t 

Williams, O. M., 775 
Williams, S. A., 445 
Williams, Vernon C^ 983 
Williams, WiUUm H.. 1093*. 1108 
Willis. E. M.. 917 
Willoughby, Julius Edgar, 484 
Wilmore, Frank £., 36 
Wilson, Ben, 79 
Wilson, Claude. 618 
Wilson. E.. 544 
Wilson, H. R., 876 
Wilson, W. B., 483 
Winchell, B. L., 1256 
Winguist, S., 985 
Winsor, G. H., 140 
Wise. W. B., 1074 
Witwer, C. W.. 1174 
Wohlford. W. T.. 1070 


[* Indicates photograph and sketch, t Indicates sketch only.] 

Durban. Frank A.. 485. 619t 
Eads. Homer, 1259 
Eber, J. W., 407 
Elliott, Daniel, 877. 919* 
Ellis. Rudolph, 619 
Emerson, Sidney T., 445 
Farley, Andrew J., 1176* 
Fenby, Richard, 825 

Finnell. John, 445 
Finney, Robert, 445 
Fitch. William F., 583 
Fleming, Sir Sanford, 217} 
Foulds, James H^ Jr., 77o* 
Fowler, Thomas Powell, 712* 
Fraser, Graham, 1260 
French, Chester Lee, 217 
Goodwin, James J., 36 
Gorman, Patrick A., 407 
Graver, William, 447 
Grove. Edward M., 447* 
Havron, John, 219} 
Haydock, Charles L., 79 
Hayes. William C. 1259* 
Hay ward, George, 1072 
Healy, M. J.. 299 
Hennessey, Thomas J., 1172 
Hill, Robert H., 776* 
Hughes, William M.. 36 
Hurd, Arthur A., 1259 
Israel, Gardner I., 877 

James, J. W. H., 447 
Johnson. John T.. 619t 
Jones. Benjamin M.. 1074 

King, William Byrd, 775} 
Kirby, John, 1214* 
Kirk, John, 877 
Kloos, Henry C, 1112 

La Bonu, W. F., 80 
Lang, George L., 983 
Lee, Richard Henry, 1216 
Logsdon, John W., 776} 
Loop, C. L., 983, 1214 
Lord, Charles W., 1172 

McCartney, H. M^ 877 
McCrea, Edward F., 445, 485} 
McGuire, Thomas. 877 
McKelvey, Charles D.. 1210} 
Maier. O. T., 1259 
Metcalfe. J. G., 445} 
Millsapps, W. K., 367 
Moise, T. S., 407* 
Monscrratc, M. D., 299 
Montgomery, R. H., 1214 
Moran, J. J,. 255 

Palmer, Lowell M., 668 
Pleasants, E. B., 407, 485} 
Redfield, Joseph B., 1214 
Rice, B. E., 668 

Wolf, G. P., 544 
Wood, Elmer H., 825, 917* 
Wood, W. B., 619 
Woodruff, A. W., 874 
Woods, J. L., 877, 1029* 
Worker, J. G., 1074 
Worthington, B. A., 544, 1070* 
Wray, John T., 1109 
Wrenne, £. M., 366, 483, 1108 
Wright, J. D., 1109 
Wyand, Harry L., 1028 
Wynn, F. S., 78 
Yates, Harry, 1112 
Ycomans, George G., 919, 983} 
Yohe, J. K.. Jr., 618 
Yookers. F. J.. 1109 
Yuagnan, Edgar, 618*. 876 
Zereher, F. B., 775 

Riddell, G. F.. 408 
Risbel. J. B.. 545 
Roberts, Frank. 179 

Salmons, R. B.. 983 
Scoville, John Hasbrouck, 217 
Seifert, A. J., 583 
Shoemaker, R. H., 217 
Smythc, E. £., 179 
Sneden, George V., 1259 
Snyder, Elmer E., 366 
Spagnoletti, C. E., 217 
Spaidal, Frederick M., 485, 711 
StaRg, James E.. 545 
Stennett. Dr. William H., 217 
Stephens, R. S^ 919 
Sttvenson. W. F., 445 
Strale. Allan. 300 
Studds. Colin. 545 
Swanitz. A. W.. 1259 

Thorne, Samuel. 79 
Tinsman. WinHeld S., 545* 

Van Home, Sir William C. 498* 
Waldo. Judge Henry L., 179 
Warder, John H., 445} 
Wrntworth. C. C, 983 
Whall, Clifton H., 1112 
White, William L., 545 
Wilson, Alexander, 447 
Wrenne, M. J. C, 366} 


Alexandria Paper Company v. Atchison. Topeka 

tt Santa Fe et al. 1210 
Alpha Portland Cement Company v. Baltimore 

8t Ohio et al. 174 • 
Alton Box Board & Paper Company v. Illinois 

Terminal et al. 212 
American Coal & Coke Company r. Michigan 

Central. 772 

Bascom-French Company et al v. Atchison. To- 
peka & SanU Fe et al, 137 

Brownville Cotton, Oil & Ice Company v. Louis- 
ville & Nashville, 1067 

Cape Girardeau Portland Cement Company v. 
St. Louis k San Francisco et al, 363 

Carey, Philip, Manufacturing Company et al v. 
Grand Trunk Western et al, 824 

Chamber of Commerce of the City of Mil- 
waukee v. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
et al, 212 

City of Danville, Va., et al ▼. Southern Railway 
et al. 213 

Cleveland Salt Company v. Pennsylvania Com- 
pany et al, 212 

Columbia Gold Mining Company v. Oregon- 
Washington Railroad k Navigation Com- 
pany et al, 253 

Commercial Qub Traffic Bureau (Salt Lake) v. 
Atchison, Topeka k Santa Fe et al, 

Crouch, A. B. Grain Company et al ▼. Atchison, 
Topeka ft SanU Fe et al, 873 

Diamond Crystal Salt Company r. Michigan 

Central et al, 772 

Duncan, W. S. & Company et al v. Nashville, 

Chatttnooga ft St. Loui* et al, 441 

East Jersey Railroad ft Termiiul Company v. 
Central of New Jersey et al. 542 

Eastern Oregon Lumber Producers' Association 
V. Oregon-Washington Railroad ft Naviga- 
tion Company et al, 1310 

Echols, W. J. ft Company et al v. Ahoapee ft 
Western et al. 212 

Eisle, Edward v. Atchison, Topeka ft Santa 
Fe et al, 441 ^ 

Elmore-Benjamin Coat Company et al v. Chesa- 
peake ft Ohio et at, 1210 

Enns Milling Company v. Chicago, Rock Island 
ft Pacific et al, 75 

Fall River Bleachery v. Atlantic Coast Line et 
al, 1210 

l*See Also General Index.] 

Federal Sunr Refining Company v. Central of 
New Jersey et at, 442 

Foster Lumber Company v. Clatskanie Trans- 
portation Company et al, 823 

Furniture Manufacturers' Association of Grand 
Rapids v. Ann Arbor et al, 75 

Gile, H. S. ft Company et al v. Southern Pa- 
cific et al, 74 

Grand Rapids Plaster Company v. Lake Shore 
k Michigan Southern et al, 75 

Gray, C. L., Lumber Company v. Alabama, 
Tennessee & Northern et al, 1209 

Greater Des Moines Committee v. Minneapolis 
et St. Louis et al, 1209 

Haskew Lumber Company v. Nashville, Ch-tt- 

tanoora & St. Louis et al, 74 
Henderson Commercial Club v. Illinois Central 

Imperial Valley Oil ft Cotton Company v. 
Southern Pacific et al, 402 

Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce v. Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago ft St. Louis 
et al, 74 

Inquiry and investigation concerning the rea- 
sonableness 01^ freight rates to points on 
certain railroads in Nevada, 137 

In re allowances on anthracite coal at Hauto 
and Nesquehoning, Pa., 772 

In re charges for transportation and disoosal of 
waste materials at Pittsburgh and other 
cities, 75 

In re class and commodity rates from Louis- 
ville, Ky., and Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alex- 
andria, Va., 1025 

In re coal rates from Illinois mines to Omaha, 
Neb., and other points, 212 

In re conditions affecting the production, trana- 
portation and marketing of crude petrole- 
um, 1167 

In re grain elevation allowances at Kansas City, 
Mo., and other points, 212 

In re ice rates to Long Branch and other 
stations in New Jersey, 402 

In re increased passenger fares via the Denver 
ft Rio Grande through the Ogden and 
Salt Lake City gateway, 363 

In re live stock rates from points in Colorado, 
South Dakota and other states to Omaha, 
Neb., and other points, 404 

In re lumber rates from Wilson, Ark., and other 
points to Cincinnati, Ohio, and other 
points, 441 

In re rates on agricultural implements and other 
commodities between La Crosse, Wis., and 
other points and St. Paul, Minn., anU 
other points, 710 

In re rates on lumber from Southern points 
to the Ohio river crossings and other 
points, 175, 581 

In re rates on stone and marble in carloads 
not polished, lettered or figured, trum 
Chicago and Peoria, III., to St. I'aul, 
Minn., 173 

In re Southern Pacific's ownership of siuck 
in Sacramento Transportation Company, 

In re through rates from Buffalo, Pittsburgh 
and Central freight association territories, 

In the matter of express rates, practices, ac- 
counts and revenues, 214 

In the matter of rates, divisions, rules, regula- 
tions and practices governing the trans- 
rorution of railroad fuel and other coal, 

In the matter of terminal allowances and ratea 
at St. Louis, Mo., and East St. Louis, 
III., 175 

In the matter of western trunk line rules, 
regulations and exceptions to classifica- 
tiona. 173 

lows State Board of Railroad Commissioners 
V. Arizona Eastern et al.. 137 

lows State Board of Railroad Commissioners, 
et al. V. Atchison. Topeka ft Santa Fe, 
et al., 442 

Jewelers' Protective Union et al. v. Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad et al.. 403 

Kanotex Refining Company v. Atchison. Topeka 
k Santa Fe. 34 

Kansaa City Live Stock Exchange t. Atchi- 
son, Topeka ft Santa Fe et al., 173 

Kentucky Disulleries ft Warehouse Company v. 
Louisville ft Nashville, et al., 916 

King Powder Company et al v. Pennsylvania 
Railroad et al, 1209 

Ladd, E. P. Company v. Gould Southwestern 
et al., 823 

Lebanon Commercial Club v. Louisville ft Nash, 
ville et al., on rehearing, 402 

Louden Machinery Company v. Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe et al., 137 

Louisiana State Rice Milling Company v. Mor- 
gan's Louisiana ft Texas et al., 174 

Digitized by 


[July 1— Dec. 31. 1915 



Low Moor Iron Companx et al. v. Chesapeake 
& Ohio et al.. 823 

Memphis Grain ft Hay Aaaociation et al. v. 
Illinois Central et al., 137 

Merchants' Exchange of Sl Louis T. Baltimore 
& Ohio, et al., 138 

Meredith, J. J., Taylor, Shelbr, and Schreiber, 
Henry B., constituting the Railroad Com- 
mission of Louisiaiw v. St Louis South- 
western et al., 174 

Milliken Refining Company t. Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas et al., 480 

Monon Coal Company et al. T. Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois et al., 137 

Montrose & Delta Counties Freight Rate Asso- 
ciation V. Denver & Rio Grande et al., 

Moore ft Thompson Paper Company et al. v. 
Boston ft Maine, 75 

National Association of Tanners^ et al. v. 

Lehigh Valley et al., 402 
Nebraska Bridge Supply ft Lumber Company v. 

Nashville, Chattanooga ft St. Louis et al., 

Nebraska State Railway Commission v. Chicago, 

Burlington & Quincy, 823 
Nebraska State Railway Commission v. Union 

Pacific et al., 137 
New Jersey Zinc Company v. Central of New 

Jersey, 979 

New York Mercantile Exchange, et al. t. Balti- 
more ft Ohio, et al., 772 

Nitro Powder Company v. West Shore et al., 

Oklahoma Cottonseed Crushers Association v. 

Missouri, Kansas ft Texas et al., 295 
Oklahoma Traffic Association et al. v. Abilene ft 

Southern et al., 1167 

Pacific Creamery Company v. Southern Pacific 
et al., 212 

Peet Brothers Manufacturing Company v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 823 

Peet Brothers Manufacturing Company v. Illi- 
nois Central et al^ 212 

Peppard, J. G. Seed Company v. Atchison, 
Topeka ft Santa Fe, 979 

Phoenix Iron ft Steel Company v. Galveston, 
Houston ft Henderson et aL, 823 

Picher Lead Company v. St. Louis ft San 
Francisco, 296 

Plymouth Coal Company v. Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna ft Western Railroad, 480 

Plymouth Coal Company v. Lehigh Valley, 542 

Port Huron & Duluth Steamship Company v. 
Pennsylvania Railroad et al., 403 

Prest-0-Lite Company, Inc., v. Boston ft Albany 
et al, 1209 

Providence Fruit ft Produce Exchange v. Maine 
Central et al., 979 

Pulp ft Paper Manufacturers' Traffic Associa- 
tion V. Chicago, Milwaukee ft St. Paul, 
et al., 174 

Rate Increases in Western Classification Terri- 
tory, 1258 

Rock Spring Distilling Company, et al. r. Louis- 
ville. H. ft St. L., et al., 441 

Scattergood, S. F. ft Co. v. Erie ft Western 

Trans. Co., et al, 442 
Seymour, John S. v. Morgan's Louisiana ft 

Texas et al., 441 
Sloss-Sheffield Steel ft Iron Company et al. v. 

Louisville ft Nashville et al., 441 
Spartanburg Chamber of Commerce v. Southern 

Railway et al., 213 
Spiegle, George M. ft Co. et al. t. Southern 

Railway, 173 
State Corporation Commission of New Mexico 

v. Atchison, Topeka ft Santa Fe et al., 

Stock, F. W. ft Sons v. Chicago, Milwaukee 

ft St. Paul et al., 212 
Swift ft Co. V. Southern Railway, 1210 

Western Newspaper Union T. Aberdeen ft Rock- 
fish et al., 137 

Yellow Pine Sash, Door and Blind Manufac- 
turers' Association et al. v. Southern 
Railway et al., 441 

Aberdeen Railroad (Electric), 622 
Alabama & Mississippi, 828 
Alabama Great Southern, 81 
Alabama Roads, 1262 
Alabama Roads (Electric), 487 
Alamance, Durham ft Orange, 38, 257 
Alaska Valley, 1217 
Anthony ft Northern, 1112 
Alton ft Southern, 1177 
Altus, Roswell & Pacific, 922 
Americus, Flint River & Gains, 38 
Americus, Hawkinsville & Eastern, 585, 1031 
Arkansas Roads (Electric), 670 
Artesian Belt, 181 

Atchifon, Topeka & Santa Fe, 547, 670, 714 
Athabasca * Fort Vermillion, 714, 1177 
Atlanta & bl Andrews Bay, 409, 487 
Atlantic Coast Line, 368, 779, 1031 
Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corporation, 

Baltimore & Ohio, 547, 1075 

Baltimore (Md.) Roads, 409 

Bay Point & Clayton, 1031 

Beaver, Mead ft Englewood, 670 

Belleview & Western, 670 

Bellingbam ft Northern, 1031 

Bellingham, Mount Baker ft Spokane, 409, 879 

Beulaville Railroad, 1177 

Boston Subways. 879 

Boyne City, Gaylord ft Alpena, 986 

Buffalo, Lockport ft Rochester, 81 

Calhoun County Railroad, 38 

California Roads, 1177 

California Southern, 1217 

Canadian Government Railways, 257, 922 

Canadian Northern, 143, 181, 547, 922, 1177 

Canadian Northern Quebec, 181 

Canadian Pacific, 448, 547, 779. 1112 

Canadian Roads (Electric), 368 

Cape Breton, 986 

Carolina, Atlantic ft Western, 301 

Carolina, Greenville ft Northern (Electric), 38, 

Central Canada, 181 
Central of Oregon, 986 

Central Power Company of Chattanooga, 828 
Champlain ft Sanford, 986 
Charles City Western (Electric), 1031, 1075 
Charleston Interurban, 143 
Charleston Southern, 38, 409, 585 
Chattanooga Traction, 368 
Cherry River ft Southern, 81 
Chesapeake ft Curtis Bay, 38 
Chesapeake ft Ohio, 622 
Chester ft City Point (Electric), 487 
(^cago, Milwaukee ft St. Paul, 622, 670 
Chicago, Weatherford ft Gulf, 1217 
Cincinnati, Bluffton ft Chicago, 301 
Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Durtoo, 828, 1113, 1177 
Cincinnati, New Orleans ft Texas Pacific, 181, 

aereland ft Ohio Central (Electric), 368, 409, 

Qeveland, Barberton, Coshocton ft Zanesville, 

Qinton ft OkUboma Westerm 143, 487, 1177 
Colorado, Wyoming ft Eastern, 986 
Olumbia. Newberry ft Laurens, 487 
Corpus Chriid Traction, 181 
Cudaby Packing Company's Line, 622 
Cumberland ft Manchester, 1075 
Cumberland Traction, 448 
Curtis Bay Railroad, 1217 

DaUas ft Northwestern Traction, 301, 828 
Dallas ft Southwestern Traction, 219, 301, 714, 

Dayton ft St. Mary's (Electric), 448 
Denver ft Rio Grande, 714 
Detroit, Bay City ft Western, 922 


Detroit, Fontiac & Owosso (Electric), 828 
Dover, Millcrsburg ft Western (Electric), 547, 

Duluth ft Northern Minnesota, 1075 

Eastern Pennsylvania Railways, 1075 

East Georgia (Electric), 81 

Eddy Lake & Northern, 301 

Edmonton, Dunvegan ft British Columbia, 219, 

714, 922, 1112 
Electric Short Line, 487, 547, 1031 
Elkin & Allegheny, 1217 
Erie, 622 
Ettrick & Northern, 487 

Fairmont & Helen's Run, 219, 301, 368 

Farnham & Granby, 922 

Fentress & Morgan, 257 

Florence & Huntsville Interurban, 38 

Florida, Alabama & Gulf. 257 

Florida East Coast, 143, 1177 

Florida Roads, 143 

Florida Roads (Electric), 301 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern (Electric), 

301, 1031 
Fort Smith, Poteau ft Western, 1112 
Fort Wayne ft Springfield, 585 
Fort Wayne, Decatur ft Southern, 585 
Fort Worth Belt, 1031 

Garyville Northern, 257 

Georgia Roads, 257, 448 

Graham County Railroad, 828, 1262 

Grand Trunk Pacific, 143, 301, 1217 

Grand Trunk Pacific Saakatchewan, 301 

Grasse River, 1112 

Great Falls ft Southwestern, 547 

Green Bay ft Eastern, 1112 

Gulf ft Interstate, 1112 

Gulf Coast Railway, 986, 1177 

Gulf, Colorado & SanU Fe, 922 

Gulf, Florida ft Alabama, 448, 1112 

Gulf, Sabine ft Red River, 1217 

Gulf, Texas & Western. 879 

Guthrie-Edmond (Electric), 1262 

Helena Southern, 448, 1075 

Henryetta, Oklahoma ft Western (Electric), 1112 

Hetch Hetchy, 1031 

Hiawasse Valley, 779 

Houston & Richmond Interurban, 547 

Houston, Richmond ft San Antonio Interurban, 

547. 1177 
Hudson Bay Railway, 1075 
Huntington, Bluffton ft Portland Short Line, 301 
Huron ft Northeastern, 448 

Illinois Central, 301, 448, 779 
Interborough Rapid Transit, 1113 
Intercolonial, 143, 181, 922 

Jackson ft Eastern, 301, 1317 
Jackson-Tinney Lumber Company's Line, 922 
Jefferson ft Northwestern, 1112 
Johnstown ft Somerset (Electric), 143 

Kanawha, Glen Jean ft Eastern, 257. II13 
Kankakee & Urbana Traction, 257. 585 
Kansas ft Oklahoma Southern, 1113 
Kansas City ft Tiffany Springs, 922 
Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, 1075 
Kansas Southern Traction, 1217 
Kent Northern, 986 
Keokuk, Rock Island ft Chicago, 38 
Kettle Valley Railway, 257, 779 
Kinston Belt Line, 622 

La Kemp ft Northwestern, 301 

Lake Erie ft Eastern, 622 

Lake Erie, Franklin ft Clarion, 1113 

Lake Erie & Northern, 1113 

Lake Huron & Northern Ontario, 301 

Lexington & Eastern, 448 

Linville River, 81, 879, 922 

Long Island, 670 

Louisburg & Rocky Mount, 828 

Louisiana & Arkansas, 1113 

Louisiana Roads, 181 

Louisville & Nashville, 409, 448 

Lucerne & Aurelia Crown, 622 

Lula-Homer Railroad, 714, 1177 

Lutcher & Moore Lumber Company, 1262 

Maine Roads (Electric), 368 

Manitoba Roads (Electric), 181 

Mantawncy Railroad, 1075 

Marlin & Temple Interurban, 1113 

Marshall & East Texas, 1075 

Maryland West Virginia Roads (Electric), 828 

Malta wamkeag & Northern, 1031 

McComb & Magnolia Railway & Light Company, 

Meridian & Deepwater, 257 
Meridian & Memphis, 181. 301 
Mexico & Santa Fe (Electric), 1031 
Michigan Railway, 143 
Midland & Northwestern, 670, 828 
Minkler Southern, 714 
Mississippi Roads, 301 
Mississippi Roads (Electric), 923 
Mississippi Valley Railway & Power Company, 

Mitchell Street ft Interurban Railway, 301 
Monongahela Valley Traction, 547 
Montreal & Southern Counties (Electric), 38, 

Morgan-Fentress, 448 
Morris County Traction Company, 301 
Muscatine ft Iowa City, 923 

Nashville & Eastern (Electric), 923 

Nashville, ChatUnooga ft St. Louis, 449, 1113 

New Iberia ft Northern, 1075 

Newton, Kansas ft Nebraska, 449, 779 

New Brunswick Roads, 1262 

New York, Chicago ft St. Louis, 622 

New York Connecting, 39 

New York, New Haven ft Hartford, 1113 

New York, Philadelphia ft Norfolk, 1218 

New York State Railways (Electric), 181 

New York Subways, 39, 143, 181, 219, 257, 368, 

449, 622, 714, 779, 828, 923, 986, 1031, 

1075, 1113, 1177, 1262 
Norfolk ft Western, 547. 670, 1262 
Norfolk, Washington ft New York, 39, 1032 
North Carolina Roads, 39, 547, 828 
Northern Ohio Traction ft Light Company, 1178 
North Georgia Mineral, 39 
Northwestern Pacific, 715 

Ocills, Pinebloom ft Valdost*. 143 
Ocilla Southern, 923 
(Dcmulgee Valley, 828 
Ogden, Logan ft Idaho (Electric), 828 
Ohio Valley (Electric), 301 
Oil Fields ft Santa Fe, 487, 715, 923 
Oklahoma ft Texas Southern, 143 
Oklahoma Railway, 1262 
Oklahoma Union Traction, 487, 585 
Oregon, California ft Eastern, 779, 923 
Oregon Roads, 368 
Oregon Short Line, 547 

Oregon-Washington Railroad ft Navigation Com- 
pany, 143, 301, 487 
Oiark Southern, 39, 143 
Ozarks Railway, 219, 449, 1075 

Pacific ft Idaho Northern, 368, 1218 
Pacific Electric, 828, 1113 
Pacific Great Eastern, 143, 986 
Palatine, Lake Zurich ft Wauconda, 1218 
Fascagoula-Moss Point Northern, 828 
Patterson ft Western, 779 
Pearl ft Kampsville, 828 

uiyiii^eu by 

Google ^ 


July 1— Dec. 31, 1915| 


Pelham It Havana, 257, 1075 

Pennsylvania Railroad, 39, 219, 487 

Pennsylvania Roads (Electric), 779 

Petersburg & Appomattox (Electric), 368, 449 

Petersburg & James River (Electric), 143 

Philadelphia & Reading, 622 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Roads, 143, 182, 449, 585, 

828 1032 1113 1218 
Pboenixviile, Valley Forge & Strafford (Electric), 

Piedmont & Northern (Electric), 923, 986 
Pine Bluff & Northern, 1032 
Pittsburg, Sbawmut & Northern, 143 
Pond Fork Railway, 547, 622 
Pottsville & St. (Tlair (Electric), 828, 1075 

Quebec Central, 1032 

Radford-Willis Southern, 81, 1113 

Rahway Valley, 923, 1113 

Rapid Transit Company of Illinois, 368 

Rhode Island Roads, 879 

Richmond ft Rappahannock River, 369 

Richmond, Rappahannock ft Northern, 369, 1113, 

1178 1218 
Roach Timber Company, 779, 1032 
Roanoke River, 1218 
Roby ft Northern, 1113 
Rochester Connecting, 81 
RoUa Ozark ft Southern, 369 

St. John ft Quebec, 715 

St. Louis & San Francisco, 1113 

St Louis Railway ft Dock Company, 182 

Salem ft Pennsgrove Traction, 449, 1262 

Salina Northern, 449, 487. 1075 

Salt Lake ft Ogden (Electric), 715 

Salt Lake ft Uuh (Electric), 986 

San Antonio ft Austin Interurban, 779 

San Diego ft Arizona, 1113 

San Francisco, Cal., Roads, 828, 879 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, 828 

Sapulpa ft Oil Fields (Electric), 923 

Savannah & Northwestern, 670, 1262 

Savannah ft Southern, 1113 

Schuylkill Electric, 301 

Scranton & Binghamton (Electric), 257 

Seaboard Air Line, 301, 779 

Shenandoah, Frackville ft Pottsville, 449 

South Boston Industrial Track, 1262 

South Carolina Roads (Electric), 670, 715 

South Dakota & Western, 715 

South Dakota Roads, 449, 1075 

South Dakota Short Line, 622, 1218 

Southern New England, 1113 

Southern Oregon Traction Company, 369 

Southern Pacific, 39 

Southern Railway, 301, 449, 622, 670, 779, 1178 

Southern Traction, 143, 1218 

South San Francisco Railroad & Power Co., 585 

Southwestern Light, Power & Railway, 547, 622 

Spanish Peak Lumber Company, Quincy, Cal., 

Statesville Air Line, 39, 1262 
Sutberlin, Coos Bay & Eastern, 1032 

Tampa, Clearwater ft Island City, 182 

Tampico ft Panuco Valley, 449, 1113 

Teanaway Logging Railway, 923 
.Tennessee Railway, 81, 257, 547 
"Tennessee Roads (Electric), 39 

Texas ft Pacific, 585 

Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern, 1075 

Texas Roads, 219, 487, 670, 829, 923 

Texas Roads (Electric), 780, 1262 

Texas Traction, 143 

Three Forks, Helena & Madison Valley, 449. 

Tidewater Securities Corporation, 1032 
Tidewater Southern, 219 
Toledo, Ann Arbor ft Jackson, 301 
Toledo-Detroit, 301 
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo, 1262 
Toronto Suburban (Electric), 923 
Torrington ft Thomaston Traction, 670, 780 
Trinity Valley ft Northern, 1075 
Troy River Front Company, Inc., 257 
Tucson, Cornelia ft Gila Bend, 301, 1113 
Tulsa Traction Co., 487 

Valley ft Siletz, 1218 
Vandalia, 1262 
Van Horn Valley, 879 
Virginia-Blue Ridge, 301, 1218 
Virginia-Carolina, 143 

Washington County, 1075 

WaUuga ft Yadkin River, 1032 

Waushara County, 1032 

Western Maryland, 219, 301, 369, 829 

West Fork Logging Company, 1075 

West Virginia Roaas, 219 

White Pine Mining Company, 829 

Williamsport, Nessle ft Martinsburg, 409, 986 

Wisconsin & Northern, 923 

Wrightsville, Adrian ft Lyons, 623 

Yankton ft Northern, 1113 
Yellville-Ruah ft Mineral Belt, 1262 
York ft Rappahannock River, 219 

Alabama ft Hiaiisaippi, 40 

Alabama, Tennessee ft Northern, 1032 

Arkansas ft Louisiana Midland, 1178 

Arkansas, Louisiana ft Gulf, 1178 

Artesian Belt, 258, 829 

Atchison, Topeka ft Santa Fe, 987, 1076 

Atlanta, Birmingham ft Atlantic, 1178 

Baltimore ft Ohio, 586, 1076, 1114 
Birmingham, Endsley & Bessemer, 924 
Boston ft Maine, 40, 258, 409, 488, 671, 880 
Buckhannon ft Northern, 82 
Buffalo ft Susquehanna, 548, I1I4, 1218 

C^anadian Northern, 369 

Canadian Pacific, 671 

(^rolina, Atlantic ft Western, 715 

Chesapeake & Ohio, 623, 1076 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 258 

Chicago & North Western, 671 

Chicago ft Western Indiana, 09 

Chicago, Burlington ft Quincy, 1218 

Chicago Great Western^ 880 

Chicago, Milwaukee ft C,ary, 780 

Chicago, Milwaukee ft St. Paul, 623, 1218 

Chicago, Rock Island ft Pacific, 40, 82, 144, 220. 

369, 409, 488, 548, 623, 671, 780, 880. 

924, 987, 1076, 1178, 1218 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, 671 
Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton, 548, 1076 
Cincinnati, Indianapolis ft Western, 548, 987 
Colorado ft Southern, 987 

Delaware ft Hudson, 450, 623, 671 
Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western, 82 
Denver ft Rio Grande, 144, 829 

Elkin ft Allegheny, 1218 ' 

El Paso ft Southwestern, 82, 182, 220 

Florida Railway, 40 

Ft. Smith ft Western, 488, 780 


Greenville Northwestern, 780 
Gulf, Mobile ft Northern, 1218 

Hocking Valley, 40, 623, 715 
Houston & Brazos Valley, 880 
Houston ft Texas Central, 182 
Hudson ft Manhattan, 586 

Idaho Southern, 1 1 14 

International & Great Northern, 182 

Kansas City, Mexico ft Orient, 82, 924 
Kansas City, Ozark ft Southern, 987 
Kansas City, Viaduct ft Terminal, 369 
Keokuk ft Des Moines, 369 

Lake Erie ft Pittsburgh, 369, 450 
Lehigh Valley, 1218 
Lewisburg ft Northern, 924 
Lexington & Eastern, 715 
Louisiana, Texas ft Mexico, 450 
Louisville ft Nashville, 715, 924 
Louisville, Henderson & St. Louis, 829 

Macon (Ga.) Terminal Co., 369 

Maine Central, 548, 829 

Maryland ft Pennsylvania, 671 

Minneapolis ft St. Louis, 409 

Mississippi, Hill City ft Western, 1114 

Missouri, Oklahoma ft Gulf, 182 

Missouri, Kansas ft Texas, 623, 671, 780, 924 

Missouri Pacific, 82, 220. 369, 450, 586, 715, 

780, 1114, 1178, 1218 
Honongahela Railroad, 82 
Monongahela Railway, 82 
Morris ft Essex, 82 
Mtiscatine ft Iowa City, 924 

Nashville, Chattanooga ft St. Louis, 82, 1218 
National Railways of Mexico, 450, 880 
New Jersey ft Pennsylvania, 586, 780 

New Orleans, Mobile ft Chicago, 40, 409. 780, 
829 1218 « . ' 

New Orleans, Texas ft Mexico. 450, 987, 1076 

New York Central, 40, 144, 1114 

New York, New Haven ft Hartford, 144, 258, 
369, 586, 671, 829, 987 

Oakland, Antioch ft Eastern, 220 

Pacific ft Idaho Northern, 548 

Paducah ft Illinois, 1218 

Pascagoula, Moss Point ft Northern, 40 

Pennsylvania Railroad, 40, 182, 450, 586, 623, 

Pere Marquette, 220, 1218 
Pittsburgh, Shawmut & Northern, 369 

Richmond, Fredericksburg ft Potomac, 1218 
Rock Island Company, 258 
Rutland Railroad, 144, 1114 

St. Louis ft San Francisco, 40, 450, 987, 1032, 

St. Louis, Iron Mountain ft Southern, 369 
St. Louis Southwestern, 182 
Salt Lake Terminal Company, 829 
Seaboard Air Line, 302, 715, 780 
Southern Pacific, 40, 924, 987 
Southern Railway, 182 

Trinity ft Brazos Valley, 987 > 

Union Station Company (Chicago), 144 

Virginia ft Southwestern, 586 

Wabash, 40, 182, 715, 829, 924 
Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal, 40, 488, 1114, 1178 
Wellsville ft Buffalo, 1218 
Western Maryland, 1178 
Wheeling ft Lake Erie, 1218 

Africa. 182, 352, 386, 1054, 1172 
Argentina, 1157 
Asia Minor. 39, 247, 369, 407 
Australia, 144, 366, 398, 472, 585, 822, 848, 1138. 

Belgium, 182, 192, 642, 766 
Bolivia, 485, 497 
Brazil, 548, 581, 597 
British South Africa, 690 
British SouthWesI Africa, 204 
Bulgaria, 229, 394 

Chile. 79, 164, 485, 538 

China, 80. 86. 144, 2J6, 435, 671 

Corea, 1177 

Denmark. 230, 291 

Ecuador. 211, 408 

Egypt, 1188 

England, 22. 82, 144, 167, 181, 198. 255, 271, 
295, 394, 468, 586. 621. 65.1, 660, 664, 
671, 6R2, 680. 700, 713, 740, 817, 829, 
899, 921, 939. 942, 984, 1018, 1029, 1054, 
1091, lion, 1114, 1124, 1202, 1206, 1239. 
12J6, 125 5 


Finland, 485, 867 

France, 98, 120, 409. 450. 460 

German South-West Africa, 80, 82, 239 
Germany, 79, 233, 240, 247, 331, 392, 394, 401, 

408, 653, 715, 766, 912. 1092, 1177 
Greece, 450, 660, 946, 1178 
Guatemala, 220 

Holland, 182 
Hungary, 446 

India, 39, 106, 238, 291, 295, 302, 318, 399, 608, 

612, 829, 1072, 1138, 1144, 1209, 1216 
Ireland, 40, 894 
Italy, 255, 312 * 

Japan, 346, 488 

Malay States, 1015 
Manchuria, 486, 488, 1216 

New South Wales, 690 
Norway, 278, 924 

Peru, 532 

Philippine Islands, 247, 668 

Portugal, 5 

Roumania, 513, 935 

Russia, 144, 168, 219, 430, 446, 488, 531, 616, 
644, 856, 906, 1019, 1086, 1091, 1105, 1257 

Scotland, 458, 855, 1076 

Siberia, 777, 915, 1018 

Sicily, 690 

South Africa, 154, 330, 471, 486, 746, 921 

South America, 571 

Spain, 1236 

Sweden, 255, 291, 623, 942, 1076. 1205 

Switzerland, 128, 160, 211, 392 

Syria, 969 

Turkey, 105, 407, 446, 906, 1058, 1150, 1159, 

Uruguay, 1016 

Western Australia, 280 

Digitized by 


JiiLV 2 1915 



WooLwoBTH Building, New Yobk. 

CHICAGO: Transportation Bldg. CLEVELAND: Citiiens' Bldg. 

LONDON: Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

E. A. Simmons, President. 

L. B. Shebman, Vice-President. Henby Lee, Sec'y 6r Treas. 

The address of the company is the address of the officers. 


Samuel O. Dunn, Editor 

Roy V. Weight, Managing Editor 

W. E. HooPEB H. F. Lake W. S. Lacheb 

B. B. Adams R. E. Thayeb C. W. Foss 

E. T. HowsoM A. C. Loudon F. W. Kbaeokb 
H. H. Simmons C. B. Peck J. M. RuTHSBroaD 

Subscriptions, including 52 regular weekly issues and special daily editions 

Published from time to time in New York, or in places other than New 
'ork. payable in advance and postage free: 

United States and Mexico |S.OO 

Canada 6.00 

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Single Copies 16 ceata euh 

Engineering and Maintenance of Way Edition and four Maintenance of 
Way Covention daily issues. North America, $1; foreign, %2. 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 

second class. 

WE OUABASTEE, that of this iuu« S.TOO oopiM ware printed; thut of these 
e,700 copies 7,8t2 were maUad to regular p*id subsoribers to the weekly edi- 
tion. 149 were proTided for counter and news compauiei' sales, 1,046 were 
mailed to adTertisera. exchanges and ooireipondents, and 1(3 were prorided 
for new subscriptions, samples, copies lost in the mall and office uae; that the 
total eopies printed this year to date were 249,460, an average of 9,9S8 copies 
• week. 

The BAILWAY AGE GAZETTE and all other Simmons-Boardman publioa- 
tions are members of the Aadit Bureau of Circulations. 

Volume 59 July 2, 191 .i Number 1 



Editorial Notes 1 

Slock Without a Par Value '.'. 2 

The Extent of Government Ownership 3 

James J. Hill Professorship of Transportation 4 

New Books 4 


Does Labor Create All Wealth? 5 

Railroad Advertising 5 


•The Test Department of the Pennsylvania Railroad; C. D. Young.. 6 

Tries to Use Railroads as Selling Agents 12 

Wisconsin Berth Law Annulled 12 

•New Bridge Across the Missouri River at Sibley, Mo 13 

The Train Despatchers' Convention 16 

Rail Specifications; A. W. Gibbs 17 

Railway Telegraph Superintendents 19 

Uniform Train Orders; T. L. Coss 20 

•Automatic Signals on Norfolk & Western Electrified Line 21 

New Railroad Legislation in Fifteen States 23 

Transportation and Car Accounting Officers 25 

The Battle of the Marne; Walter S. Hiatt 26 

Railroad Securities Held Abroad 28 

•Calculating Cross Section Areas on Railroad Valuation Work; 

F. T. Morse 29 



At a meeting held last week the executive committee of the 
Chicago Association of Commerce adopted the following reso- 
lutions expressing the appreciation of the 
An Appreciation association of the notable service ren- 
of an Unusual dered by the steam roads during the 
Service strike of the employees of the Chicago 

traction lines on June 14, IS and 16: 

Whereas, In the recent emergency created by the withdrawal from service 
of all the facilities of the street railway and elevated railway lines of the 
city, the general public was greatly assisted by the immediate action of the 
steam railroads affording suburban service, the railroads making extra- 
ordinary efforts to provide for the tremendous increase in their patronage, 
not only by using to the fullest extent all equipment at hand, but by bring- 
ing in all available equipment within a radius of several hundred miles; 

Resolved, That The Chicago .\ssociation of Commerce, through its Execu- 
tive committee, hereby expresses its appreciation of the notable service 

rendered by the steam railroads, whose efforts contributed in a most effi- 
cient manner to the means by which the city was enabled to meet a situa- 
tion that otherwise could only have resulted in the serious curtailment, if 
not cessation, of many commercial, industrial and social activities. 

The remarkable accomplishment of the Chicago roads, which 
suddenly found themselves the sole means of transportation for 
the bulk of the population of the city and were required, with 
only a few hours' notice, to accommodate over 625,000 people a 
day in their suburban service, or five times their normal 
suburban traffic, was described in last week's issue. "Extraor- 
dinary efforts" well describes the exertions made by some of the 
roads that were called upon practically to improvise a suburban 
service over night or by the roads that on account of their loca- 
tion were called upon to handle the majority of the crowds. The 
railroads performed a great public service on this occasion, and 
the Chicago Association of Commerce committee has done a 
handsome thing in thus making public acknowledgment of its 

L. F. Loree, president of the Delaware & Hudson, haf. received in 
answer to inquiries sent to all railroads above 100 miles in length 

replies indicating that at about the first 

Two and a Half of the present year there were approxi- 

Billion of Foreign mately $2,576,000,000 of American railroad 

Holdinas securities held abroad. The total as 

shown by this investigation is only about 
half of what was estimated by some bankers at the beginning 
of the European war which probably shows that the early es- 
timates were entirely too high. A classified summary of the 
replies is published elsewhere in this issue. When James J. 
Hill, some years ago estimated the needs of American rail- 
roads for new capital at over a billion a year his estimate 
was criticized by Congressmen and others, with no knowl- 
edge of the facts, as absurdly high. Time has proved that 
this estimate was not far from the mark, but must be re- 
membered that European investors have during the past year.; 
helped to absorb a part of these securities. If, however, 
the present capacity of American investors is $1,000,000,000 
a year for railroad securities, it would take 2J^ years for this 
market to take back from Europe the European holdings, even 
if no new capital was provided for railroad purposes for the 
entire 2J4 years. The importance of the fact cannot be over- 
estimated. Squarely facing the fact, is not depreciating the value 
of American railroad securities as an investment for a moment. 
Money invested in these securities will be employed in the 
production of wealth, whereas money invested in war loans of 
the European governments is employed in the destruction of 
wealth. Since money, however, is going to seek investment 
that will give it the highest interest return commensurate with a 
certain degree of safety, the possible aggregate of securities 
which may come onto this market, as shown by the European 
holdings of American railroad securities is impressive. 

While again declaring that the ownership of stock in a coal 
sales company by a railroad or by a railroad company's stock- 
holders does not constitute an interest 
The direct or indirect of the railroad com- 

Commoditiet pany in the coal which the sales com- 

Clauie Asain pany offers to it for transportation, the 

United States Supreme Court, in the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western case handed down recently, 
decides that the contract between the sales company and the 
railroad company cannot legally make the sales company a 
mere agent for the railroad company. The court has. therefore, 
ordered the district court to enjoin the Lackawanna from carry- 
ing coal sold by the raili-oad company to the sales company 
under the contract now in force. When the commodities clause 
was enacted the Lackawanna formed a coal sales company with 
which it made a contract, and it is the terms of this contract, 
which so bind and restrict the sales company as to make it a 
mere agent of the railroad company, that the Supreme Court 

Digitized by 



Vol. 59, No. 1 

now hnds to be illegal. The railroad company kept possession 
of its coal mines and continued to mine coal after the forma- 
tion of the coal sales company. The contract with the coal 
sales company provided that the railroad company should re- 
ceive 65 per cent of the market price of coal at New York, and 
was also to receive, of course, the legal rate for transporting 
the coal to New York. The railroad company could sell as 
much or as little coal to the sales company as it wanted to, and. 
on the other hand, the sales company could buy coal from no 
one else, and had to take all the coal which the railroad com- 
pany wanted to sell it at the market price. The Supreme Court 
holds that this contract violates both the Sherman law and the 
commodities clause. It is very careful to point out that there 
is no intention on the part of the court of objecting to the con- 
tract simply because it protected the property interests of the 
railroad company, but the court finds it illegal because in the 
attempt to protect these interests the contract made by the 
sales company went so far as to obviously violate the intention 
of the commodities clause. It would appear plain from the 
decision that any one of the anthracite carriers may or may not 
now have such relations with its affiliated coal sales company 
as to violate the commodities clause, but, on the other hand, the 
decision describes clearly the kind of relation which it will not 
tolerate, and it should be possible for any company to act ac- 

The decision of the Supreme Court annulling the Wisconsin law 
of 1911, requiring sleeping-car companies to give the occupant 

of a lower berth the free use of a part 

Wisconiin of the space allotted to the upper berth, 

Upper Berth until the upper is sold, fills six pages 

1 and cites 19 decisions ; but the statute was 

so utterly childish that it is not worth 
while to discuss it. The gist of the basis of the decision is in the 
paragraph quoted in the abstract of the report printed elsewhere. 
The wonder is that there are two justices who dissent from the 
majority's opinion. The dissenting opinions were not put in 
writing. The Supreme Court of Wisconsin, which reversed the 
trial court (and is now itself reversed) sustained the statute on 
the ground that the rule which it prescribed "contributed to the 
comfort and convenience of the traveling public'" ; but it could so 
contribute, even theoretically, only by facilitating the circulation 
of air, and the evidence showed that this theory was too vague 
to be worthy of notice. The statute appears to have been one 
of the worst examples of meddling, pure and simple. An earlier 
statute (1907) gave the man in the lower berth the option of 
ordering or not ordering the upper berth to be kept up, or closed ; 
but this was declared unconstitutional, and the 1911 statute was 
made mandatory : "the upper berth shall not be let down." What 
is next to be expected is hard to guess. Probably a law requir- 
ing the employment as porters of prestidigitateurs who can put 
a passenger into an upper berth at 1 a. m. without disturbing 
the sleeping passenger in the lower; with perhaps a paragraph 
declaring that for a passenger to seek privacy is against public 
policy. The short cut would be to order upper berths abolished 
and the price of sections reduced to $1.50; but from the agitator's 
point of view that is too simple. 

In an editorial in our issue of May 21, we referred to the fact 
that the National Transcontinental Railway of Canada, as built 
by the government has cost almost three 
The Co»t ol times as much as the original estimate. 

The National In another place in the same editorial 

Traniconlinental ^^"^ appeared the statement "If. as has 
proved to be the case in Canada, a govern- 
ment will spend three times as much to build a railway as would 
he spent by a private company," etc. A valued correspondent 
writes to call attention to the fact that it does not follow, be- 
cause the government so far exceeded its own estimate, that it 
spent three times as much as a private company would have. 
That is manifestly true. In making the statement questioned we 
had in mind what the government has spent, and what the 

private railways of Canada are capitalized for. The private jail- 
ways of Canada, old lines and new, equipped and in operation, 
are capitalized, according to the official reports, for $53,619 a 
mile. On the other hand, the latest figure for the cost of the 
National Transcontinental which we have seen is $98,898 a mile. 
Furthermore, the National Transcontinental is not finished, in 
the sense that the private railways are. It is not equipped, and 
its terminals are not completed. At the rate expenditures have 
been made on it in the past, hpw much will it have cost when 
it is finished? Perhaps it is putting it a little strong to say it 
has cost three times as much as a private company would have 
spent; but the government investigating commission said in its 
report, "the competing roads are only capitalized at from one- 
third to one-half as much per mile as the National Trans- 


'T'HE committee on railroad bonds and equipment trusts of the 
* Investment Bankers' Association of America is sending out 
to members of the association a list of ten questions for consid- 
eration and discussion. The second of these questions is of par- 
ticular interest because of the coincidence that it comes at the 
time of Clifford Thome's final argument in the rate advance case 
of the Western roads at Washington. Investment bankers are 
asked whether the amount of bonds which should be issued to 
cover new property should be 1(K) per cent of cost or less. Clif- 
ford Thome argues that the proposed rate advances are for the 
purpose of making additions and betterments to property from 
earnings, and that whereas the public is willing to pay rates 
sufficient to yield a return on the -cost of new property, the 
public is not willing and should not be made to pay the prin- 

A strong railroad company can, under present conditions, 
issue bonds up to 100 per cent of the cost of a comparatively 
small new line which holds out a fair chance of earning a re- 
turn on the investment; but this is true only because the equity 
back of these bonds consists of the seasoned earning power and 
the credit of the railroad company. It is hardly conceivable 
that any banking house would finance a new company building 
a new line up to 1(K) per cent of the cost through the issue of 
bonds without any bonus or margin of safety of stock. The 
tendency to raise new capital through the issue of mortgage 
bonds up to the neighborhood of 100 per cent of the cost of 
additions and betterments is generally recognized as one of the 
dangers of the present railroad situation. Past experience and 
business practice in other lines both indicate beyond a reasonable 
question that all of the new railroad capital required for addi- 
tions and betterments and extensions from year to year should 
not be raised through the issue of mortgage bonds up to 100 per 
cent of the cost of the improvements. 

If, however, a part of the cost of improvements is to be pro- 
vided for either from current funds, which means surplus earn- 
ings, or through the sale of stock, the railroad company has 
either got to have surplus earnings or has got to find a market 
for stock. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul could finance 
the greater part of the cost of the Pacific coast extension 
through the sale of the stock to its own stockholders only be- 
cause it had been paying 7 per cent for years and earning a 
surplus above dividend requirements. Stockholders, even of this 
company, however, have had to accept a reduction to 5 per cent, 
and this was not earned by the new extension for some years 
after it was opened and may not yet be earned by the new ex- 

The laws of many states do not permit the issue of stock be- 
low par; but where is the investor to be found who will pay 
par for stock issued to pay for 30 per cent of the cost of an 
extension or betterment work when the other 70 per cent of the 
cost is paid through the issue of 4^ or 5 per cent bonds, which 
can be sold only at the face value or less, and whose claims as 
to earnings and assets must be satisfied in full before the stock- 
holder has any equity whatsoever? 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 


A possible solution of this problem and of the problem that 
IS facing the reorganization committees of many of the roads 
now in the hands of receivers might be furnished through the 
issue of stock without a par value. Of course, the manner in 
which any particular railroad company could readjust its finances 
to permit of the issue of stock without par value would be a 
specific problem and one which would have to be treated dif- 
ferently, probably, in each different case. The investor, it would 
seem, might be willing to put new capital into a railroad project 
if he knew that a part of the cost had been raised through bor- 
rowed money — the sale of mortgage bonds — and by taking stock 
without a par value he was to become an owner of the property 
and participate pro rata with other owners in profits commen- 
surate with his risk. An analogous argument would apply in 
the case of reorganizations such as that of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific and the Missouri Pacific. 


^ers and Tunis 


ARCHIV FUR EISENBAHNWESEN, the official publica- 
tion of the Royal Prussian Ministry of Public Works, has 
recently issued its annual compilation of the railway statistics 
of the world, showing the mileage, capitalization and the pro- 
portion of government-owned and privately-owned lines in each 
country for the year 1913, with comparisons with previous years. 
It is stated that, although most of the figures are derived from 
official sources, it has been necessary to depend in part on un- 
official reports. Railways owned by governments are listed as 
state railways, whether they are actually operated by the gov- 
ernment or by private companies. The mileage figures for 1913 
are as follows : 


Country Total Private Sute 

Germany 39.831 2,998 36,833 

.Austria-Hungary 28,872 5,293 23,579 

Great Britain 23.572 23,572 

France 31,992 26,350 5,642 

European Russia 38,873 14,167 24,706 

Italy 11,021 1,878 9,143 

Belgium 5.508 2,787 2.721 

Luxemburg 328 205 123 

Netherlands 2,035 915 1,120 

Swiuerland 3,039 1,328 1,711 

Spain 9,593 9,593 

Portugal 1,864 1,147 717 

Denmark 2,356 1,132 1,224 

Norway 1.932 288 1,644 

Sweden 9,056 6,175 2,881 

Serbia 638 ... 638 

Roumaria 2.351 133 2,218 

Greece 1,005 1.005 

Bulgaria 1,206 ... 1,206 

European Turkey 1,246 1,246 

Malta, Jersey, Man 68 68 

Total 216.396 100,285 116,111 


Country Total Private State 

Canada 29,468 27,687 1,781 

United States 256.823 256.823 

Newfoundland 773 773 

Mexico 15.932 3,509 12,423 

Central America 2.016 1,655 361 

Greater Antilles 3.425 3,275 150 

Lesser Antilles 338 338 

Columbia 625 515 110 

Venezuela 637 569 68 

British Guiana 104 104 

Dutch Guiana 375 375 

Ecuador 655 655 

Peru 1,728 670 1,058 

Bolivia 1,511 1.511 

Brazil 16,615 8,849 6.766 

Paraguay 233 233 

Uruguay 1 ,648 1 .648 

Chile 3,981 1.988 1,993 

Argentina 20,759 17.249 3,510 

Total 356,317 328,094 28,223 


Country Total Private State 

siwia" *^."'."! !^.'.'?;;;;;:::'..' ! '-'"^ ^-'"^ '•^"^ 

China ..'.'.'..'.'.'..'..!'.'.!. X ! i ! .^ 6,158 6.158 

Japan, including Korea 6.866 1.968 4,898 

British East Indies 34,850 4,362 29.488 

Ceylon 606 606 

Persia 33 33 

Asia Minor, etc 3.417 2.50n 917 

Portuguese Indies 51 51 ... 

Malay States 862 863 

Dutch Indies 1,783 238 1,545 

Siam 706 105 601 

Cochin China, etc 2.310 2.310 

Total 67.591 23.298 44,292 



Belgian Congo Colonies. 


South African Union 

Cape Colony 3,999 

Natal 1,109 

Central South Africa 3,488 

Rhodesia 2,420 

Colonies — 
Germany : 

German East Africa 896 

German Southwest Africa.. 1,315 

Togo 204 

Kamerun 193 

England 2,368 

Frrnce 2.011 

Italy 96 

Portugal 1,015 

Total 27.693 


Country Total 

New Zealand 2.906 

Victoria 3,693 

New South Wales 4,120 

South Australia 2,326 

Queensland 4,845 

Tasmania 705 

West Australia 3,449 

Hawaii, etc 88 

Totol 22,136 























Total Mileage 

/ " V 

1913 Gain 

Europe 216,396 2,256 

America 356,317 9,990 

Asia 67,591 1,498 

Africa 27,693 1,002 

Australasia 22,136 385 

Totals 690.133 14.206 


























225,712 9,644 

464,421 5,487 

Of the total mileage of the world for 1913—690.133 miles- 
private companies owned 464,421 miles, or 67 per cent, and gov- 
ernments owned 225,712 miles, or 33 per cent. In 1912 the 
private railways owned 68 per cent. The government railways 
gained one per cent by increasing their mileage by 9,644 miles, 
while the mileage of private companies increased only 5,487 

However, an analysis of the statistics given for the various 
countries shows that this gain by the state railways represented 
the absorption of existing lines rather than greater activity in 
railway construction. For example, 4,478 miles of line were 
added to'lhe government total in Mexico, and 1,002 in Argentina, 
without any increase in the total mileage of the country. In 
Australasia there was also a gain of 1,448 miles for the govern- 
ment lines by the absorption of private lines, although the total 
mileage of the country increased only 385 miles. The privately- 
owned lines, therefore, actually increased their mileage by con- 
struction 12,000 miles, of which about 6,500 miles was offset by 
the acquisition of lines by the governments. 

It will be noted that, in respect of length of lines, outside of 
North and South America, government ownership greatly predomi- 
nates, but that the privately-owned mileage in the United States, 
256,823, greatly exceeds the mileage of all the government-owned 
roads in the world. It is somewhat surprising, however, to find 
that the greatest increase in government mileage is in North 
and South .America, due to the absorption of private lines in 
Mexico and Argentina. Even outside of the United States, 
however, private ownership is greatly predominant in America. 
Excluding our 256,823 miles, there are in this hemisphere 71,261 
miles of private railways, against 28,223 miles of government 
railways. In only two countries in this hemisphere, Mexico 
and Peru, is government ownership the predominating policy, 
and in Peru the roads are operated by companies. 

In a majority of the countries of the world, also, private 
ownership of railways continues to prevail. Of 75 nations and 
colonics for which statistics are given in this compilation, 42 
have more private than government mileage, while 33 h.ivc more 
government mileage. While in 26 countries the entire railway 
mileage is privately owned, in only 7 are all of the railways 
owned by the state. These are Serbia. Bulgari.T. Natal and four 

Digitized by 



Vol. 59, No. 1 

German colonies in Africa. In Europe state ownership pre- 
dominates in only 10 out of 21 countries. 

All the railways of the United States, Great Britain, Spain, 
China and Rhodesia are in the hands of private companies, and 
most of those in Canada; in France four-fifths of the mileage 
is privately owned, in Sweden nearly two-thirds and in Brazil 
and Argentina company mileage is greatly predominant. In 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy and Japan govern- 
ment ownership is the dominant policy. 

Of the total railway mileage of the world for 1913, over 37 
per cent was in the United States. The total increase for the 
year was about 15,000 miles, of which 5,019, or about one-third, 
was reported for the United States, although this figure for 
this country' is undoubtedly too high. The increase for the 
world was less than the gain reported in 1912 or 1906. 

Tlie total railway capitalization of the world as reported by 
this publication was $60,222,036,784. In this is included, however, 
over $19,000,000,000 as the capital of the railways of the United 
States, which erroneously includes all the duplications due to 
inter-corporate ownership. The Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion's figure for 1913 is $15,330,131,446. With this correction the 
world's total in 1913 stood at $56,350,804,230, an increase over 
the preceding year of $1,848,250,566. The average capitalization 
per mile for the world was $82,313. as against $65,861 for the 
United States. The average for Europe was $70,656, and 18 
countries are reported as having a greater railway capitalization 
per mile than the United States. It will be noted that while 
this country has 37 per cent of the world's mileage, only 27 
per cent of the total capitalization is chargeable against the 
railways of the United States. 


PRESIDENT LOWELL announced at the commencement 
*■ e.\ercises of Har\'ard University that a gift of $125,000 
had been received to endow the "James J. Hill Professorship 
of Transportation" in the Harvard Graduate School of Busi- 
ness Administration. A list of the donors and some other 
information regarding the establishment of this new chair 
are given elsewhere in this issue. 

The endowment of this professorship is a tribute to Mr. 
Hill; and surely no tribute ever was more deserved. Take 
him all in all, he is probably the greatest genius who ever 
devoted his energies to railway transportation. He has been 
equally pre-eminent as a railway builder, as an operating 
executive, as a traffic manager and developer and as a 
financier. The various lines now constituting the Great 
Northern Railway were laid out and constructed so success- 
fully under his immediate direction. He is the father of the 
"tonnage system" — the system of the largest practicable train 
loads, which has done more to promote economy in railway 
operation than any other practice ever introduced into it. 
He established a system of rate making on the Great North- 
ern which has contributed enormously both to the develop- 
ment of the Northwest and to the upbuilding of a profitable 
traffic for the railways in that section. He has caused the 
railways which he has controlled to be so skillfully financed, 
as well as to be so efficiently developed and operated, that, 
considered as a whole, the great system which he dominates 
is one of the most prosperous in the world. Probably Amer- 
ica has produced no other man who has combined in more 
pre-eminent degree the greatest qualities of both the business 
man and the statesman. We say "America" because, although 
he came to the United States when young, Mr. Hill was born 
in Canada. 

Not only is the tribute paid to Mr. Hill so well deserved, 
but the establishment of the professorship itself is highly 
gratifying. Never was there in any country such need of a 
thorough and impartial study and exposition of tran.sportation 
problems as there is in the United States at the present time. 
The railways of this country have 37 per cent of the total 
mileage of the globe. Whether viewed from this standpoint. 

or that of the traffic they handle, the investment they repre- 
sent, the number of men they employ, or their relative posi- 
tion in industry, our railways are very much the most im- 
portant system in the world. For many years we have been 
confronted with the "railway problem" — the problem of how 
to regulate the railways, or as to whether the government 
should acquire and manage them. Never, apparently, was 
this problem farther from solution than now. It is a problem 
in the solution of which it would seem that the schools could 
help very materially. But although the United States has 
many universities in which some attention is given to trans- 
portation, it is a regrettable fact that most of them havs 
contributed little, and many of them less than nothing, to 
the solution of this problem. Here and there are professors 
of economics and of transportation who realize that no man 
can safely draw definite conclusions regarding this problem's 
many important phases without having first spent some years 
in familiarizing himself with the history of railways and with 
the multifarious, complex and widely varying facts regarding 
their operation, rate-making, financing, etc. But thus far the 
good work of these men has been more than oflfset by that 
of the much larger number who have been willing to reach 
their conclusions first and find facts to fit them afterward, 
if indeed they ever find them at all. If many of the pro- 
fessors betray as much ignorance and bias in their class 
rooms as they do in their writings on railway subjects, it is 
easy to understand why so many of our young men graduate 
with their heads stuffed with misinformation and foolish 
hypotheses concerning railway matters. 

The main function of a chair of transportation should not 
be the industrious formulation and elaboration of baseless 
hypotheses regarding the nature of the railway business, but 
the ascertainment and teaching of facts regarding it. If 
there be suggested some conclusions based on the facts ascer- 
tained, this is also a useful service. The Harvard .School of 
Business Administration already has achieved a high reputa- 
tion for the excellence of the research work and teaching 
done by its professors. It is reasonable to assume that in 
filling the James J. Hill Professorship the university authorities 
will show a high regard for the proprieties by apportioning to it 
a man whose knowledge of both the theory and the practice of 
transportation are such as will enable him to impart to stu- 
dents real knowledge. A wider diffusion of real knowledge 
of the subject is one of the greatest needs of the country, 
and Harvard can render no greater service than to set the 
example of imparting such knowledge to the nation's studious 
and ambitious young men. 

Perhaps a word will not be out of place in this connection 
regarding those who have done most to secure the establish- 
ment of the James J. Hill Professorship. Probably those who 
have been most active in bringing it about arc Howard 
Elliott, chairman and president of the New York. New Haven 
& Hartford, and Thomas W. Lamont, of J. P. Morgan & Co. 
Both of these gentlemen are graduates of Harvard, and in 
furthering the creation of this professorship they have ren- 
dered a service not only to their alma mater, but also to 
the public. 


Slalistici of Railtvays in tht United States; Twenty-sixth Annual Report. 
751 pages, 9 in. by 12 in. Cloth. Prepared by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, Division of Statistics. Issued by Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Price $1. 

The present volume is for the fiscal year ending June 30. 1913. 
The principal totals for the whole country, as given in this 
report were printed in the Railway Age Gazette, July 17. 1914, 
from a preliminary abstract sent out by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. The first 62 pages of this report, giving 
the tabular summaries, came out last December and was 
noticed in the Railway Age Gazette, December 11. page 1074. At 
that time the commission expected the complete volume to 
be out in one month. 

Digitized by 


July 2. 1915 



Nsw YoiK. 

To THE Editor of the Railway Ace Gazette: 

Warren S. Stone, grand chief of the Brotherhood of Locomo- 
tive Engineers, in the wage arbitration at Chicago repeatedly 
took the ground that labor produces all the wealth that exists, 
and, therefore, should come into the possession of all of it. 

This seems to be a revival of an archaic notion. From pages 
402, 403 and 406 of Webb's "Industrial Democracy" (a strongly 
favorable presentation of Trade Unionism), I quote the following: 
"The operative bootmaker has inherited a rooted belief that 
the legitimate reward of labor is the entire commodity produced, 
or its price in the market. This idea was the economic backbone 
of Owenite Socialism, with its. projects of Associations of Pro- 
ducers and Labor Exchanges. In the first number of the "Poor 
Man's Guardian," a widely-read journal of 1831, it was expressed 
in the following verse: 

"Wages should form the price of goods; 
Yes, wages should be all, 
Then we who work to make the goods. 
Should justly have them all: 

"The same idea inspired the proposals of Lasalle, and most of 
the inferences drawn from Karl Marx's 'Theory of Value,' whilst 
it still lingers in the declarations and programmes of German 
Socialism and its derivatives. . . . 

"Though the Owenite assumption here referred to was formerly 
accepted by large masses of English workmen, and though it still 
lies at tlie root of the desire for Co-operative Associations of 
Producers, it cannot be said to characterize the Trade Unionism 
of the present day, and it will accordingly not be discussed in 
our chapter on 'The Assumptions of Trade Unionism.' . . . 

"If the operatives desire to maintain the modem Trade Union 
principle of the Standard Rate, they must abandon, once for 
all, the diametrically opposiite assumption that 'wages shall be 
the price of goods.' . . ." F. 


New Yo«k. 
To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazettk : 

I am aware that a layman has little business to liutt into your 
columns. And yet sometimes the man outside the business can 
get a perspective that the railroader himself fails to vision. It 
is for this reason I make bold to address sundry observations to 
the Gcselie. 

These remarks were brought to a head by the admirable ar- 
ticle on railway advertising by Edward Hungerford, published 
in one of your recent issues. Mr. Hungerford's article, excellent 
in everything touched on, failed to treat of certain details which 
have been somewhat painfully brought to my attention. 

Af manager of the Travel and Resort department of a leading 
magazine, I have an unquenchable thirst for information regard- 
ingf passenger and more especially tourist traffic. 

.'t has been my observation that in the Broadway ticket offices 
afc many clerks who are grossly ignorant of the lines which 
ftey represent. I have frequently encountered clerks who did 
"lot know certain essential facts relative to passenger service 
which were familiar to me, an entire outsider. One illustration 
vill suffice. In the mountains of a neighboring state is located 
i mountain resort fairly well known. It lies on a branch line 
jlst off one of our great systems. The writer 'phoned to the 
chief branch ticket office of this line and asked the clerk to give 
tht nearest station on his line to this resort. After consider- 
able delay and evident consultation this individual replied: 

"About this here — (naming the resort). There ain"t no such 
place on our line." And yet the place in question is listed in 
the system's summer book as among its particular attractions ! 

My advice to the G. P. A.'s is to conduct a course of instruc- 
tion in railroad geography. Also in the dull season to round up 
all the ticket counter staff and take them out to see where and 
how the road actually goes. Such an excursion would result in 
more tickets being sold. It requires imagination to talk intelli- 
gently and compellingly of places you have never actually seen 
with your own eyes. Imagination is not a conspicuous quality 
in the ticket clerk. He sells transportation in most cases auto- 
matically. If he had a quarter of the courteous suggestion and 
clear intelligence found in the salesman of our high grade retail 
stores the road he represents would sell more transportation. 
If Mr. Ticket Buyer who has decided to take a trip to what we 
may call Mount Lookout is politely told he should not miss 
the scenic glories of the Sapphire Lakes, which are only 150 
miles beyond on the same system and can be included in an at- 
tractive excursion rate for just a little more, nine times out of 
ten he will welcome the suggestion and purchase more trans- 
portation than he had intended. 

Another criticism arises every spring. It is prompted by ef- 
forts to obtain the summer transportation literature in good sea- 
son. There are always many laggards who are late with their 
summer booklets. They have all winter, presumably, to get this 
literature off the press. Yet in the first week in June I always 
receive circular post cards somewhat similar in their wording 
to the following from one of the leading summer tourist roads : 

"Your request for our 1915 Summer Book is received today, 
and will be complied with immediately upon receipt of books 
from printer. The large amount of work entailed has slightly 
delayed the issuance of these books, but it is expected that they 
will be ready for distribution by June 5. Regretting the un- 
avoidable delay, and thanking you for your interest, we are " 

The road that sends out this card has been advertising its 
resorts extensively. Every advertisement mentions the summer 
booklet. Readers who answer the ads get the above replies. 
Imagine such methods applied to retail trade, and yet the sale 
of tourist transportation is precisely the same in theory and 
should be the same in practice as the sale of watches. 

There is also a deplorable lack of system in maintaining 
mailing lists of persons who should receive folders, etc. The 
writer maintains a complete file of folders, revised twice a year, 
and yet not a dozen roads mail him their literature unless writ- 
ten to semi-annually. My address should be always retained on 
a well arranged mailing list. Yet I am obliged to send a cir- 
cular request out to several hundred G. P. A.'s twice each year. 

If the same general methods of circularizing used by any big, 
first-class business were followed by the railroads' passenger 
departments there would be a heap more tickets sold. 

Very beautiful, complete, and well written are the summer 
booklets this year, but in their intelligent distribution there is 
woeful lack of system or enterprise. OtrrsiDER. 

Portuguese Railway Rates Increased. — The Portuguese 
railway companies have notified the public that, in view of the 
enhanced cost of fuel and other materials in consequence of the 
war, a general increase has been decided upon in all rates and 
fares, amounting to about 10 per cent. This action on the part 
of their neighbors will possibly surprise the people in Spain who 
have been agitating recently for a reduction in railway rates 
on the same grounds. Imported coal is now costing, in the 
peninsula, almost double the July prices, and Spanish coal has 
increased almost as much, the local mine owners having taken 
advantage of the situation to raise their prices. To counteract 
this the government has suspended the protective customs 
duties temporarily. An attempt is also being made to introduce 
Pocahontas coal from this country. Welsh steam coal is being 
quoted at 60s. ($15), and Pocahontas at S3s. ($13.25), c. i. f., 
Mediterranean ports. 

Digitized by 


The Test Department of the Pennsylvania Railroad' 

Brief History and Outline of Its Present Scope; Descrip- 
tion of the New Physical and Chemical Laboratory 

By C. D. Younc 

Knginecr of Tests, Pennsylvania Railroad, Altoona, Pa. 

Endeavoring to promote the safety of passengers and em- 
ployees on its lines by minimizing or eliminating, if possible, 
all accidents traceable to defective or unsuitable material, the 
Pennsylvania Railroad has found that the quality of the mate- 
rial purchased for use in rails, bridges, cars and locomotives 
must be carefully scrutinized. Control over the quality of sup- 
plies is secured by the aid of specifications, which are based 
upon careful consideration of the materials available for the 
various uses of the railway, and by research work tending 
toward the development of new materials and devices, or im- 
proving those which are in general use. Neither the reputation 
of the manufacturer nor a superficial inspection of the mate- 
rials offered has been found to be a sufficient safeguard in the 

road companies for making tests of all its supplies and conduct- 
ing investigations with a view of obtaining the best materials 
which can be commercially furnished. 

The Department of Tests of the Pennsylvania Railroad — the 
first of an American railroad— has grown in the following way : 

In 1874 there was established at Altoona a department of 
physical tests, the organization of which was placed under the 
direction of Theodore N. Ely, then superintendent of motive 
power. The first testing machine was purchased during the early 
part of the year. It was of 50,000 lb. capacity and was furnished 
by Fairbanks and Ewing. The first test was made on April 2. 

In the beginning, the testing work was conducted by the mas- 

Eng.of Teste 


I Wat1iEquipm't,lmp'n| 

Clerk~l - | Chief InspV-l 

I Loco, Tes t, 
I — ~T" 
I Clerk I — I Foreman 

Chief Clerk I lAsst. Eng.l 

St. Plant I 1 IRoodTtit^l 

^rnan| | I | Fortmon | -(~( 




Spec tot 

IMotcriol Intptction | 








Fortmon | - |~Clerk [ - [Forerron 
Ass't.'forem'n | Ef^ l^asiij [Ast't Fbrem'n| !AMt.'fi)fCTi'ii| |Awt.lbrtm'nh 

'""■''^ \^^ |m«"I 1 16 Men | 

I PhY>: Lobl 
|Foremgn|-| Clerk | 

1 Ass't Fbrem'n I 

I field 


J Men I Men | Men 1 1 Men [| Men Men | Wontaj 

Physical Laboratory. 

Chief Chemiat I 

A«'t Chief Chemist 
Ofid Boctenologist 

[Chief CItrk |- 

I M'fg. lob.~| 

I Chemical Lab.l 


I Foreman | 



I Loborers HClerlcTI |Loborers~| 
I 7 Men ||5Men1 | ■* Men ~| 

IGen'l Chemistry I 

I Asi t Foreman I 

I Water Annlyiii] I Bacteriology I 
I I Mon II ZMen | 


I 12. Men I 

iMiac. Oiem.l 
I iZMen I 

I Rubber~~| ISpecRoil Test jl BrassFoundrvJ ITron Foundry"! |Heat Treating] | Loco. Test. | 
|AsstForemgn| I Ass't Foreman || , J^„ || |7^o„ [ | i Man 1| iMon ~] 
I 2 Men^ I 8Men | 

Chemical Laboratory 
Chart Showing the Organization oi the Department o( Inapection and Tests 

purchase of supplies, since frequently the manufacturer himself 
has no positive knowledge of the strength or other physical prop- 
erties of the iron, steel or other metals, nor the purity of many 
of the articles offered for sale. 

An organization with laboratories at a central point is an 
essential in promoting the work of thorough inspection, the im- 
portance of which is unquestioned. With this inspection, acci- 
dents to the traveling public and the employee have been re- 
duced, and efforts in the future will be towards their further 
reduction. It is desirable, therefore, that the public be fully in- 
formed as to the facilities provided by one of the largest rail- 

•From a p.iper read at the annual meeting of the .\merican Society for 
Testing Materials. .\tl.inlic City. N. J., June _'.'-26. 191. i. 

tcr mechanic of the Altoona shops, but in August. 1874, the 
department of physical tests was placed in charge of John W. 
Cloud, who became the first engineer of tests. .\ chemical labo- 
ratory, under the direction of the late Dr. Charles B. Dudley, 
was added in the autumn of 1875. Research work for the im- 
provement of rails was begun, and the investigations and accu- 
mulation of experience, which later made possible the prepa- 
ration of a series of "Standard Specifications," had their start. 
It was not until 1879, or five years after the beginning of 
the testing of materials, that the physical and chemical depart- 
ments were provided with a .separate building. This building 
was a one-story frame structure, 25 ft. by 45 ft. These (iuu<rters 
were soon abandoned, however, and until 1914 space whs made 

Digitized by 


JvLY 2, 1915 


available in a part of the shop office and storehouse building, 
where the departments finally occupied 15,476 sq. ft. of floor 
area on four floors. That the growth of the departments has 
been rapid is also evidenced by the diagram, which shows the 
number of employees, the number of routine physical tests, and 
the number of standard specifications in force for each year from 
1874 to 1914. The quarters having become congested in the 
past few years, a new building with a floor area of 41,000 sq. ft. 
was begun in 1913 and completed in 1914. Thus, in 35 years 
the requirements of the departments, as shown alone by the floor 
space occupied, have increased more than 35 times; or, there 
has been an average increase of over 100 per cent for each year 
since the work began. The growth of the test department and 
laboratory has been very much more rapid than the increase in 

the main floor. There is a machine room in the basement and 
in this all of the metal test specimens are prepared. On this floor 
there are two large fireproof vaults for the storage of letter files 
and the like, and a room for chemical stores. 

The first or street floor is devoted to physical tests. It con- 
tains a physical laboratory with five universal tension and com- 
pression testing machines, the largest of which has a capacity 
of 1,000,000 lb., and all are served by the traveling crane. On 
this floor are separate sections for oil, cement and lagging, hose, 
rail, miscellaneous and heat-treatment tests. 

The second floor is used for office, locker and toilet rooms, 
the south end being occupied by the office force of the engi- 
neer of tests and the north end by that of the chief chemist. 

The third floor is divided into laboratory rooms for bacterio- 

The Locomotive Testing Plant, with a Mikado Type Locomotive in PotitioD for Testing 

tonnage hauled, or the extension of the general business of the 
railroad. The reason for this is that there was almost as wide a 
field for the application of specifications, and the inspection and 
testing of materials, in the beginning as at the present time. 


The new building at Altoona which has just been occupied 
is constructed of reinforced concrete, the reinforcement being 
of twisted bars. Structural steel cores are used in the con- 
crete columns. The whole exterior is finished in red brick and 
red terra-cotta. It is arranged with a central service portion 
consisting of the middle bay which contains a stairway and an 
electric elevator, giving access to all parts. On the basement 
floor of the service section there is a receiving room for mate- 
rials. This room communicates with the elevator for the dis- 
tribution of small samples to the different sections of the build- 
ing, while large pieces may be lifted to the physical-test sec- 
tion by means of a ten-ton traveling crane with a hatchway in 

logy, rubber, water and gas analyses, photometry and lamp tests, 
and the calibration of electric instruments. ,. 

The whole fourth floor is used as a general chemical labo-^ 
ratory with a separate chemical balance room. The central bay 
is extended up to form a fifth floor, which comprises a photo- 
graphic studio and dark room, while the roof of the remaining 
portion of the building is used for experimental work and tests 
where exposure to the atmosphere is required. 

Direct lighting with tungsten lamps is the system of illu- 
mination. "Abolite" metal reflectors are used in the basement 
and on the first floor, with "Pyro" glass reflectors on the sec- 
ond or office floor. In the chemical laboratory, where metal 
would be injuriously acted upon by gases. "Holophane" glass 
reflectors are in use. All of the lighting and power conduits 
were placed in the floors before pouring the concrete. Tele- 
phone, dictaphone and buzzer systems are installed in the floor 
conduits, and in addition great flexibility is possible in the loca- 
tion of these fixtures by the use of a chair rail around the walls 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, Xo. 1 

of each room, the chair rail having three separate grooves for 

The building is heated by direct steam radiators with a single 
pipe system, and the radiators are placed under the windows. A 
hot water service, with a heating and circulating tank in the 
basement is provided. The gas, steam, air, water and hydraulic 
lines are of open work, and all pipe risers are in a common 

One vibratory endurance spring testing machine of 75,000-lb. capacity. 
One 43- ft. drop-testing machine; 
Two vibrating staybolt testing machines; 
One Brinell hardness testing machine; 
One 2,000-lb. cement testing machine; 

One horizontal microscope, with camera tor metalographic work; 
One grinding, buffing and etching outfit for the preparation of samples 
for microscopic work. 



1» ■ 2S rj. 

a U-l 



«4Tf1t LAtOI«T0»Y 


l« ■ 20 rr. 






-••ITC •««*•• 



19 a M #T. 


Plan of the Third Floor, Giving an Idea of the Floor Layout in the New Building 

conduit which is located in the central service bay of the building. 
The interior of the building is finished in natural chestnut 
throughout, with the exception of the office rooms, which are 
finished in imitation mahogany. All interior doors and partitions 
are glazed. The floors, with the exception of the basement where 

The Genera] Laboratory in the Laboratory Car 

the floor is of concrete and the physical laboratory where it is 
of wood on concrete, are of magnesium-cement composition. 

It is noteworthy that the building was constructed and equipped 
complete within the original estimates and appropriation. The 
building itself cost about $150,000. An estimate of the value 
of the contents is, for the physical laboratory, $100,000; and for 
the chemical laboratory, $25,000. With equipment complete, the 
investment for the laboratories is about $275,000. 


Among the machines and apparatus that compose the equip- 
ment of the physical laboratory, there arc the following; 

Five universal tension and compression testing machines, one of 
1,000.000, two of 300.00e. two of 100.0001b. capacity; 

In the machine room, where the sample test specimens are 
prepared, the following tools are used : 

Two 14-in. engine lathes; Two milling machines for specimens; 

One 12-in. drilling lathe: One 30-in. cold saw; 

One 24-in. shaper; Two motor back saws; 

One 24-in. radial drill; Two tool grinders. 

For the work in testing air brake, signal and tank hose and 
other miscellaneous tests including steam and hydraulic gages. 
there are: 

Six rubber stretching machines; 
One friction test rack for rubber; 
One hose mounting machine: 

Metalographic Laboratory 

One vibrating test rack for hose: 

One continuous test rack for rubber; 

Four tension testing machines for rubber; 

One stretching machine for rubber insulation ; 

One spring micrometer machine; 

One vacuum gage tcfting machine; 

One arbor press specimen cutter; 

One hydraulic gage testing machine, capacity 25.000 lb. \kt 

Digitized by 


JLLY 2. 


Ore dead-weight gage testing machine, capacity six gages; 
One wiggling testing machine for hose; 
One bumping testing machine for gages; 
One whipping testing machine for gages; 
One hydraulic machine for testing gage glasses. 

The materials for test, including samples which have been 
obtained by the. inspectors at outlying points and those sent to 
the department by the shops, are brought into the building 
through the receiving room. They are distributed throughout 
the building from that point, the metal specimens going to the 
machine room in the basement for preparation, then to the phys- 

120 000 
110 000 
too 000 

1 1 1 1 






ffoutin€ Phyiicoi Tests'^ 

Eichding Chtmicat, In- 
■ spectjon and Rtstarch 




■ Bmplo^m ■■ 












, . 














^ii \ 







"^ ftf> 










,_— -- 


















80000 -S 





50000 I 

30 000 

VHit TtlSSOR M M mI890n s4 «k wISOOniH m o* 1910 » m 

Diagram Showing, the Giowth oi the. Department of Inapcction and 
TesU o£ the Pennsjrhrania Railroad 

ical laboratory for tension, compression, vibratory or other tests, 
and to the chemical laboratory for analysis. 

Rubber, Air Brake Hose and Miscellaneous Laboratory. — The 
extent of the work of this department is indicated by the fact 
that the needs of the .railroad are about 635,000 pieces of air 
brake hose per year. There are now being installed machines 
for air brake, signal and tank hose, and other miscellaneous tests, 
including steam and hydraulic gages, and gage glasses for boilers 
and lubricators. 

Heat-Treatment Laboratory. — This department, on the first 
floor, is for the development of standards in the heat-treatment 
of metats during the process of their manufacture for use in 
railway equipment. Investigations are carried out to study the 
effect of various heat treatments on a large variety of carbon 
and alloy steels. They are also made to determine the proper- 
ties of non-ferrous alloys, including the co-efficient of expansion. 
Shop-manufactured locomotive and car springs, involving as they 
do a form of heat-treatment, are sampled and tested regularly 
to determine their acceptability for service. 

Large castings of various kinds have been heat-treated by 
this department with the aid of outside facilities with a gratify- 
ing degree of success. The effect of chemistry and heat-treat- 
ment upon the endurance of materials to repeated stresses is 
tested out by revolution and vibration tests, including vibration 
tests on complete springs. Rails, splice bars and tie plates are 
heat-treated to study the increased service it is possible to se- 
cure. The effects of heat-treatment are noted and a wide range 
of working conditions are applied on a variety of the high 

speed tool steels to ascertain the best chemical characteristics. 
Investigations are made on various types of fireproof mate- 
rial for the purpose of maintaining a high standard. The test- 
ing of felt and insulating papers used for lining refrigerator 
cars has been made necessary by the large variety of materials 
of this kind on the market, the keen competition among manu- 
facturers, and the ease with which the highest grade and best 
material can be closely imitated by cheap and inferior products. 
This laboratory is equipped with an insulated room and elec- 
trical heating arrangements for this work, the tests being de- 
signed to represent as nearly as possible the service conditions 
to which these materials would be subjected. Temperature meas- 
urements are made of various types of refrigerator-car construc- 
tion by means of resistance thermometers. Aside from the meas- 
urements of high temperatures in the laboratory, periodic calibra- 
tions are made of the various pyrometers. The heat-treatment 
department in general carries- on a large- variety of special work, 
and there is but little that falls without its range of possibilities 
even to the extent of heat treating glassware. 


Lamp Tests. — On the third floor the equipment for lamp tests 
consists of three photometers, a lamp test rack of 1,000 lamps 
capacity, with switchboard; transformers and potential regulator 
equipment. This work was taken up in 1902, with a view of 
obtaining data for the preparation of specifications to secure 
uniformity ia. the ocdering: of incandescent lamps, and the main- 
tai i ii i Hf of aaSbaeaAf. high standards. It consists mainly of life- 
Xtatss- 9k lanps at aEmorraar voltages and tests for the efficiency 
of illununation, as wdLas the investigation of new developments 
in the general field of iitomtnation as applied to railway work. 

Standardisatiofi of Instrumtnts. — A division of the electrical 
laho»a>ary n employed in investigations and development work 
along electrical lines, and the standardization of eltctrical in- 

Tbe Water Testing Laboratory 

stniments. Part of this work is done at the laboratory, and 
part of it, when necessary, at other points, by laboratory men. 
The character of the work may be judged from the following 
examples upon which comprehensive reports have been made : 

An invefttgation of electrolysis in systems of underground metallic 

Tests and investigations of the construction of various makes of trans- 
formers : 

Tests of various, makes of primary and secondary bat'.cry cells; 

Digitized by 

Google ' 



Vol. 59, Xo. 1 

Oscillographic tests for linear and angular velocity, wave forms, etc.; 
Investigations of special cases of electrical troubles; 
The devolopment of an electrical method of measuring the hardness 
and homogeneity of steel. 

Matters such as these are reported on and recommendaticns 
made. Electrical instruments are sent in from all points on the 
Pennsylvania system to this department for calibration and re- 
pair, and men from the laboratory are sent out to inspect and 
check electrical instruments on switchboards at the various power 
plants, and at other points. 


The large room on the second floor is provided for the force 
of laboratory atjd road assistants coming under the direction of 
the foreman of road tests and special tests. The duties of these 
men are varied, and include tests of locomotives on the road or 
tests of equipment with special devices; the tonnage rating of 
trains 'and the following up of all experirnental appliances which 
are put into service for test purposes. 

The fifth floor has been arranged for photographic work, con- 
sisting largely in making prints of metal sections, photomicro- 
graphs of steel rails forming a large part of these. Photo- 
graphs of parts which have failed in service are also made for 
convenient preservation and study. The 'photographic work re- 
quires the services of two men and about 25,000 prints per year 
are made. 


Metallurgical Work. — The main chemical laboratory on the 
fourth floor is divided by the central balance room, into two 

Vibratory Endurance Tecting Machine (or Springs 

departments, the larger one of these being devoted exclusively 
to metallurgical chemistry. In this department methods are de- 
veloped for the determination of the elements in plain-carbon 
steels, alloy steels, and non-ferrous alloys used for bearing backs 
and linings, packing-ring metal for different purposes, etc. Data 
are obtained leading to the development of specifications for 
this class of products, and samples of shipments are analyzed to 
determine whether they are acceptable under the specifications 
adopted. This steel laboratory has facilities for analyzing 
100 000 samples per year. 

Miscellaneous Work.— The smaller of these two laboratories 
is for work of a more general character, being used for the ex- 
amination of fuels, the development of specifications for paint 
products, lubricating and burning oils, boiler compounds, lacquers, 
plush, car cleaners, cutting compounds, belt dressing, polishing 
compounds, hydraulic-jack liquids, fuses, track caps, fire-extin- 
guishing preparations, the recovery of used or wasted products, 

In both of these laboratories much time has been spent in 
the examination of broken or "failed" parts of equipment, in 
an effort to determine the cause and with a view to the preven- 


1 •-U.. 1L»-Jf •^•' - 






1 'SBtOt^fmk\ , 1 J^^^^^SdJT 

Lamp Test Rack with a Capacity (or MtJdng Efficiency and .Life 
Te«U of 1000 Lamps 

tion of accidents which aside from the money losses, might re- 
sult in injuries or loss of life. 

Certain food products used in the dining car service are also 
examined here at times; many other miscellaneous investiga- 
tions are made, as of conditions which may have led to loss 
from the damage of freight in transit, and to so establish methods 
for preventing such loss. During the past year a considerable 
amount of work has been devoted to the chemistry of tunnel 
air in connection with the installation of ventilating systems. 
'1 he total list of activities touched upon would be too long for 
enumeration in an article of this character. 

The chemical analysis of rubber compounds has been studied 
and much experimental work done in perfecting a method where- 
by material of this kind can be bought on specifications which de- 
fine and limit its chemical properties. At present there is in 
force a specification for high-grade rubber insulation. Samples 
from all shipments are analyzed as well as some other rubber 
compounds. .\t the same time experimental work is being car- 
ried on to improve the method of analysis, and to devise others 
so that specifications may be drawn covering the chemical proper- 
ties of other grades of rubber materials. 

Manufacturing Laboratory. — A manufacturing laboratory, which 
might be called a small factory, is maintained in a separate 
building which is under the direct supervision of the chief chem- 
ist, and new products are manufactured in this until such time as 
it is found advisable to purchase them from "outside" manufac- 

Laboratory Car. — In addition to the steel-rail work at Altoona 
a laboratory car has been built to be moved, as required, to that 
point where steel rails in process of manufacture are to be 
inspected. The object in equipping this car is to make chemical 
analyses of the finished rails at the mills by a force of chemists 
under the chief chemist. This, it is expected, will avoid delays 
which at times occur in the operation of the mills, and are im- 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



possible to avoid without the facility of a suitable force at hand 
at the time and when the rolling is taking place, in order to keep 
up with the chemistry requirements of the company's specifica- 
tions. The car is equipped with furnaces for combustion and all 
other necessary apparatus for general chemical work in connec- 
tion with the inspection of steel rails. 

Bacteriological Laboratory. — When the department of chem- 
istry was established, problems were frequently presented which 
applied chemistry could not solve satisfactorily. It was found, 
for example, that a chemical examination of water might show 
the presence of organic constituents, but it was impossible to tell 
the source of these. A water might contain a large amount of 
organic material of vegetable origin and yet not carry any infec- 
tious material which-would likely give rise to disease, while other 
samples low in organic constituents were believed to carry infec- 
tious germs which might render their use very dangerous to em- 
ployees or patrons of the road. 

It was also found necessary to supervise certain sanitary mat- 
ters and to disinfect cars, offices and waiting rooms under cer- 
tain conditions, but it was not known what disinfectants were 
destructive to specific disease-producing bacteria. Manufactur- 
ing concerns were offering various disinfecting preparations, but 
the officers of the company had no means of determining which 
ones were efficient and the problem could not be solved by chem- 
istry alone. These questions were considered so important that 
it was decided that a division of bacteriological chemistry was 
necessary, and on November 1, 1899, such a laboratory was es- 

The work in bacteriology and water analysis has increased 
constantly, and at the present time four men are employed in the 
laboratory. The department co-operates with the surgeon gen- 
eral of the United States in the enforcement of the quarantine 
regulations of 1913, which require that railroad companies shall 
furnish wholesome drinking water and proper ice supply to pas- 
sengers using their cars. Water which contains anything in- 
dicative of injurious contamination is not permitted to be intro- 
duced into the drinking containers of a Pennsylvania coach. 

The department regulates the standardization of disinfectants 
and issties instructions concerning their application for the pro- 
tect-on of passengers and employees, as well as the disinfection 
of stock cars. Special care is taken to prevent any infected em- 
ployees from coming in contact with the public. 

In 1914 bacteriological and chemical examinations were made 
of 609 samples of drinking water. There were 3,112 bacteriologi- 
cal examinations of pathological specimens, submitted by the 
relief association physicians. The total number of bacterio- 
logical examinations was 3,621, or an average of more than ten 
per d«y. 

In addition, this department has under its care the examina- 
tion of boiler feed waters and the formulation of methods for 
their treatment. In 1913, examinations of 287 boiler feed waters 
were made, while in 1914 the number was 282. 


As part of the equipment of the test department there is a 
dynamometer car which was built in 1906, and is the fifth of a 
series of such cars which have been in use on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. There is also the locomotive testing plant which is lo- 
cated adjacent to the test department building. This plant was 
erected in 1905, after having been in use at the St. Louis Expo- 
sition in 1904, and is operated by a force of 26 men. 

There is being installed in a separate building a brake shoe 
testing machine which will be the first of its kind, in that it will 
have two dynamometers of 4,000 lb. capacity, which will make it 
possible to obtain the co-efficient of friction of brake shoes when 
two shoes are applied to a single wheel (clasp brake conditions). 
The car wheel will run upon an idler wheel, representing the 
action of a rail upon the wheel. 


The scope of the work now embraced by these departments 
coming under the jurisdiction ai J. T. Wallis, general super- 
intendent of motive power, at Altoona, can be better appreciated 

when it is understood that the cost of the materials covered 
by the inspection and tests, and entering into the construction 
of the railroad rolling stock and track, in 1913 amotuted to $82,- 
119,480, while the cost of operating the test department and chem- 
ical laboratory for the same year was $534,060. For an approxi- 
mation and using these figures, it is interesting to observe that 
the total cost of operating the departments, including all ad- 
ditional work and inspection, is about 0.6 per cent of the cost. 

The year 1913 was perhaps a record one for the test depart- 
ment and laboratory, and the extent and variety of the work 
of the departments can be shown by a few examples for that 
year. There were 61,148 separate reports of material tests is- 
sued by the test department. In the physical laboratory, while 
no record was kept of the number of samples examined, 138,886 
tests were made. These tests represented quantities such as the 
following ; 

Of bar iron 149,863,693 lb. were tested and 6,246,611 lb. re- 
jected; of staybolt iron, 15,385 tests representing 8,301,960 lb. 
were made; of cement, 29,231 tests were made, representing 
587,900 bbl, of which 13,600 bbl. were rejected; of wheels, 310,- 
381 were inspected, and 1,213 were rejected; of axles, 164,810 
were tested and 8,035 were rejected; 290 samples, representing 
56,322 yd. of plush, were tested; of air brake hose, samples rep- 
resenting 634,807 were tested and 84,826 rejected. 

In the chemical laboratory, during 1913, a total of 57,309 sam- 
ples were analyzed, involving about 286,545 determinations. 

There are 85 items, ranging from asphaltum to zinc, which are 
now bought under specifications and which must be passed upon 
by the test department or the chemical laboratory. 

During 1913 there were inspected, while building at manufac- 
turers' works, 24,966 freight cars, 343 steel passenger cars, and 
190 locomotives. The value of the materials rejected through 
the test department in 1913 was for the physical laboratory, $776,- 
928; and for the chemical laboratory, $65,767. 


As outlined in the diagram of the organization, the inspection 
at the manufacturers' works and the collection and forwarding 
of samples to Altoona is carried out under the direction of the 
chief inspector, with permanent resident inspectors and forces 
for the central district at Altoona, the western district at Pitts- 
burgh and the eastern district at Philadelphia. In addition, when 
equipment is being built at outlying points, temporary inspection 
forces are maintained at these places during the progress of the 

As previously stated, the work of the department began under 
the direction of John W. Cloud. In May, 1879, he was appointed 
the first engineer of tests and continued under that title until 
July, 1886, when he succeeded to the office of mechanical engi- 
neer, retaining control of the test department. Axel S. Vogt, 
the present mechanical engineer, succeeded Mr. Cloud in March, 
1887. The work of the department under the mechanical en- 
gineer was in direct charge of W. O. Dunbar from July, 1886, to 
July, 1893. From the latter date to July, 1903, the assistant 
mechanical engineer had direct charge of all the work of the de- 
partment. During this latter period the assistant mechanical en- 
gineers were A. W. Gibbs, from July, 1893, to August, 1902, and 
W. F. Kiesel, from the latter date until July, 1903. In August, 
1903, E. D. Nelson was appointed engineer of tests, and in Sep- 
tember, 1911, was succeeded by the writer. 

Two men have been in charge of the chemical laboratory, Dr. 
Charles B. Dudley from November, 1875. until his death, Decem- 
ber 10, 1909. Since December, 1909, Dr. F. N. Pease has held the 

That the information collected and the developments which 
have been made in the ch«mical laboratory and the test depart- 
ment have been freely given to the public, is well exemplified by 
papers and addresses which have been presented by the late 
Doctor Dudley. In addition to the works of Doctor Dudley, 
there have been published by the test department. 27 printed 
bulletins covering field tests and the work of the locomotive test- 
ing plant. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 1 


An example of methods by which shippers may cause a great 
deal of trouble for railroads is illustrated by an experience which 
the Erie and other Chicago lines have been having with a small 
mail order house in Chicago, which apparently has been trying 
to coerce them into acting as selling agents for its products, and 
when some of the roads refused, has attempted to boycott them. 
Ward & Company, located at 730 North Franklin street, Chi- 
cago, who deal in soap and toilet preparations and other articles, 
have been making a practice of shipping packages of their goods 
to prospective agents to be sold on a commission basis, the agent 
to keep half of the sale price and remit the other half to the 
company. The agents are required to pay the freight charges in 
both directions, but when they are unable to sell the goods they 
have often returned them to Ward & Company, without prepay- 
ment of the freight charges on the return movement. There have 
been other where the consignee has refused to accept the 
goods on arrival, leaving them in the hands of the carrier, with- 
out recourse of the latter to collect charges in either direction; 
in one instance at least, shipment was made to a young boy, who 
had answered the alluring advertisement of the concern. 

This company sends to its prospective agents a blank contract 
form to fill out, in which the agent agrees to dispose of the 
goods within 30 days, and also to pay freight charges and take 
them promptly from the freight station. So many of the ship- 
ments were returned that the Chicago freight stations were con- 
gested with them, and when Ward & Company were notified 
they advised the railroad that they would accept no shipments 
on which the freight charges were not prepaid in full by the 
shipper, and requested the road to notify its agents to that effect. 
On January 27, 1913, the railroad did issue a circular to all its 
agents and connections advising them not to accept such ship- 
ments unless all freight charges were fully prepaid, but in the 
large number of circulars handled by the average station agent 
they were often overlooked and the shipments kept coming in. 
Also, in many cases the consignees declined to accept the ship- 
ments and they were sent to the unclaimed freight depots. 

Ward & Company gave instructions to the railroad to sell the 
shipments for charges and to remit the balance. They usually 
claimed that the value of the shipments was $10 and authorized 
the railroad to sell them for $5, but the railroad could not dis- 
pose of them for anything above 75 cents. Authority was finally 
obtained to dispose of the packages at 75 cents each, which was 
not sufficient in all cases to cover the charges. Finally, notice 
was served on Ward & Company that commencing February 20, 
1915, the railroad would require the prepayment of freight 
charges on the shipments on the ground that the goods were 
not worth the freight charges. 

This action resulted in the issuance by Ward & Company of 
various notices not to ship goods over the Erie, which was some 
relief to the road, although giving it some unpleasant adver- 
tising, but the goods continued to be shipped to points which 
could be reached only by its lines. Red pasters were placed on 
all packages sent out by Ward & Company containing the notice 
in large type "Ship no goods to Ward & Company over the Erie 
Railroad," and postal cards were mailed to agents of the road 
containing the same notice, with a footnote "Account of Erie Re- 
striction on Ward & Company's Outgoing Shipments." Similar 
notices were issued applying to the Baltimore & Ohio, Chesapeake 
& Ohio and Chicago & North Western. The railroad cannot 
collect the charges from the original consignees, the latter claim- 
ing that the goods are the property of Ward & Company, while 
the Ward company disclaims ownership but claims to have a lien 
on the property. Ward & Company, in a letter to the Erie, have 
stated that the matter will be taken up with the Illinois Public 
Utilities Commission and the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
and that, if possible, an injunction will be obtained restraining the 
road from refusing to accept their shipments with charges collect. 


The United States Supreme Court has declared unconstitutional 
the statute of Wisconsin prohibiting the making up of an upper 
berth in a sleeping car until the berth is engaged. The decision is 
by Justice Lamar who holds such a regulation unconstitutional 
as taking private property without compensation. Moreover, the 
practice interferes with interstate commerce in that it is an in- 
convenience for a passenger to have the upper berth made up 
after he has got into the lower one. 

The statute was passed in 1911, being designed to take the 
place of one passed during the year 1907, ai.H found to be un- 
constitutional. The suit was brought by James T. Hall, against 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, which runs its own sleeping 

On the trial the railroad company insisted that the statute was 
arbitrary and unreasonable; not designed to accomplish a 
legitimate public purpose and contrary to natural justice. It 
claimed that the statute denied to it the equal protection of the 
laws; took its property without due process of law in violation 
of the Fourteenth Amendment and attempted to regulate inter- 
state commerce. There was a hearing before the trial court with- 
out a jury. Some of the averments in the railroad's answer were 
admitted to be true. In addition witnesses were sworn whose 
testimony — admitted over objection — was to the effect that — while 
the company had a pecuniary interest in having the upper berth 
kept down when the lower was occupied yet — such lowering was 
necessary to secure the comfort of the occupant of the .lower 
berth and to prevent him or her from being wakened or disturbed 
if it became necessary to put down the upper berth and arrange 
it so that it could be occupied by a passenger who had purchased 
such upper space during the night. The evidence was to the effect 
that the opening of the curtains, the glare of the light, the noise 
of the lowering the berth, the work of arranging the bedding 
for the upper berth and securing the holding wires would neces- 
sarily inconvenience the man or woman occupying the lower 
berth ; deprive him or her of the privacy to which they were en- 
titled and interrupt the rest and sleep to secure which they had 
engaged the berth. 

There was evidence, and contention based on common knowl- 
edge, that the letting down of the upper berth did not affect the 
health or convenience of the occupants of the car or of either 
berth. This was demonstrated by the absence of injurious effects 
and the fact that lower berths with the upper berths down had 
thus been constantly used by travelers since sleeping cars were 
invented. . . . And if it was harmful to let down the uppers 
it would be even more harmful to permit additional passengers to 
come into the car and occupy them. 

The decision declares that the objection to the act of 1907, 
which was annulled by the Supreme Court of the state, has not 
been overcome by the language of the act of 1911. The state 
could not authorize the occupant of the lower berth to take 
salable space without pay, neither can it compel the company to 
give that occupant the free use of that space pending actual 
purchase by another passenger. The owner's right to property 
is protected even when it is not actually in use, and the company 
cannot be compelled to permit a third person to have the free use 
of such property pending the appearance of a buyer. The statute 
cannot be sustained as a health measure. The right of the state 
to regulate public carriers in the interest of the public is very 
great, but that great power does not warrant an unreasonable 
interference with the right of management. 

Counsel for the state argued that the statute should be sustained 
as an exercise of the state's reserved power to alter the charter 
of the company; but this view is rejected; the right to amend a 
charter does not authorize the taking of the property without 
just compensation. The power of amendment is not without 

Justices McKenna and Holmes dissented; but delivered no writ- 
ten opinions. 

Digitized by 


New Bridge Across the Missouri River at Sibley, Mo. 

The Santa Fe is Completing the Renewal of a 4,100 ft 
Structure With a Ballasted Deck Under Traffic 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe is now completing a new 
bridge across the Missouri river at Sibley, Mo., on its main line 
about 25 miles east of Kansas City, which is of interest on 
account of its siz£, the advanced design adopted including the 
use of a creosoted ballasted deck, and the fact that the replace- 
ment of the old structure with the new was carried on with- 
out interference with a relatively heavy traffic. This problem 
was further complicated by the raising of the viaduct at the 

construction imperative. For two years preceding its renewal 
large engines were not allowed to work steam when crossing 
the long spans and a pusher was attached on the approaches to 
the bridge. 

The old crossing was at right angles to the stream and tangent 
for its entire length, with a 6-deg. curve on the bank at each 
end. The west approach required practically no embankment 
as the line is supported on the high bank which rises abruptly 

-Sf-J^'-^is-^'^ 3X-0'- 

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-ZOOI'-O'toFPierto Face of Back Wall. ■ 

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Elevation of Santa Fe Bridge Acros* the Missouri River at Sibley, Mo. 

east end a maximum of 7 ft. to reduce the approach grade from 
0.8 per cent to 0.5 per cent. Approximately 9,600 tons of steel 
were required and the total expenditure was about $1,300,000. 

The old bridge was built in 1887 at the time the line was 
extended to Chicago. Beginning at the west end it consisted 
of one 80-ft. deck girder span, one 200-ft. deck truss span, three 
through-truss spans 396 ft. long, one 247-ft. deck truss span, 
two 172-ft. 6-in. deck truss spans and 2,000 ft. of steel viaduct 

from the river. The east approach ascended from the adjoining 
low flood plain on a fill nearly two miles long and 60 ft. high 
at the bridge. When the renewal of this structure was first con- 
sidered it was proposed to build the new bridge on another 
location closely approximating an extension of the east approach 
tangent. This would have eliminated the two 6-deg. curves and 
a small amount of distance, while it would have enabled the new 
bridge to be built without any conflict with traffic. It would 

The New Santa fe Bridige across the Missouri River at Sibley, Mo. 

composed of 30-ft. tower and 60-ft. intermediate spans, making 
a total length of 4.082 ft. between parapets. This was a single- 
track bridge designed for a loading approximately equal to 
Cooper's E-24, and had become too light for the engines and 
trains operated over this line. Faulty details in the lateral sys- 
tem of the long spans, in the longitudinal bracing system in the 
viaducs towers and in the ends of the columns, made its re- 

however, have resulted in the abandonment of the present sub- 
structure and have required a very considerable extension to the 
approach fill on the east end. It was therefore decided to re- 
build on the present alinement. 

Approaching the old structure from the east was an 0.8 per 
cent grade, extending across the long approach fill and the via- 
duct to the truss spans. The grade was level across the seven 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59. No. 1 

truss spans and then ascended on the west bank on a 0.3 per 
cent grade. When originally built, the ruling grade on the Mis- 
souri division was established at 0.8 per cent. Recent improve- 
ment and second-track work has gradually reduced this to 0.5 
per cent, except at one or two points. In considering the re- 
construction of this bridge it was therefore decided to reduce 
the grade on the east approach to the new standard, which 
necessitated a maximum change in elevation of the viaduct of 
6.9 ft. at the east end and a maximum raise in grade on the 
approach fill of 22 ft. The river spans provide a clearance of 
50 ft. above the high water elevation of 1903. The maximum 
variation between high and low water elevation at this point is 
37 ft. 

The new structure is being built for a gauntlet track. As 
this is the only stretch of single track between Chicago and 
Kansas City, the advisability of building a double-track struc- 
ture received very careful consideration. However, it was finally 


While in general the old masonry was still in good condition, 
it was necessary to repair and remodel it in several places. The 
west abutment was enlarged and wing and parapet walls added. 
The west pier was raised to support the new girder spans. A 
new pier was also necessary to support the two 100-ft. girder 
spans which replaced the 200-ft, truss, while the change in grade 
at the east end of the viaduct and the increase in length also 
made necessary the reconstruction of the east abutment. 

With the exception of the pier under the east end of the east 
deck truss span, which is supported on oak piles driven to rock, 
and that under the west end of the west truss span, which rests 
directly on a rock ledge a short distance below low water, all 
the piers under the truss spans are carried on pneumatic cais- 
sons founded on rock. The four piers under the main channel 
spans are faced with granite to the elevation at which the ice 
usually goes out. The remainder of the material is Strong City 

View* Showing (left) The Bottom Lateral Syctem and (right) The West Portal 

decided that as there is double track up to both ends of the 
bridge, a gauntlcted single-SfRck sttucture would provide suf- 
ficient capacity for any ''increase in' traffic which might be ex- 
pected during the normal life of the new structure, and that 
when it again required renewal, the traffic .might justify a double- 
track structure on the proposed new alinenient. The construc- 
tion of the gauntleted bridge on the existing alinement and 
including the reduction of the grade on the east approach 
showed a saving of over $500,000 in comparison with a double- 
track structure on the new location. 

In the new bridge the 200-ft. deck truss span near the west 
end is replaced by two 100-ft. deck girder spans, resting on a 
new center pier. All other spans are replaced with others of 
the same length. The steel viaduct at the east end consists of 
45-ft. tower and 90-ft. intermediate spans. 

(Kan.) sandstone. While these piers were of ample dimensions 
for the new structure, the stone in the upper courses of four 
of them had become frost-broken, so that it was necessary to 
replace this with concrete for a distance of 12 to 20 ft. from 
the top. To accomplish this it was necessary to support the 
spans independently of the tops of the piers during their re- 
construction. Two cofferdams were sunk onto the top of the 
pneumatic caisson on each side of each of these four piers. 
Concrete buttresses were then built in each of these cofferdams, 
supported on • tlie caissons and extending up to average high 
water level. The buttresses on opposite sides of the pier were 
anchored together with IJ^-in. rods extending through the pier. 
The concrete was placed by floating equipment. Steel bents 
were then erected on these buttresses and the load transferred 
from the masonry to these steel columns, after which the faulty 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



masonry was removed and the concrete placed. In the accom- 
panying photegraphs of the reconstructed piers it will be noted 
that there is no projecting coping at the top, a standard practice 
on this road for concrete masonry. 

The remodeling of these piers and the placing of the concrete 
was done during the winter, much of it when the temperature 
was below zero. To prevent injury to the concrete in these 
exposed places the materials were heated before mixing and the 
green concrete was covered with tarpaulins, inside of which 
live steam was circulated. 

This bridge is designed for Cooper's E-60 loading without 
modificatien. It follows the railway company's general stand- 

Old single track roadbed^ 
Various Steps in the Construction of the East Approach Fill 

ards of design except in a few instances. \'o adjustable mem- 
bers are placed in any of the large spans. To secure the de- 
sired strength and rigidity the various sections were designed 
liberally. To give an idea of the size of some of the more im- 
portant members, the end post and top chord sections include 
three 40-in. web plates and 48-in. cover plates. In these sections 
no plates thicker than Y^ in. were used. The heavy design is 
especially noticeable in the bottom lateral system, which weighs 
1,200 lb. per lin. ft. and in the top lateral system weighing 800 
lb. per lin. ft. No curved members are employed, even at the 
portal.*, but care was taken in the design to use plain members 

Transferring the Span from the 
Masonry to the Steel Post 

Renewing the Floor on the 
First Long Span 

throughout to secure a minimum cost of fabrication without 
sacrifice of serviceability or appearance. 

To provide a horizontal seat without vertical offsets at pier 6, 
the east end of the 247-ft. deck truss span is carried on a ver- 
tical steel bent on a rocker bearing. A similar arrangement is 
provided at pier 8, where the first girder span of the viaduct is 
also supported on steel posts. 

In replacing the long spans, they were first transferred to 
falsework, one at a time, and dismantled by a traveler in the 
usual manner. The floors were then changed out and the new 
spans erected. Especially when changing out the floor, the ne- 
cessity of avoiding interference with traffic was a serious prob- 

The government refused to permit the three long Spans to be' 
erected continuously across the stream, but required the west 
span to be erected first, the east long span next and then the 
middle span. This made it necessary to move the 150-ton traveler 
across the old center span. This was accomplished by laying 
stringers on the top chord of the span and placing rails on 
them. All movable equipment was removed from the traveler 
to lighten it, after which wheels were put under it and it was 
pulled across the center span by means of cables attached to 3 
hoisting drum. While the removal and replacing of the equip- 
ment required considerable time, and this requirement of the 
government entailed an additional expense of $1,500, the time 
actually consumed in moving the traveler across the span was 
less than 30 minutes. 


In designing the viaduct the principal problem arose from the 
necessity of adopting span lengths such that the new piers would 

— j-r— ^' — j-7i'- 

—Bl-OXtoCaf Trusses. 




Ballast Floor on 336 Ft Tftrough Truss Spans. 

Ballast Floor on 2-47' Deck Truss Spans. 

Ballast Floor on Viaduct 
Typical Sections of Ballast Floor 

miss the old ones in all cases, as the masonry in the old pedestals 
was faulty and could not be used. With a careful adjustment 
of span lengths it was possible to design the new viaduct so 
that no new pier came within 12 ft. of an old one, measured 
between centers. Because of the difference in depth, the 45-ft. 
tower girder spans are supported on shelf projections on the 
ends of the intermediate spans, and all loads are transferred to 
the steel posts through the longer girders. One end of each 
long span is carried on expansion bearings consisting of four 
12-in. segmental rockers. The towers are built to a batter of 
2Yi in. to I ft. and are heavily latticed. 

The viaduct is supported on massive concrete pedestals car- 
ried on from 12 to 16 concrete piles each. They were cast at 
the site and were designed to carry 20 tons each. They were 
driven until 60 blows were required to sink them one inch. 
The pedestals are connected with a thin reinforced concrete 
wall extending from just below the ground line to the top of the 
piers, this wall being built monolithic with the pedestals. After 

Digitized by 




Vbl. 59, No. 1 

the erection of the steel towers the bottoms of the posts were 
filled with concrete to protect the connections from moisture. 

As it was necessary to erect this viaduct under traffic the 
track had to be raised to the new grade before placing any of the 
new steel. This required raising the deck of the old structure 
vertically a distance ranging from nothing at the connection 
-with the main spans at the west end to 6.9 ft. at the east end. 
This was accomplished by lifting the girders at one end of 
each span one foot at a time with a derrick and blocking under 
it on the top of the tower. This process was continued from 
span to span until the track over the entire viaduct was at the 
required grade when the new viaduct was erected and the load 
transferred to it. 


One of the special features of this structure is the use of a 
creosoted ballasted floor throughout the entire length. While 
this form of construction has come into quite general use on 
short spans, its application to truss spans 396 ft. long is unusual. 
However, careful records of the cost of maintenance of other 
structures, equipped with this type of floor on the Santa Fe, 
showed that it was economical, even on these long spans, because 
of the decreased cost of track maintenance. It was on this con- 
sideration that it was adopted here. Four-inch by 8-in. creosoted 
timbers are laid solidly on 24-in. 8S-lb. I-beam jack stringers 
between vertical curbs spaced 13 ft. 11 in. between faces and al- 
lowing 8]/4 in. of ballast below the 6f4-in. by 9-in. by 9-ft. ties 
at the end of the spans and a minimum of 6 in. at the center 
with the span carrying the full dead load. No attempt is made 
to build this floor waterproof. 

Although gravel ballast is shown in the accompanying photo- 
graphs, this will be replaced with stone in the near future, as the 
hauling of dirt across the bridge for the east approach fill is now 
almost completed. New ties and SO-lb. rails will also be laid and 
the gauntlet track added at that time. The track will be laid 
with screw spikes and special tie plates and rail anchors. No. 
20 frogs will be employed at the ends of the gauntlet. The 
creosoted floor provides for a sidewalk and hand rail across the 
entire structure. Telegraph brackets are attached on the down- 
stream side, especially designed to afford ready access for the 

The east approach fill is 10,000 ft. long and 65 ft. high at the 
highest point. In addition to being .widened for double track 
it was raised a maximum distance of 22 ft. to conform to the 
new grade. This required placing 1,750,000 cu. yd. of material, 
all of which was secured from a cut about 3 miles west of the 
fill and across the bridge. This was loaded by two 95-ton Bucyrus 
shovels into 20-yd. Western air dump cars hauled by road loco- 
motives. In spite of the necessity of avoiding interference with 
main line trains, as much as 5,400 cu. yd. of material was brought 
to the fill and unloaded in 9 hours. The accompanying sketch 
shows the manner in which the fill was widened and raised in 
three lifts. 

The material was largely clay, which slid badly when saturated. 
After several slides had taken place about 80 large rock drains 
■were built into the bank with outlets below the toe of slope in a 
quicksand bed. These drains were spaced as closely as 50 ft. 
apart in some instances where conditions were especially bad. 
After their completion a berm was built along the outer slope, 
since which there has been no further movement. 

A new station with a 16-lever interlocking machine has been 
built at Sibley, near the west end of the bridge, to control the 
operation of the gauntlet tracks. Home and distant signals are 
provided at each end. 

This work has all been handled without interference with the 
regular traffic, which amounted to an average of about 8 pas- 
senger and an equal number of freight trains during the 10-hour 
working day. When r«newing the floor on the truss spans and 
w+wn placing the 90-ft. girder spans on the viaduct, two pas- 
senger trains were detourcd over another line to K've a longer 
continuous working period. With this exception all trains were 

handled over this bridge during the entire progress of the work. 
This added materially to the complexity of the problem as in- 
dicated by the fact that the gang placing the creosoted ballast 
floor was frequently only able to get in 3 hours actual work in a 

this work was started in September, 1911. The premature 
n-.oving of the ice took out the falsework under the west long 
span in February, 1912, without, however, damaging the struc- 
ture. As soon as possible it was replaced and the erection of 
steel started in July, 1912. The three long spans were completed 
in January, 1913. Ice again took out the falsework under the 
west 175-ft. span in April, 1913. This was replaced and the 
deck truss spans were completed in June, 1913. Work on the 
viaduct was then postponed for some time until the east ap- 
proach fill was raised sufficiently to enable the track on the via- 
duct to be raised to its permanent grade. Work was then car- 
ried on simultaneously on the fill and the viaduct until March 
1914, when the steel work was completed. The construction of 
the fill is now practically completed, and it is expected that the 
final track construction will be installed by July. 

This work has all been handled under the direction of C. F. W. 
Felt, chief engineer, and A. F. Robinson, bridge engineer sys- 
tem, with G. J. Bell, division engineer, and F. H. Frailey, as- 
sistant engineer, in charge on the ground. The steel was fabri- 
cated by the American Bridge Company at the Gary plant. The 
Missouri Valley Bridge & Iron Company, Leavenworth, Kan., 
erected all the steel except for the viaduct, and did all concrete 
work except building the east abutment. The viaduct was erected 
by company forces, who also built the east abutment and placed 
the ballast deck on the entire structure. 


The 28th anriual convention of the Train Despatchers' As- 
sociation of America was held at St. Paul, Minn., beginning 
Wednesday, June 15, President Charles A. O'Connor (B. & A.) 
in the chair. George T. Slade, vice-president of the Northern 
Pacific, welcomed the convention on behalf of the railways of 
the Twin Cities, and J. E. Scott, chairman of the train rules 
committee, responded. The president, in his annual address, re- 
viewed the work of the year, congratulated the association on 
having reduced its deficit of last year by $140, although the ex- 
penses of the official organ had exceeded its income by over 
$500, and urged that some measure be taken to reduce this 
burden. He also recommended that the president's term be 
two years instead of one. There were thirty-seven applications 
for memberships and six for reinstatement, all favorably acted 

Charles F. Banks,' former officer in charge of efficiency on the 
Northern Pacific, made an address on "Safety First," describ- 
ing methods and their results on that road. 

The report of the executive committee showed receipts for the 
year to be $3,297. It was recommended that members be re- 
quested to pay for the "Bulletin" a club rate of 25 cents a year, 
and that the practice of issuing a free copy to each member 
be abandoned. This would make possible 'the publication of ad- 
vertising matter, which, with some effort on the part of mem- 
bers to increase its circulation, would result in making the 
"Bulletin" self-sustaining. This plan was approved by the 
convention. The membership account showed that at the end 
of last fiscal year there were 1,151 members on the roll, to which 
were added during the year by election and reinstatement, less 
members deceased, withdrawn and lapsed 88, leaving the present 
membership at 1,239. Adding members elected at the convention, 
the memltership of the association now stands at 1,282. 

The train rules committee, which is joint with that of the 
.American Association of Railway Superintendents, announced 
that the committee had no report to submit this year, the report 
of a year ago being incomplete and requiring still further 
revision. The committee had been in session for the two 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



previous days discussing certain questions as to which no sat- 
isfactory conclusions had been reached, and desired the views 
of the members of the convention thereupon. On these ques- 
tions, relating to various phases of train rules, there was an in- 
formal discussion which continued until adjournment for the 

On Wednesday, the second day, the members listened to the 
"Wonder-Phone," a loud speaking telephone, capable of deliv- 
ering speech in a loud, clear, articulate manner to individuals or 
large audiences, and with a soft pedal which can reduce the 
sound to any extent. The convention was greatly interested in 

Train rules were again discussed, nearly all day, being inter- 
rupted only by an address of half an hour by M. H. Clapp, super- 
intendent of telegraph of the Northern Pacific, on the con- 
struction and maintenance of the telephone as a medium for 
train despatching. Mr. Clapp rrged despatchers to more fully 
inform themselves as to details of telephone maintenance; many 
despatchers yeem to take only a superficial interest. The train 
rules discussion covered the consideration of Rules 9, 20, 22, 
37, 93, 202, 208, 210, 211, 218, 220, 221, 223, and Forms B, C, 
E, F, G, H and K of the Standard code. The discussion was 
concluded in the session of Thursday night. The convention 
affirmed by unanimous vote its opinion that Example 3 of 
Form G, or some similar example of Form C, giving right or 
"superiority" of one extra over another, was necessary to ef- 
ficient single-track train despatching, and approved the Form C 
examples governing such movement framed by the train rules 
committee as being safe and effective; also approving the use 
of the middle order when practicable. There was some dis- 
cussion as to the word "afterward" in the explanation to Exam- 
ple 4 of Form H, some roads having authorized the combination 
of this with E.xamples 1, 2 and 3, when the necessity for pro- 
tection against certain extras already on the road was apparent 
at the time of issue of Example 1, while others required, under 
such circumstances, the issue of Example 4 separately, under a 
higher number, although delivered with the Example 1 order. 
The subject was referred back to the committee. There was also 
considerable discussion as to the practicability of relieving 
scheduled extras from the restrictions of Rule 93 in the numer- 
ous so-called yards where no yard engines are employed. The 
consensus of opinion was against such action. 

The election of officers resulted in the choice of E. W. 
Weston, chief despatcher. Northern Pacific, Livingston, Montana, 
as president ; Frank I. Felter, chief despatcher, Electric Division 
New York Central, as vice-president, and of John Colclough. 
despatcher. Intercolonial, Riviere du Loup, Quebec, as member 
of the executive committee for four years. Toronto, Ontario, 
received the almost unanimous vote of the convention as the 
next place of meeting, and June 20, 1916, is the date. 

The third day, Friday, was devoted to the reading and dis- 
cussion of three papers. One on Checking Train Orders, by 
C. C. Barnard (St. Joseph & Grand Island) ; one on Team Work 
between train despatchers, the yard, the engine house, the 
train crew and the operators in reducing over-time, by J. P. 
Finan (A. T. & S. F.), and one entitled The Curve Line of 
Horse Sense, by F. A. Parker (C. R. I. & P.). 

Mr. Barnard presented a table for the year ending December. 
1914, showing the number of errors found in each month by 
inspection of train orders and clearance cards. Out of 18,815 
train orders issued in the twelve months the total number of 
«rrors found was 266 or 1.41 per cent of the number of orders. 
The number of errors in clearance cards was 163. The most 
numerous error? were the use of unauthorized abbreviations ; 
the scratching out of words and the substitution of others; the 
use of misspelled words and illegible writing, the use of poor 
■carbons and the use of Ex for extra. The number of errors 
found in the month of January was 100; in February 78; in 
March 47, and so on down to the end of the year, when the total 
number was only 11. Notes concerning errors are entered in 
the personal records of the men making them, and the records 

may at any time be useful as evidence that proper eflfort has been 
made to secure the best service. 

The attendance at the convention was very good, there being 
201 train despatchers registered, besides ladies and visitors; and 
it was declared the best convention the association has held 
since 1892. The whole five days were filled with entertainments 
for the ladies, a part of the excursions being participated in also 
bv the men. 


By A. W. GiBBS 

Chief Mechanical Engineer, Pennsylvania Railroad 

In this country we are using heavier concentrated loads 
than are carried elsewhere. Much has been written to show 
the relative increases of the weights of rail and of loads 
carried, and conclusions have been drawn that one or the 
other has unduly increased. The variables in the conditions 
of service are very great and very perplexing. The climatic 
conditions are directly reflected in the monthly record of 
failures of all kinds, and a spell of unusually severe winter 
weather is immediately marked by a sudden increase in the 
number of failures. On the other hand, a succession of mild 
winters may show such a comparative immunity from failures 
as to delude us into the belief that at last we are making 
definite progress. The number of rails which fail annually, 
as compared with the total number in service, is very small 
when reduced to percentages. In many materials it could 
be ignored as purely an economic loss, and not very large at 
that. It is because the rail is part of a chain that its occa- 
sional failure assumes such importance. 

With the above points in mind, it must be said that the 
available data do not show that progress in performance 
which we have a right to expect. That the real answer to 
this great problem has not been reached is proved by the 
continued unrest in our specifications, and by the everlasting 
changes in sections. 

What atiswer can we make? First, as users, we can and 
should lessen as far as possible unnecessary punishment of 
the rail by improvements in the mechanical design and main- 
tenance of our equipment. We can be expected to improve 
our structure under the rail as our loads increase, and this 
change is in progress. It is but fair to say that bad condi- 
tions, both as to equipment and track structure, have con- 
tributed to rail failures. That the large number has attracted 
no more attention is because of the vigilance of the track 
inspection. In the very great majority of cases the rails are 
removed before any serious results ensue. 

Against these unsatisfactory conditions we have several 
possible solutions: Better steel, in the sense of more uniform 
steel; better steel in connection with more rational sections; 
materially heavier sections; or retrogression in. loads and 
speeds. To date, a combination of the first and second has 
been chosen. There has been a very general change to open- 
hearth steel, at an increased cost. 

Neither the American Society for Testing Materials nor 
the American Railway Engineering Association specification 
really protects the buyer as to chemistry. Neither puts any 
limit on the amount of segregation permitted, and it is well 
known that this ranges over wider limits than would be 
permitted in the ladle analysis. 

In investigating the causes of the failures of individual rails, 
many analyses have shown such startling discrepancies be- 
tween the composition of the failed rail and the analysis 
purporting to represent the heat that it was difficult to believe 
that they could represent the same material. Either the 
•adle analysis is an unreliable index of the quality of the 

'Abstract of the presidential address delivered before the American 
Society of Testing Materials, which met at Atlantic City, June 22-2^. 
The complete report of the convention will be covered in these columns 
next week. The election of officers, etc., is mentioned in the General 
News Section of this issue. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 1 

material in th« rail or there is a great need for chemical 
reform. We know by experience that when put to it the 
chemists of the producers and the consumers can tally within 
very reasonable limits. This is a serious matter for the con- 
sumer. How far the diflference between chemists is due to 
difference in methods I do not know, but possibly the meth- 
ods by which the chemistry is determined may have to be 
agreed upon and made a part of our specifications. Dr. C. 
B. Dudley, who did much work on standardizing methods ot 
chemical analysis, would in his specifications not only state 
the composition required, but also the methods by which the 
determination was to be made. 

From the physical standpoint both specifications are de- 
fective, as both contain the provision that if the test piece 
meets the requirements the material will be accepted; but in 
the event of the failure of the first test piece, two more tests 
are made, and if both pass, the material is accepted. We 
hold that this is a pernicious practice, in that the consumer 
has positive proof that some of the accepted material does 
not meet the requirements. The American Society tor Test- 
mg Materials specification includes all the machinery for 
detecting physically unsound material by nicking and break- 
ing, and then provides that the rails represented by these 
unsound test pieces shall be accepted as "Special" rails. 
Presumably they are to be used in some unimportant loca- 
tion. This is another very bad practice. It is not always 
possible to find unimportant places. 

Summed up, the rail specification of the society does not 
put a proper premium on the selection of the better part 
of the ingot for one of the most exacting services for which 
steel is used. Where our specification diflfers from that of 
the American Railway Engineering Association it is not 
so good. 

The rail committee is composed of able men. Among them 
are some of the ablest metallurgists in the country, and we 
should look to them for that constructive work which would 
make our specification beyond criticism. The purpose of the 
society is to make specifications and have them used. If 
year after year we retain provisions that lessen the incentive 
to improve the product, we cannot wonder if other specifica- 
tions are preferred. 

If we consider all the steps in our rail industry, we find 
very few improvements in methods other than those which 
lend themselves to increased output or reduced cost. There 
are some notable exceptions to this, three in particular; 
namely, the electric furnace, for producing steel; the sinkhead 
process for casting ingots, for producing better ingots; and 
the dcseaming process, for producing better rails, by mechan- 
ically removing some surface defects which would later de 
velop into seams. All of these processes are represented by 
rails actually in track under observation, but it is yet too 
soon to justify an opinion as to their value, nor have any of 
these methods been generally adopted. 

It is to be hoped that some of the large-scale experiments 
now in progress will show what is to be looked for from a 
more uniform product. One of these includes the lequire- 
ment that the chemistry shall be from the rail, instead oi 
from the ladle test ingot, and the segregation must be within 
reasonable limits. This experiment will, at least, give .i 
quantity of fairly uniform material, so far as any practical 
method of representative testing will insure it. 

Aside from these, and some experiments on too small a 
scale to deserve special notice, the rail situation remains very 
much as it was seven or eight years ago. Any deviation from 
the beaten path is immediately met by an increase in the 
price asked, the reasonableness of which the purchaser has 
no means of determining. In at least one case of which I 
have knowledge, the actual expense of every kind, so far 
as it could be ascertained, due to rail breakage on a certain 
system was less than one-fifth of the annual increase in the 
cost of rail due to the introduction of a proposed new specifi- 

cation designed to secure the quality of rail desired. The 
year taken was not an abnormal one in any way. One serious 
wreck would, however, entirely have changed this showing. 
It requires a lot of courage and a strong sense of duty to 
justify such an expenditure when the direct return is prob- 

There are many who believe that we cannot hope for relief 
by the use of more uniform steel. They make the point that, 
it this is the solution, it can be obtained by a discard larger 
than the ordinary. They cite the records of the carriers to 
show that the failures, especially the breakages, are fairly 
well distributed throughout the ingot, so that no practicable 
discard would eliminate the trouble. They also call attention 
to the many examinations of broken rail which reveal no 
defect that we can recognize as such. From these conditions 
they argue that the only remedy is to use more steel — that is. 
heavier sections — without any change in the specifications as 
to quality. Possibly this is correct, but we would call atten- 
tion to the fact that post mortems on rail sometimes give 
negative results, because we have not before us all the re- 
lated evidence. The rail may have been damaged by unfair 
usage, of which there is no evidence. If due to defective 
support, the evidence is lost when the track is repaired. 
Damage from defective wheels, etc., leaves no permanent 
mark. There is a growing belief that the straightening press, 
by straining the material beyond the elastic limit, is respon- 
sible for many otherwise unexplainable failures, and it would 
also explain why rails from the lower part of the ingot figure 
so prominently in the breakage record. 

As to the quality, we cannot ignore the fact of the differ- 
ence between rails from diflferent mills. There have been 
some notoriously bad rollings, as shown by the records of 
various roads, and these mills have subsequently turned out 
an excellent product. If all of the rail was as good as the 
best, we would have very little room for complaint. 

The present line of progress includes a general increase in 
the weight of sections throughout the country. The 100-lb. 
mark, or that neighborhood, seems to be one of the halting 
spots, but some sections go considerably beyond this figure. 
A careful study has been made of the sections, and the new 
ones, especially of the heavier weights, are beFieved to be 
better adapted to secure good mill results, as well as better 
performance in the track. 

Personally, I believe that the time has arrived for a con- 
siderable increase in the weight of sections, and I am not so 
certain that a change sf quality is required at the same time. 
One reason that appeals is the presence within recent years 
of that class of failures known as "transverse fissures." So 
far there seems to be no satisfactory explanation. It seems 
surprising, if this class of breakage develops in the rail, that 
it should not also do so in the tire, which is subject to the 
same intensity of pressure. The tire, however, has an im- 
mensely greater section than the head of the rail. If the 
mere fact of the relatively large area of section of the tire 
contributes immunity from this class of failure, it is fair to 
assume that somewhat the same result could be looked for in 
the case of the rail head. 

Certain practices, such as the present system of straighten- 
ing, have long called for improvement. Nearly all rail passes 
through the gagging press. The rail specifications are pos- 
sibly too exacting in requiring that all rails' shall be "smooth, 
straight in line and surface, and without any twists, waves, or 
kinks." It is a question whether this is not asking too much 
for the good of the rail and whether it would not be well 
to make the greatest possible tolerance in the way of accept- 
ing rail with such variations from straightness as can be 
-easonably eliminated in laying. 

In the search for a remedy for our troubles, some have 
proposed to improve the product by more or less radical 
changes in the mill practice. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that a modern steel mill, like the railroad, can only 

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July 2. 1915 



exist by being operated on a large scale. It is designed in 
advance with a view to a certain sequence of operations, 
and if proper provision has been made for each, smooth 
operation follows. The mill, however, is only balanced when 
it performs these operations in the prearranged order, and 
to make a radical ch^mge — as. for instance, slow rolling, cold 
rolling, more passes, or one of the many other innovations 
suggested — may seriously unbalance the whole operation^ It 
is not to be expected that a mill will be willing to make 
changes in its practice until after experimental work has 
demonstrated that the proposed practice is practicable and 
valuable. In conclusion, I must repeat that the rail situation, 
as we see it, is disappointing. To add to the complexity of 
the situation, the government, through some of its bureaus, 
is taking a hand and investigating every serious failure, ap- 
portioning blame and suggesting remedies. This will prob- 
ably increase rather than diminish, and may some day be 
very awkward for the producer as well as for the user. 


The 34th annual convention of the Association of Railway 
Telegraph Superintendents was held at Rochester, X. Y., 
June 22, 23 and 24, Acting President E. C. Kcenan (X. Y. C.) 
in the chair. There was an attendance of about 200. including 
wives, daughters and friends. At the first session, largely 
social, Belvidere Brooks, vice-president of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, made a short address. The Western 
Union takes much interest in these conventions. They pro- 
mote the adjustment of relations between the telegraph com- 
pany and the railroads. He reminded his hearers that 
Rochester was the birthplace of the Western Union Company. 

Acting President Keenan stated that the past year had 
been a prosperous one for the association. Messrs. W. H. 
Potter and .M. H. Clapp, chairmen of the Eastern and West- 
ern Divisions of the association, respectively, reported on 
the meetings of the two divisions during the year. The 
chairmen of the various committees also made their reports. 

The first paper was on "Interference from Single-Phase 
High-Tension Power Lines on the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford," by N. E. Smith, of that road. He gave a history 
of the work of electrifying that road west of New Haven 
and the difficulties experienced with induction on telegraph 
and telephone lines. The methods experimented with to 
overcome these troubles were gone into in detail. The paper 
contains a fund of information on this difficult subject. In 
the discussion of the paper I. C. Forshie, of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, described the work of electrifying the section ot 
that road between Philadelphia and Paoli, 20 miles, including 
the sixteen tracks at the Broad Street terminal. All wires 
throughout the section are being put underground. The 
telephone and telegraph conductors are in two cables, one 
of which is called the trunk cable, carrying the through cir- 
cuits. With the long distance telephone wires phantom cir- 
cuits are operated and these are composited and duplexed. 
The Philadelphia-Pittsburgh phantom, 350 miles long, has 
four telegraph circuits which are operated duplex. He de- 
scribed experiments made during the electrification develop- 
ment to determine what eflfect would be produced by the 
diflFerent trolley currents. High insulation of the telephone 
and telegraph circuits and perfect balance both for resistance 
and capacity are necessary to insure satisfactory operation 
in the electrified district. The lead sheath of the cables, he 
said, has taken care of electrostatic induction, but it has no 
appreciable effect upon electromagnetic induction. 

The next paper read was on "Primary Battery for Trans- 
mission on Train Despatching and Other Telephone Lines" 
by G. W. Nelson and E. E. Hudson. This paper dealt prin- 
cipally with the use of low internal resistance, closcil-circuit 
primary cells as a reliable and efficient source of energy for 

telephone train despatching, arguing that the reliability in- 
sured by this source of current is more important than low 
cost of operation; though a substantial saving in maintenance 
was also claimed. 

In the discussion W. E. Harkness pointed out the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of the caustic type of cell. While 
the caustic soda cell is superior to the dry cell for despatch- 
ers' transmitters, it is a question if it can show any advantage 
over storage cells in this service. For way-station trans- 
mitters the caustic soda battery, when properly maintained, 
has given satisfactory service. It would not, however, fur- 
nish a uniform or high grade of service when subjected to 
heavy or long periods of discharge. Under ordinary condi- 
tions storage cells cannot compete with either the caustic 
soda cell or the dry cell in way-station service. He favored 
the use of the caustic soda cell for booth and other outdoor 
telephones. The soda cell is superior to the dry cell, he said, 
as a common source of current. He thought caustic soda 
cells could be used with advantage for the operation of 
telegraph sounders. 

R. F. Finley (N. Y. C.) read a report, giving results of 
tests of wet and dry batteries on that company's lines, with 
comparative costs. 

At Wednesday's session the first paper was by M. H. 
Clapp (Northern Pacific). He reviewed the development 
and the growth of the use of the telephone in railroad service. 
The Northern Pacific has made extensive use of telegraph 
wires for telephones in a variety of combinations, and has 
extensive plans for further utilization of existing facilities for 
operating by the latest methods. When pole lines are rebuilt 
all wires are transposed, anticipating future needs. Railroads 
should establish more private telephone exchanges. The 
loud-speaking telephone is now an assured success. 

G. A. Cellar (Pennsylvania Lines) and E. C. Keenan 
(N. Y. C.) and others told of high satisfaction with the tele- 
phone for despatching. The meeting brought out no dis- 
senting voice. The telephone accomplishes great economy, 
but members who asked questions as to exact data received 
no answer. In most cases recent installations are less costly 
than earlier ones. The use of automatic telephone exchanges 
was looked upon favorably by several members. 

R. E. Chetwood (Western Union) read a paper on 
"Screened Cable Conductors and their Application in Tele- 
graph Service," which was briefly discussed. C. S. Rhoads 
(C. C. C. & St. L.) sent comments on this in writing. In 
closmg the discussion Mr. Chetwood, answering questions, 
said that the screen only reduced interference from high 
speed circuits; that the cable is used largely for automatic 
circuits, and that other metals than copper had been con- 
sidered for the screen, naming one cable with a brass screen. 
He said that very little was gained by loading screened 

There was a short discussion of the effect of aurora borealis 
on telephone and telegraph working, manifestations of this 
force having been observed in many places within the last 
two months. 

Prof. C. A. Culver, of Beloit College, Beloit, Wis., gave 
a brief talk on radio (wireless) telegraphy and telephony. 
Great progress is being made in these fields. Recent inven- 
tions have simplified many processes, and next August an 
important patent expires. Professor Culver believes that 
high towers are no longer necessary for wireless sending. 
A relay for wireless communication is about perfected. 

At Thursday's session. W. H. Hall (M. K. & T.) read a 
paper on "Censorship of Railway Messages," an abstract of 
which was printed in the Railway Age Gazette last week, 
page 1479. In the discussion of this paper J. F. Caskey 
(L. V.) told of the employment of a censor on his road 
for seven months, particularly for messages sent by Western 
Union lines under frank. All officers were instructed to send 

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Vol. 59. No. 1 

copies of each such telegram to the superintendent of tele- 
graph. Every message so sent was carefully edited and in 
many cases recast and unnecessary words cut out. He esti- 
mates the saving at $2,000 yearly in excess of the salary of 
the censor. The railroad telegrams of the larger offices were 
also censored, with the result that in one department alone 
an estimated wastage of $31 a day was reduced 85 per cent. 
The discussion on this subject showed that a number of 
roads have compiled comprehensive codes to be used in all 
departments. Mr. Caskey endorsed Mr. Hall's views in re- 
gard to the "mailgram." Such a system was being used on 
his road with success. 

E. A. Chenery (Missouri Pacific) read from records show- 
ing the number of messages sent during the years 1913, 1914 
and up to May this year from 12 important offices on his 
road. Since March, 1913, the total number of messages per 
day has been reduced from about 15,000 to 11,500 and the 
average monthly office expenses from about $8,500 to $7,300. 
This is the result of constant supervi.ision and censorship. 
Mr. Chenery recalled the fact that Charles Selden, on the 
Baltimore & Ohio, did some effective censoring twenty years 
ago, by recording a charge for all railroad messages, the same 
as if they were to be paid for, and advising each department, 
monthly, of the totals for which that department was 

H. D. Teed (St. L. & S. F.), in a written communication, 
told of the good results of censorship on his road. Formerly 
the officers sent letters very freely by wire. The "mailgram" 
system is very useful. These envelopes are a half hour 
quicker than ordinary train mail. In 1914 the number of 
railroad messages on Frisco wires was reduced very largely, 
as compared with 1913, and the total of the payrolls of the tele- 
graph offices was reduced 18 per cent. In the relay offices the re- 
duction was much larger than this. 

The discussion of Mr. Hall's paper brought out considerable 
sentiment against the use of codes, based on the feeling that an 
excessive amount of time and work are required to code and 
decode messages. Simplicity is a cardinal principle in this mat- 
ter and the use of ordinary language, properly condensed, may 
be the best way of adhering to this principle. Some departments 
have their own codes, for use between offices within their own 
control — the supply department and the auditor's department 
being mentioned— but that is not the telegraph department's con- 
cern. These short codes, prepared by departments, are probably 
a good thing; but a more comprehensive code is likely not to 
be appreciated. It was said that the American Railway Asso- 
ciation's general code had never been adopted by anybody. One 
member remarked that the cost of railroad telegrams on his road, 
counting the wages of telegraph managers and messengers, was 
from VA cents to 2 cents a message. One large road had col- 
culated that the total cost of railroad telegrams, including all 
expenses except maintenance of wires, averaged not over five 
cents a message; while the cost of coding, if done by a stenog- 
rapher who is paid $75 a month, may add considerably to the 
total expense. 

David Sarnoflf, contract manager of the Marconi Wireless 
Telegraph Company of America, gave an interesting talk on 
radio telegraphy, questioning some of the conclusions of Profes- 
sor Culver, the previous speaker on this subject. He referred to 
the use of wireless amplifiers as repeaters on the transcontinental 
telephone line. The two great difficulties encountered in the de- 
velopment of the wireless telephone, he said, were, first, to get 
a transmitter that will be adequate for the current, and second, 
the proper regulation of voice currents ; but he expects to see 
the success of the process. 

Mr. Foley (D. L. & W.) said that recently five messages had 
l)een sent by telephone, with his wireless apparatus, from Scran- 
ton. Pa., to Binghamton, N. Y., about 60 miles. 

E. C. Keenan and J. J. Ross (Mich. Cent.) told of the very 
satisfactory use on the Michigan Central of special signals 
at non-telegraph stations to instruct freight trains to enter 
sidings. These signals are controlled by the despatchcr by 

means of the selector calling-apparatus the sjn e as is used 
to call station operators, the selectors for the outlying sidings 
being on the same wire with the station selectors. The 
signals are enclosed disks formerly used as block signals. 
They are not interlocked with the switches and are arranged 
to give the indication to the train by oscillating; and ths 
conductor, having cleared the main track, acknowledges the 
signal by telephoning to the despatcher. Records for six 
n.onths in 1914 showed the use of these signals 600 times, 
with 12 failures. These caused only slight delays except in 
one case. Answering questions, Mr. Ross emphasized the 
importance of care and accuracy in using this arrangement 
If the despatcher sets the "head-in" signal at the wrong sta- 
tion he can cause annoying delays. It is important too to 
have the automatic "answer-back." The necessary modifica- 
tions of apparatus have been made by the General Railway 
Signal Company and the Western Electric Company. All oi 
these signals are on double track lines equipped with auto- 
matic block signals. More of them are to be installed. 

St. Paul, Minn., June 20, 21 and 22, were the place and 
dates chosen for the 1916 convention. 

The following officers were elected: President, E. C. 
Keenan (general superintendent of telegraph. New York 
Central, Lines West of Buffalo), Chicago; first vice-president, 
L. S. Wells (L. 1.) ; second vice-president, M. H. Clapp 
(N. P.); secretary and treasurer, P. W. Drew (M. St. P. & 
S. S. M.), Chicago. Messrs. W. H. Potter and F. T. Wilbur 
were elected chairmen of the Eastern and Western Divisions, 


Bv J. L. Coss 

Why is it that on a large railway system it is frequently found 
that the forms of orders and the instructions as to their use 
differ on different divisions? 

For instance ; one division may use the right-of-track order 
while on another its use is not allowed. One division may use 
the straight meet order, as between passenger trains while an- 
other will use the time order. There will also be found differ- 
ent wordings of certain forms of orders. On some districts 
forms which are not prescribed by the book of rules, are used 
freely. Especially will this be found to be the case when 
changes have been made in the despatchers, men from other 
lines using the forms they have been accustomed to until they 
are broken in; and sometimes they keep it up for a long time. 

The general manager should have an experienced and compe- 
tent despatcher on his staff to inspect the different despatchers* 
offices on the system ; and this inspector should have the author- 
ity to require a uniform use of train orders. He should take 
the train order books and check back in them to see that the 
orders are used according to form ; and should instruct all 
concerned in the manner of their use. He should also be qual- 
ified to render a decision on any order that may be in contro- 
versy. He should inspect the orders handled by operators at the 
large offices, as well as the small ones occasionally; and should 
see that block and clearance cards are made out correctly and 
handled properly. If a man is found who is not up to the stand- 
ard in the handling of orders and other matters pertaining there- 
to, he should put him right, or recommend a remedy. 

Train and enginemen, despatchers and operators are trans- 
ferred from one division to another every now and then, and a 
form of order which they are not accustomed to may cause a 
difference of opinion, and possibly may result in something 
more than that. 

This inspector, while on his trips, could look up other things 
for the general officer and in that way be of great assistance to 
him. A man from the general office, making visits of this kind 
occpsionally. will hr-vc more influence on the employees than will 
local officers, even though they visit every week, for the men will 
know that if an irregularity is discovered the facts concerning 
it will go direct to the top. 

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Automatic Signals on Norfolk & Western Electrified Line 

Installation of Most Modem Signaling in the Mountains 
of West Virginia, with Costly Refinements of Detail 

The electrification of the Norfolk & Western between Blue- 
field, W. Va., and West Vivian, recently completed, made neces- 
sary the change from d. c. to a. c. operation for the automatic 
signals in this territory. As (the signals in service before the 
electrification were practically new, it was deemed advisable to 
make use of them on other parts of the road and to install new 
a. c. signals on the bridges supporting the overhead power line. 

The electrified section, known as the Elkhorn grade, is on the 
main line through the Pocahontas coal fields, about 105 miles 
west of Roanoke. The line is double track throughout, except in 
the Elkhorn tunnel, 07 miles long, which is single track. Be- 

Fig. 1 — Signal Near Graham, W. Va. 

tween Bluestone Junction and Ruth there are two single-track 
lines, 2.9 miles and 1.9 miles long, respectively, which are nor- 
mally operated as double track, both of which are signaled for 
traffic in both directions. The line has a large amount of curva- 
ture and heavy grades, varying from 1 per cent at the west end to 
2.5 per cent just east of the Elkhorn tunnel. 

Single-phase, 2S-cycle power is used for traction and 60-cycle 
power for the signal system. All current is generated at the com- 
pany's power house at Bluestone Junction, about 10 miles west 
of Bluefield, where plenty of good water is available and the 
coal supply is convenient. For the propulsion current, three 
11,250-kv.a., 25-cycle, 11,000-volt, single-phase steam turbine en- 
gine sets are used, current from these being stepped up to 44,000 
volts and distributed to substations at Bluefield, Maybeury, North- 
. port and East Vivian, and also to substation transformers in the 
power house, where it is stepped down to 11,000 volts for the 
trolley wires 

The 44,000-volt feeders for the propulsion current are carried 
on bonnet posts on the south side of the bridges, and the signal 
transmission line, consisting of two No. 2, B. & S. hard-drawn, 
bare copper wires, carrying 4,400 volts, are supported on bonnet 
posts on the north side. All signal control, telegraph and tele- 
phone wires are carried on poles at the extreme northerly edge 
of the right of way. In order to provide against induction in 
these lines from the high-voltage propulsion current, the main 
transformer substations were located somewhat closer together 
than was required by considerations of voltage regulation and 
losses ; and to provide for emergency conditions when one sub- 
station may be out of service, or for excessively high current, 
which occurs in cases of short circuits and grounds, it was de- 
cided to install so-called track transformers, or "boosters," in the 
trolley and track circuits at intervals of about one mile. The 
purpose of these transformers is to cause the return current, a 
considerable amount of which would ordinarily leak to earth, to 

flow in the track rails and thus keep it at a fixed distance from 
the trolley wires and the telephone and telegraph lines. This re- 
quired special consideration for the balancing of track circuits, 
and also for cross-bonding, to insure that there would be no 
lessening in the protection against broken rails otherwise pro- 

Current for the signal system is generated in the power house 
by two 100-kv.a., 4,400-volt, 60-cycle steam turbine sets, con- 
nected directly to the signal transmission line. These are dupli- 
cate sets, one alone being of sufficient capacity to carry the entire 
signal load. The signal transmission line is carried on porcelain 
insulators and is broken at intervals of two miles on strain in- 
sulators. It is carried through a double-pole, single-throw oil 
switch at each of these points, so that it may be opened for test- 
ing or repairs. 

A 1-kv.a., 4,400-1 10- volt transformer, having 5 per cent and 
10 per cent taps for line-drop compensation, is used at each 
signal location, except at a few points where more current is 
required, 3.S-kv.a. capacity being provided in these cases. Each 
transformer is protected by 4,400-volt, graded shunt resistance 
multi-gap lightning arresters, and has 6,600-volt fused cutouts. 
The signal transformers, cut-out boxes and lightning arresters are 
mounted on the bonnet poles carrying the signal transmission 
wires. Screens are placed under these wires, so that persons on 
the bridges cannot come in contact with them. A hand-railing 
extends all the way around the platforms on the bridges, to which 
access is had by ladders at the north end. These platforms are 
not carried to the south end of the bridges, so that maintainers 
need not approach the 44,000-volt propulsion current "'feeders. 
The ladders on the north end of the bridges extend down only 
to a point 7 ft. above the grotmd, thus preventing unauthorized 
persons from climbing to the platform. The maintainers are pro- 
vided with small ladders. 

At each westbound signal location, the common wire is broken 

Fig. 2 — Signal Near Bluestone Junction 

and small one-to-one transformers are placed in the control 
circuit in order to minimize the effects of induction and to lo- 
calize the effect of grounds on any control wire. These trans- 
formers and the lightning arresters are mounted on a wooden 
box on the signal bridge. Switches are provided so that current 
may be cut off from the signal while the maintainer is working 
about it. The leads for the track transformer are taken from the 

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Vol. 59, No. 1 

transformer side of this switch, so that the signal in the rear is 
not disturbed when one of these switches is open. 

Double-rail track circuits are used throughout, the average 
block length being 4,500 ft., while some of the circuits in inter- 
locking limits are as short as 300 ft. The U. S. & S. impedance 
bonds on the main line have a capacity of 200 amperes per rail 
continuously, or 400 amperes for two hours. At the turnouts to 
colliery sidings and other places where a large amount of pro- 
pulsion current will not be used, bonds which have a capacity of 
50 amperes per rail continuously and 100 amperes for two hours 
are used. The track circuits are supplied by smalt air-cooled- 
transformers. In three cases where track circuits are very long 
and ballast conditions bad, 1-kv.a. transformers are used. The 
track transformers are supplied from the 110-volt taps of the 
signal transformers. Reactance coils having an adjustable air- 
gap in the magnetic circuit are used between the track trans- 
formers and the track to limit the amount of current when the 
circuit is shunted and to adjust the current and phase relation in 
the track coil of the track relay. 

All insulated joints are six-hole. Keystone, having bakelized 
canvas insulation. These joints in most cases are staggered, 
but at booster transformer locations they are placed exactly op- 
posite, also at crossovers between the main tracks, the joints are 
placed opposite, so that an electric locomotive using the cross- 
over will not deliver return propulsion current to one rail of the 
track circuit, thereby unbalancing it and blowing the relay fuse. 
The track relays are of the U. S. & S. centrifugal, two-element 
type. The track transformer, track relay, reactance coil and line 
relays are housed in cast iron relay boxes on concrete foundations 
at the base of the bridge on which the signal is located. Track 
wires are carried from the relay boxes to the tracks in l'/2-m. 
fiber conduit, and the wires are carried to the signal transformer, 
transmission line, etc., in galvanized steel conduit. No. 14, B. & 
S. solid copper Kerite wire is used on all control and signal 
circuits, and No. 9 B. & .S. stranded Kerite is used for connec- 
tions to the track. All line wires are No. 10, B. & S., copper- 
clad double braided, weatherproof. At the track, a cast-iron box, 
with a cover and a hooded opening for the entrance of the wires, 
is placed over the end of the conduit and concreted. The wire 
is soldered to a short piece of bond wire, both ends of which 
are bonded to the rail. At a standard signal location, an 8-in. 
by 12-in. by 12-in. cast-iron pull box is located on the bridge just 
underneath the signal platform, and from this a 2-in. conduit is 
run to the relay box, a lj4-in. to the lightning arrester box, a I'A- 
in. to the signal and a J^-i"- to the transformer, to carry the 
necessary control wires. These conduits are fastened to the pull 
box, relay box, etc., by lock nuts over cup washers and lead wash- 
ers, making a water-tight joint. Rubber-covered wire, run in gal- 
vanized cable rings and suspended from messenger wire, is used 
for the connection from the pole line to the signal bridges. 


The 70 automatic signals required on this section are the U. S. 
& S. Co.'s style S, upper-quadrant, operated by 110-volt, 60-cycle 
induction motors. The signals are mounted on the top of the 
structural bridges, special attention being paid in the design of 
these bridges to the elimination of obstructions to the view of the 
signals. The signals have enameled steel blades and Armspear 
spheroidal lens lamps. These lamps were found particularly de- 
sirable in this case on account of the large amount of curvature 
in the line, and also because in a number of cases on curves it 
■would be difficult to provide an entirely satisfactory view of the 
signals if ordinary lenses were used, because of the obstruction 
caused by overhead structures. 

The photographic illustrations. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, show typical 
situations where, if the engineman of a passenger train had to 
depend on a lamp throwing rays only in lines parallel to the 
axis of the lens, he would have but a few seconds in which to get 
a good view of the light (In Fig. 1 the location of the s\gna.\ is 
indicated by the arrow.) As is well known, enginemen running 
under conditions of this kind are liable to get into the habit of ac- 

cepting a very poor indication, finding this more convenient than 
to watch out with the care necessary to get a view of the signal 
at the exact moment when it can be seen at its best. 

The spheroidal lens was described in the Railway Age Gazette, 
September 19, 1913, in connection with a report of its use on the 
Long Island Railroad. It is so shaped as to spread the light of 
an ordinary burner 90 deg.; that is to say 45 deg. on each side 
of the axis. And this is accomplished without impairing the 
visibility of the light on tangents. Tests have shown satisfactory 
results with green lights at a distance of two miles and red lights 
at over three miles. 

At short distances the differences between the ordinary in- 
verted lens and the spheroidal are not great; but at 900 ft. from 
the light and 15 deg. from the axis the stellar magnitude of the 
inverted lens measures 0.50, while the spheroidal measures 4.25. 
In a test made 1,890 ft. from the lamp and 15 deg. from the axis, 
the light from an inverted lens was entirely lost while the Arms- 
pear at that point measured 3.00. 

The lamps on the Norfolk & Western are similar in appear- 
ance to the well-known design shown in the Armspear Manufac- 
turing Company's bulletin, except that, being electric, there are 
no ventilating parts at the top. The lamps have the standard 
R. S. A. sockets and have relays, specially designed for these 
lights, to cut in the second lamp in c»e the first one fails : and 
have spherical silvered glass mirrors for reflectors. All metal 
parts are made of No. 18 gage sjtael plates. The signal lights 
are 10-watt, 110-volt tungsten, current being supplied from the 
signal transmission line to these '^famps as well as to stations, 
towers and yards, also for operating the • njotor-driven air-com- 
pressor set at the Elkhorn tunnel, and fo'l^llghting the warning 
signs where the trolley wire is low. 

Switch indicators are provided at all main-line crossovers 
where a train could clear the main track. These give an indi- 
cation for the block in which they are located and for two blocks 
in the rear. They are of the vane type and operate on 110 volts. 
At the ends of passing sidings and other points where the pro- 
tection is necessary, triple-lock switch machines are provided. 
These are controlled in the same manner as the switch indicators 
and the switch is held locked upon the approach of a train. 
Shunt boxes are used on all main-line switches and siding derails. 


The electro-mechanical interlocking plant at Graham has 14 
working and 2 spare mechanical levers, and six electric levers. 
\ similar plant at Bluestone Junction has 22 working and 2 
spare mechanical levers, and 14 electric levers. All control. cir- 
cuits and indicators at these plants are d. c, operated by a battery 
of five 120-a. h. lead type cells, which are charged from a mer- 
cury-arc rectifier, taking current from the signal transmission 
line. The indication circuits for the levers in these plants are 
alternating current. Approach and route locking are provided 
for all through movements at all of the interlockings. 

The electro-pneumatic interlocking plant at Elkhorn tunnel, 
which operates the switches on both sides of the tunnel, has a 
17-lever machine with 13 working levers, which operate one 
three-arm, four two-arm, six one-arm and three dwar^ signals, 
eight switches and five derails. Air compressors, with a capacity 
of 50 cubic feet per minute, driven by 15-hp.. single-phase. 60- 
cycle motors, are used to supply air for the plant at the tunnel, 
and instead of extending the air line through the full length of 
the plant, two 15-cu. ft. per minute air compressors were installed 
at a crossover located 5.500 ft. west of the tower, these com- 
pressors taking current from the signal transmission line. 

This installation was made by company forces under the di- 
rection of D. W. Richards, signal engineer, to whom we are in- 
debted for the above information. 

Women Clerks on the Brighton Line of England.— Young 
sirls are now being taught the duties of booking and parcel 
clerks and telegraphers in a special school at East Croydon, 
organized bv the London. Brighton & South Coast. 

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New Railroad Legislation in Fifteen States 

Regulation of Innumerable Details, Large and Small, 
Operating, Legal, Socialistic ; North, South, East, West 

Laws affecting railways which have been passed in 1915 by the 
legislatures of fifteen states are abstracted below : 


Only two bills affecting railroads were enacted into laws as 
a result . of- the recent session of the legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania and neither of them affects operation. The governor 
vetoed the bill to repeal the full crew act of 1911, withholding 
his announceir.ent of disapproval until eighteen hours after 
the time limit, although he acted on the bill and officially 
certified his action within the specified period. Other bills 
affecting railroad operation and equipment were defeated or 
died in committee. 

The new acts affecting railroads are as follows: 

Permitting testimony to be taken by examiners to be named 
by the Public Service Commission anywhere within the state 
and allowing appeals direct to the superior court instead of 
through t'he Dauphin county court, which has jurisdiction in 
state cases. The act may have bearing on pending appeals, 
of which there are a dozen, and an official decision is to be 

Changing period for reports on capital stock and loans for 
state taxation to the calendar year. Provision is made so that 
arrangements can be made for filing, under certain conditions, 
at times required for federal reports. Heretofore reports were 
required for an official year materially different from a calen- 
dar year. 

A bill providing for a new railroad map of the state was 

.As the result of an appropriation being allowed for mainte- 
nance, the Pennsylvania State Bureau of Railways, a branch 
of the Internal Affairs department, has been revived. Free- 
man C. Gerberich is again chief. The bureau is a constitu- 
tional office and it was sought to make it ineffective by with- 
holding appropriations in 1913, the contention being that the 
functions were performed by the Public Service Commission. 
The bureau receives and files certain reports. 


The Indiana legislature at its recent session passed the fol- 
lowing laws relating to railroads: 

House bill 11 authorizes the public service commission to com- 
pel railroads to place a flagman or install an automatic gong at 
any public crossing where the view of approaching trains is 
obscured, if unable to remove the obstruction. 

Senate bill 239 amends the grade separation law to permit the 
public service commission in ordering any separation of grades 
to relocate or consolidate highway crossings over railroads, 
street railroads, interurban lines or suburban roads, and to re- 
locate or control highways leading to any such crossings. 

Senate bill 318 amends the public utilities act to allow rail- 
roads to furnish free or reduced service or transportation to any 
bona fide employee or officer thereof, to carry free or at reduced 
rates agricultural experiment and demonstration cars or trains 
and lecturers, and to carry at free or reduced rates its fur- 
loughed, pensioned or superannuated employees, persons who 
have become disabled or infirm in its service, etc. 

House bill 110 prohibits intereference with railroad safety ap- 
pliances, signal wires or telephone or telegraph apparatus. 


Railroad laws passed by the Minnesota legislature this year 
include the following: 

A bill requiring public service corporations to pay their em- 
ployees at least semi-monthly the wages earned by them to 
within IS days of the date of such payment. 

A law providing for the sanitation, inspection and cleaning 
of stock cars. 

An act enlarging the powers of railway companies, terminal 
companies, depot companies in respect of acquiring property by 
purchase or condemnation. 

A law prescribing clearances. 

A law regulating the furnishing of cars for the transportatian 
of livestock. 

A law authorizing the state railroad and warehouse commis- 
sion to prescribe schedules of reasonable maximum rates. 


Railroad legislation passed at the recent session of the Oregon 
legislature includes a law to provide penalties for obstruction 
of railroad block signals, crossing bells, crossing gates, signal 
flags, torpedoes, etc. Another law requires reports of all indus- 
trial accidents to be made to the state industrial accident com- 
mission. Railroads will no longer be required to report to the 
labor commissioner, but are required to give immediate notice 
by telegraph, telephone or personally to the railroad commission 
of accidents attended by loss of life or limb or serious damage to 
property. Another law requires an annual accounting to be 
made to the commissioner of labor statistics by persons, firms or 
corporations withholding any portion of the wages of employees 
for the maintenance of any hospital or relief fund. The name 
of the Railroad Commission of Oregon is to be changed on 
July 1, 1915, to the Public Service Commission of Oregon. 


The Nebraska legislature at its recent session passed the fol- 
lowing laws affecting railroads: ' - 

Senate bill 26 provides that railroads shall furnish shippers 
of livestock with transportation of caretakers for shipments of 
one or more cars. 

House bill 21 provides for cumulative voting and voting by 
pro.xy by stockholders of any company incorporated under the 
laws of Nebraska. 

House bill 217 regulates the stringing of electric wires over 
railroad tracks. 

House bill 304 requires express companies to properly house 
livestock entrusted to their care. 

House bill 391 relates to destruction of weeds on railroad 
right of way and compensation therefor. 

House bill 526 provides a penalty for injury or interference 
with telephone, telegraph or electric light wires and fixtures. 

House bill 749 makes an appropriation for the use of the 
state railway commission to be used in the investigation of rail- 
road rates. 


There were no railroad laws of any especial importance 
passed at the last session of the legislature of North Dakota. 
The following is a short summary of the laws that were passed : 

House Bill 6 provides that railway cars shall be cleaned and 
disinfected before being used for transporting livestock into the 

House Bill 154 provides that railroad companies shall build a 
hog-tight fence along their right of way when the owner of 
abutting property has enclosed the other three sides of his land 
with such a fence. 

House Bill 159 provides that the state railroad commissioners 
may require railroads to build and maintain stock yards at 

House Bill 398 provides that a railroad corporation incorpo- 
rated in one or more states increasing its capital stock shall pay 
to the state of North Dakota a fee on such proportion of the 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 1 

increase as the mileage in the state of North Dakota bears to 
its total mileage. 

Senate Bill 178 prohibits children from trespassing on rail- 
road property. 

Senate Bill 216 provides for the liability of railroad companies 
in case of employees suffering personal injuries. This law is 
substantially the same as the federal employers' liability act and 
applies to railroads engaged in intrastate business. 


Laws passed by the Nevada legislature at its recent session 
include the following: An amendement to the state extra crew 
law, providing that the law shall not apply to railroad com- 
panies less than 95 miles in length, or on which but one train 
a day is (derated in each direction. 

An amendment to the electric headlight law, providing that 
any electric headlight "which will pick up and distinguish an 
object the size of s^ man dressed in dark clothes on a dark 
and clear night at 1,000 ft" will be deemed equivalent to a 
1,500 c.p. headlight measured without a reflector. Section 2 
of the act, which required such a headlight on the rear of 
engines when operated backwards at night, is repealed. 

An amendment to the state railroad commission law prescrib- 
ing regulations for the filing and posting of rates, and providing 
for the suspension of advanced rates by the railroad com- 


The only legislation directly affecting railroads enacted at 
this year's session of the Utah legislature was the act prohibiting 
the transportation of intoxicating liquors into "dry" territory. 


The Missouri legislature, which recently adjourned, passed a 
law requiring railroads to maintain lights at night on main line 
switches and all lead switches in yards where cars are switched 
in making up or breaking up trains. The law does not apply to 
branch lines where trains are not run at night, or to independent 
lines of less than 50 miles in length, nor to trailing point switches 
on double track lines. 


The Oklahoma legislature at its recent session passed a law 
prohibiting railroads from maintaining or establishing a name 
for any railroad station other than the name of the town or city 
within which it is located, if the latter bears the name of the 
postoffice as given by the United States government. 


The only legislation affecting railroads enacted during this 
year's session of the Arizona legislature was Senate bill 36, pro- 
viding that it shall be the duty of all railroad companies in the 
state to require section foremen or persons discharging like duties 
to keep at the section house a specified record of all stock killed 
or crippled upon their respective sections, which record shall 
be open and free for inspection by the public at all reasonable 
times. The law also provides that each engineer shall report to 
the railroad company on arrival at terminals all stock killed by 
his train, and that such report shall be posted on Monday of 
each week at the section or station nearest to the point where the 
accident occurred and shall be kept for 30 days. 


The 1915 session of the Florida legislature has just come to a 
close with less railroad legislation to its credit than any other in 
recent years. Only one bill was passed that might be called di- 
rect railroad legislation, and that was an act empowering the 
railroad commission to require the use of docks and terminals 
of a company operating the same under a franchise granted by 
the state or city, by any other such company. The Railroad 
Commission, after a hearing and investigation, is authorized to 
direct that track connection be made for transfer of freight, and 
the free use of the property by another such terminal company. 

If the two tenninal companies cannot agree upon terms of re- 

muneration to be paid to the owning company, the railroad com- 
mission is to determine. 

In the city of Pensacola, the Louisville & Nashville has large 
dock and terminal facilities. The city is contemplating the con- 
struction of a municipal belt line railroad and terminals, and the 
Louisville k Nashville would possibly object to this belt line 
railroad entering and using its facilities. However, this Act does 
not apply to municipalities that have elected Boards of Port 

A large number of other bills were introduced during the ses- 
sion affecting railroad companies, but failed of passage. Amsng 
these were the "full crew bill," and one requiring running wa- 
ter to be provided in lavatories on passenger trains, with sani- 
tary towels and soap. 


The principal laws affecting railroads passed by the legis- 
lature of South Dakota at its recent session include the following : 

Senate bill 55 amends the law with reference to taxation of 
railroad companies and other corporations, and provides- for a 
tax on gross earnings and reports to be filed with the tax 

Senate bill 83 regulates the issue of warehouse receipts. 

Senate bill 314 amends the law with reference to procedure 
before the state railroad commission and provides for the en- 
forcement of commission orders by mandamus. 

House bill IH requires railroads whose rights of way divtde 
farm lands to construct and maintain farm crossings- when or- 
dered by the railroad commissions. 

House bill 271 prohibits railroads from increasing any in- 
trastate rate or changing any classification rule or regulation 
without first obtaining the consent of the railroad commission. 

House bill 272 authorizes the state railroad commission to 
reject and refuse to file any schedule or tariff of rates, rules or 
regulations unless handed to the commission not less than 30 
days before the effective date. 

House bill 175 gives the railroad commission authority upon 
petition to require railroads to construct track scales for the 
weighing of freight in carload lots from team tracks at any 
station at the expense of the shippers petitioning for such scales. 

Senate bill 288 authorizes the railroad commission to pre- 
scribe rules for the weighing of carload lots and of livestock at 
track scales and of other commodities in ton lots. The commis- 
sion may require all track scales to be sealed. 

Senate bill 142 authorizes the railroad commission to require 
all railroads to erect at any station in the state proper and suitable 
stock yards and to equip them with feed troughs, racks and 
watering troughs and water supplies. 

House bill 348 provides that on failure by a common carrier 
to appeal from any final order of the railroad commission or upon 
the affirming of any order from which an appeal has been taken, 
the railroad commission is authorized by mandamus to compel 
carriers to comply with such orders. 


Laws affecting railroads enacted by the Idaho legislature at 
its recent session include the following: 

Minor changes were made in provisions of the public utilities 
act including an amendment to the anti-pass provisions with- 
drawing the power of the utilities commission to designate the 
state officials to whom passes may be issued and enacting that 
passes may be issued to the members of the commission, or such 
of its officers and employees as the commission may designate, 
when traveling exclusively in the transaction of public business, 
or to such other state or county officials to whom the issuance 
of free transportation may be authorized by law. The amend- 
ment also enlarged the class of persons to whom passes may be 
legally issued to include veterans of the civil war. There wat 
also enacted a uniform bill of lading act. Certain am e n dm ents 
were also adopted to the laws relating to the issue of bonds and 
notes by railroad corporations and the execution of mortgages 
to secure them. 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 




Railroad laws passed at the recent session of the Washington 
legislature include the following: 

Senate bill 144 regulates the issuance of bills of lading and 
the rights, obligations and liabilities thereunder. 

Senate bill 258 authorizes the Public Service Commission of 
the state to suspend increases in rates for a period of 90 days 
with a possible extension for 60 days, pending a hearing and 

Senate bill 215 makes certain amendments to the laws regulat- 
ing the purchase of railroad stocks, bonds and property by rail- 
road companies. The law provides that the purchase, sale, con- 
solidation or lease of another company shall be approved or 
ratified by persons holding 75 per cent of the capital stock of 
the company selling or disposing of its stock or bonds or leasing 
or otherwise disposing of its property. The law also provides 
that no railroad or transportation company shall consolidate its 
stock, property or franchise with that of any other railroad or 
transportation corporation owning a competing line, or purchase 
either directly or indirectly any stock or interest in a railroad or 
transportation company owning or operating a competing line. 
The law also requires the approval of the Public Service Com- 
mission for the consolidation of railroads and provides that the 
capital stock of the company formed by such consolidation shall 
not exceed the sum of the capital stock of the companies con- 
solidated at the par value. 


The summer meeting of the Association of Transportation 
and Car Accounting Officers was held at Niagara Falls, On- 
tario, June 22 and 23, with 130 members in attendance, and 
J. M. O'Day (I. C), president, in the chair. At the opening 
session there was an address by E. F. Kearney, president and 
receiver of the Wabash, who, while general superintendent 
of transportation of the Missouri Pacific, represented that 
company in this association. Mr. Kearney spoke at length 
on the causes leading up to the present agitation against 
railroads, calling attention to the fact that railway officers 
and employees were themselves largely to blame. He advo- 
cated the maintenance of high moral and business standards. 
He regarded patriotism as one of the greatest essentials in 
raising standards; if the ideals of patriotism are thoroughly 
instilled into the minds of the younger generation the old- 
time bad or questionable practices will not be repeated. 

The report of the executive committee shows a membership 
operating 249,718 miles of road and having in service 2,557,365 
cars. It was decided to continue the consolidation of the 
committees on conducting freight and passenger transporta- 
tion and the committee on joint interchange and inspection 
bureaus for the succeeding six months, the combined com- 
mittee to be known as the "Committee on Conducting Trans- 

The committee on car service reported the action of the 
Freight Claim Association at its Galveston meeting, wherein 
that association decided that demurrage or storage refunded 
under legal liability or when uncollectible owing to negligence 
in transportation shall be charged to the liable line or lines. 
The effect of this rule (which was approved) will be to make 
the lines which are liable for the freight charges on refused 
freight also liable for demurrage charges on such shipments; 
demurrage charges, when legally assessed, are a matter of 
filed tariff and cannot be voluntarily waived. 

The association adopted for submission to the American 
Railway Association the proposed addition to the Switching 
Reclaim Rules of a definition to cover "intra-terminal switch- 
ing," viz., "A car loaded within the switching limits for un- 
loading within the same switching limits." It is provided 
that no reclaim shall ]>e allowed for an intra-terminal switch- 
ing movement. 

The association concurred in the findings of the committee 
to the effect that at present there should be no change in 
Rule 8 to relieve the holder of the car from per diem where 
material for repairs has been shipped by the owner and lost 
in transit; but the committee requested that the subject be 
referred back. The findings of the committee were also con- 
curred in, that, where the holding road orders material from 
the owner for repairs to a car and such material is not used 
because other material has been found, such a case does not 
come under Rule 8. In connection with the question of the 
advisability of establishing a reclaim for per diem on cars 
undergoing repairs or transfer because of the delivering line's 
responsibility, the committee on car service presented a rec- 
ommendation to the effect that no reclaims should be pre- 
sented or allowed under Car Service Rule 15; that at points 
where such reclaims had been in effect they had been elimi- 
nated by reason of the fact that experience demonstrated that 
the conditions were so thoroughly reciprocal that the amount 
involved in the recla\ms did not pay the expense of the ac- 
counting incident thereto. The recommendation of the com- 
mittee was adopted. 

The association adopted for submission to the American 
Railway Association proposed form of per diem Rule 13, 
providing that reclaims under Rules 5 and 14, or on account 
of special conditions, must be presented within one year 
from the last day of the month in which the per diem is 
earned; this, however, will not prevent the continuance of 
any reclaim after the period named if it has been previously 
opened, even though the reclaim should eventually rest upon 
some road other than the one originally addressed, except 
that the privilege of continuance shall cease when the claim- 
ant fails to return reclaim or present it to another road 
within a period of six months from date such reclaim is last 
returned to claimant. The amended rule also provides that 
reclaims under this rule must be made by the designated 
transportation officer of the road which pays the per diem to 
the designated transportation officer of the road from which 
the allowance is claimed, unless specifically agreed by the 
interested roads to permit the presentation and acceptance of 
such reclaims by local representatives. 

The proposed form of per diem Rule 14 as presented by 
the committee was also adopted for submission to the .Ameri- 
can Railway Association. The amendment to the rule pro- 
vides that a connection intending to reclaim against a de- 
linquent line for its failure to accept cars shall notify such 
delinquent line daily, prior to midnight, through the desig- 
nated officer, or in such manner as may be agreed upon 
locally, of the cars held for it; also that when the hour at 
which the receiving road clears the interchange track is so 
late that the delivering road cannot deliver before midnight, 
the receiving road is to be responsible for the per diem on 
such cars for the following day, subject to local agreement 
as to time required to make delivery. 

The committee on continuous home route cards reported 
that about 250 railroads are using the standard continuous 
home route card. The discussion on this report showed that 
those roads which have not adopted the card are deferring 
action principally for the reason that they do not wish to 
incur any obligation, under the rules, until, by the action of 
the American Railway Association, all roads are placed on a 
common basis. While much empty mileage can be saved by 
short-routing empty cars home, there must be a good deal 
of education of agents if they are to be allowed to do this 
on their own initiative. Thus far there has been much im- 
perfect work, cards being filled out in a very slovenly manner. 

The committee was requested to present a method for 
computing the saving in empty car mileage by the adoption 
of the standard continuous home route card. 

The list of accepted assignments of reporting marks to 
cars of private ownership, presented by the committee on 
office methods and accounting, was adopted for submission 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. I 

to the American Railway Association. The report of the 
committee indicates that approximately 385 owners of private 
cars have accepted assignments of reporting marks and are 
applying them to their cars. The marks are limited to four 
letters, of which the last letter shall be "X." 

The committee is also engaged in assigning marks to cars 
of railroad ownership with a view to preventing duplicate 
marks. Assignments of marks have been made to every 
standard gage railroad in the United States, Canada and 
Mexico. The marks assigned to railroads are limited to three 
letters, except in certain instances where the short "&" is 
used to enable car owners to use reporting marks which 
correspond to the corporate initials of the owner. Up to 
the date of meeting 407 railroads have accepted the report- 
ing mark assigned. 

The committee has prepared forms for the collection of 
data relating to the subject of per diem, and these forms will 
be forwarded to members for the compilation of the data 
required by the committee for the period July, 1915, to De- 
cember, 1915; and upon receipt of these statistics the com- 
mittee will present the same to the American Railway As- 
sociation as indicating the condition of per diem records of 
American railways generally, such data affording a basis for 
future action affecting per diem discrepancy claims. 

The association adopted for submission to the American 
Railway Association the proposed form of car tender report 
and the proposed form of summary of per diem reports as 
presented by the committee. 

Acting in compliance with the request of the American 
Railway Association, the committee on office methods and 
accounting reported that, after a series of conferences held 
between representatives of the Freight Claim Association 
and representatives of the Transportation Association, by 
joint action of representatives of the two bodies a code of 
rules governing the application, inspection, recording and 
care of car seals was adopted, for presentation to the Freight 
Claim Association and the Association of Transportation and Car 
Accounting Officers for joint action by the respective associations. 
The Freight Qaim Association at a meeting held June 16, adopted 
the rules presented. The Association of Transportation and 
Car .Accounting Officers at this meeting also adopted the 
proposed rules for submission to the American Railway As- 
sociation. These rules as adopted embody very full and 
elaborate instructions for the guidance of the seal inspector. 

The association adopted for submission to the American 
Railway Association the recommendation of the committee 
on handling railroad business mail, that packages containing 
claim papers shall bear on the face thereof the fact that they 
relate to the business of the carriers handling the same. 

The committee also recommended that roads receiving let- 
ter mail on which postage is due shall keep such envelopes, 
and where repeated instances from the same source are noticed 
the department at fault shall be advised of the inadequacy 
of postage. If the practice should not cease a corrective 
may be applied by rendering bill against the particular depart- 
ment of the carrier at fault, accompanying the same by a file of 
envelopes showing the postage due. The committee also recom- 
mended that all inquiries relative to the handling of railroad busi- 
ness mail be forwarded direct' to the general secretary of the 
American Railway Association. 

The association adopted the recommended form of yard 
check book as presented by the committee on conducting 
transportation. This form, in addition to providing space to 
show date and time of check and signature of man making 
the check, shows the following heads as necessary: Initials, 
Number, Condition (Loaded. Unloading, Empty, etc.), Loca- 
tion, Weather Record. Class of Car, Capacity of Car, Lading 
and Condition of Driveway at Team Tracks. 

The association adopted for submission to the American 
T\ lilway Association the recodification of car service rules as 
presented by the committee on conducting transportation. 

The rules as presented provide for a separation of the car 
service rules relating to freight equipment cars from those 
relating to passenger equipment cars, the freight rules being 
numbered from 1 to 17, while the passenger rules are num- 
bered from 101 to 113. In the recodification the committee 
presented a passenger car rule providing that "A foreign pas- 
senger equipment car must be promptly returned to its owner 
via the route and junction point received, unless the owner 
otherwise agrees. A road responsible for delay will be 
charged per diem rates in addition to mileage for the period 
of delay." The passenger car rules also provide that "Should 
a passenger equipment car, without consent of the owner, be 
delivered to a road other than connection from which re- 
ceived, the road responsible shall pay to the owner the per 
diem rate from the hour of appropriation until the hour car 
is returned to its owner or to the joint service and in addition 
thereto the established mileage rate shall be paid the owner 
by each road using the car." 

The committee also reported that the committee on joint 
interchange and inspection bureaus at Toledo, Ohio, has com- 
pleted its work and submitted its report and recommendations 
to the general managers, and that at Cincinnati a committee 
is at work with a view to installing a bureau in zones, con- 
templating eventually covering the entire terminal. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, J. T. 
King (Atlantic Coast Line); first vice-president, F. E. Higbie 
(Central New Jersey); second vice-president, J. W. Nowers 
(A. T. & S. F.); secretary, G. P. Conard (75 Church street. 
New York) ; treasurer, F. M. Luce. 

It was decided to hold the next meeting at St. Louis, 
December 14 and 15, 1915. 


By Walter S. Hiatt* 

Never in railroad history have men worked under operating 
conditions similar to those that existed in France during late 
August and early September last when the territory to the 
northeast of Paris became the scene of one of the most gigantic 
battles of the war. 

The role the railroad men played in that battle is but vaguely 
understood even at this late date. In the frightful scramble 
that preceded the battle of the Mame, the railroad officers in 
Paris gave out the following notice to their employees: "Think 
of your helpless wives and children ; work to get troops to the 
front." These men, thinking of what the Germans had done to 
women and children in Belgium, worked like demons, slept and 
ate at their posts for two weeks, and strained every nerve to 
get troops to the points required. The 17 railroads of the Ger- 
man government, all built with an eye for military purposes, 
may be admirable from the standpoint of construction and oper- 
ation. They have certainly done great service in the war, but 
they have not to date been tried by the fire that assailed the 
French railways. 

In a previous article I have sketched the general features of 
the mobilization in France, and showed how the railroads re- 
sponded magnificently to the demands made upon them. I 
have also showed how 10,000 trains were kept going during the 
20 days of the first period, transferring men from their homes 
to their regiments, thence to their army corps and to the front; 
and how the mad throngs of the civil population were cared for 
This work was done without serious accident; the roads held 
up under a tremendous pressure, and they are today running 
as in times of peace. 

But it is the work connected with the battle of the Mame that 
must forever form a monument to the French railroad men. It 
has already gained for them the gratitude of the French people, 
as has been indicated by the bestowal of the cross of the Legion 

•The second article from our special European correspondent. The first 
appeared in the Raitway /Ig* Gtuette of May 21, page 1047. 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



of Honor on dozens of station masters, enginemen, firemen, con- 
ductors and others. No soldier, or "hairy" man, as they call the 
unshaven heroes of the trenches, has given a better account of 
himself, or made more untiring sacrifices for his country than 
liave the cheminots, the railway officers and employees. 

"Then came Charleroi," is a phrase found in every soldier's 
account of the early campaign. The fall of Charleroi was the 
l)eginning of the battle of the Marne. In war time the French 
railways are under the control of the war department, the oper- 
ation of each road being directly in charge of its own commis- 
sion, consisting of a military commissioner and an operating di- 
rector, who report to the war department's transportation officers. 
On August 17, the minister of war had issued a note of thanks 
to the various roads stating that, as the work of concentration 
was about finished, the government wished to acknowledge the 
efforts of the railroad employees and officers in preparing the 
way for victory. 

This was the first brilliant period of the war when the na- 
tion was resounding with the glorious resistance of Liege and 
the rapid invasion of Alsace and Lorraine. The 58 German 
army corps forming the eight powerful armies thrown on France 
as the first big stroke of the Germans were still at the frontier 
and their terrific blow, so deliberately planned, had not been 
struck. The railroads of France had just finished concentrating 
her seven armies, and between August 12 and 20 the Northern, 
Western and Orleans railways had hauled the little English 
army of about 200,000 men from Boulogne, Nantes and Saint- 
Xazaire to Mons, handling 420 trains, many of them at six 
minute intervals, without disturbing the general concentration 
work of the French army. 

The railroads were settling down to the more steady work 
of carrying food and ammunition to the front, and bringing 
back the wounded to Rheims and Chalons. Each of the six 
armies along the front from Maubeuge to Belfort, the seventh 
being at Paris, had its own central commissary, the vast stores 
of which were being renewed each day by the 42 trains set aside 
for that purpose. To be sure, there were a few changes of 
front to be made for certain army corps. The railroad men 
also had to take into account that the fifth German army under 
the Crown Prince had cut the line connecting the Northern 
and the Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean lines just south of Longwy, 
and that this meant new connections; but on the whole, the 
work was not too severe. On August 20, however, near Mor- 
hange, the army of Bavaria, the sixth German army, drove 
back the French to the river Meuse and united with the fifth. 
On August 22, at Charleroi, to which the Paris-Lyons-Mediter- 
ranean a week before had so proudly brought 60,000 troops across 
France from Africa, the battle began which lasted until the 26th 
and ended in a French defeat. 


While the battle raged — the generals having orders to hold 
their positions as long as possible — the railroads were told to 
make ready to save as many as possible of the troops who other- 
wise might have been lost, for in a retreat foot stragglers are an 
easy prey. General Joffre insisted that the trains wait until the 
last. He wanted the men for the big coup which he seemed al- 
ready to have decided upon. 

But meanwhile, before the fall of Charleroi, the railroads were 
also busy doing what they could to save the civil population flee- 
ing out of Belgium and the invaded French provinces all but 
submerged by the Teutonic flood. Some of the Belgians went to 
Holland; others went by boat to England. Several hundred 
thousand were placed in cars and transported to Calais and 
Havre, or directly to Paris with the French refugees. Further, 
no less than 2,700 Belgian locomotives were run upon French 
rails towards Paris and saved. 

On August 23 the little line from Sedan to Lerouville was 
still open. While the troops disputed every foot of ground, burn- 
ing or blowing up fine steel bridges as they retreated, hundreds 
of trains were being used to save the cannon, the munitions, and 

other valuable material. Even the food was gathered from the 
storehouses so that nothing would be left for the Germans. All 
these trains were directed to the points along the Marne indi- 
cated for each army corps. On some of these days 120 trains, 
and on others as many as 170 were used in this vast retreat. 

Von Kluck's army, the German right wing, was meanwhile ad- 
vancing toward Paris. To check it a little, other hundreds of 
Eastern, Western and Northern trains were rushed to pick up 
all the troops that could be spared from before the left wing in 
the Argonne region and to swing them around to form a new 
army behind Lille and Arras. 

The biggest thing of all, however, was to transport an army 
from along the Meuse, north to Verdun, to within 18 miles of 
Paris, to block the passages to the coveted city. This army, com- 
posed of the fourth, sixth and eighth army corps was supposed to 
be defending the Meuse to the south of Longwy. When that 
place capitulated on August 27, these three army corps, leaving 
but a skeleton behind, were put aboard 180 waiting trains and 
hurried through Verdun, Sainte-Menehould, Chalons, Bar-le-Duc, 
Chaumont, Troyes, to Raincy, whereby within a week the army 
made an entire change of front. Owing to the marvelous efforts 
of the railroad men, this army of about 100,000 men later played 
the chief role in the battle of the Marne. It was the lost army 
which the Germans located too late. Near Raincy it was joined 
by the little English army, rushed in the nick of time to Crecy- 
en-Brie, and by the army of Paris which was thrown out at the 
last minute on railroads, in automobiles and almost on foot, 

The army of General Manoury which the railroads assembled 
f)ehind Rheims, and the two armies assembled at Nancy, where 
Generals Castelnau and Sarrail took the offensive against the 
Crown Prince, then fell upon the Germans from three sides, 
caught them as in a sack, and there followed the bloodiest and 
most decisive battle of the war. The Germans as a result of it 
were pushed back to a position behind the river Aisne, which 
they were able to hold only because the French grew short of 
ammunition and had to rely on blank cartridges, rob the German 
dead of their rifles and cartridges or make bayonet charges when 
these means failed. 

The sleepless railroad men behind meanwhile were practically 
scouring France for more troops and bringing up others to take 
the places of the fallen. 


Panic reigned everywhere but among the cheminots. The 
French government, on its part, as a matter of sound prudence, 
determined to move to Bordeaux. Three special trains were 
made ready for this purpose before midnight of September 2, 
and arrived without accident or incident at Bordeaux the next 
day. The first train, composed of six sleeping and parlor cars, 
carried President and Madame Poincare, and arrived at 12:05. 
The second train, carrying Monsieur Viviani and other ministers, 
arrived at 12:25 and the third train, with more ministers and 
their secretaries, arrived twenty minutes later at 12:45. Later in 
the day arrived other trains concerning which but little has been 
said, arrived carrying the $800,000,000 gold deposits of the Bank 
of France, the valuable state papers of France, and all the docu- 
ments necessary to keep the government going on an official foot- 
ing. After the removal of the government, other trains were 
forthcoming to carry away the precious paintings and statuary 
and other treasures of the Louvre, in the Luxembourg gallery and 
other places. 

The cool-headed though bodily wrought railroad men had yet 
more to do. The officers of the government left openly, announc- 
ing that their removal was a measure of prudence and not of 
cowardice. .After they had gone, the people in Paris came upon 
some frightful hours. The city was apparently calm, but it real- 
ized at last what was happening, and even the bravest and the most 
carefree determined that it was time to move to places of greater 
safety. .\t the .American embassy, notices were printed to be 
tacked in houses belonging to or inhabited by American citizens. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 1 

warning the German soldiery to respect the rights of neutrals. 
These notices were never circulated. So it came about that in 
these frightful hours when Paris thought it was lost, while the 
railroads were desperately hurrying men and munitions forward, 
they also began to carry refugees from Paris by the hundred 
thousand. All the north of France was bent on flight. The ter- 
minals in Paris, in fact, became so crowded that the alarmed 
people hurried out on the roads, pushing their carts loaded with 
valises, trunks and household treasures before them. 

Large numbers slept at the stations. The line at the Saint- 
Lazare station was 200 yd. long and that at the Orleans station 
300 yd. long. Mothers with babes in their arms waited for 24 
hours on the sidewalks, and they and others, when the chance 
came, thronged upon flat cars and into box and cattle cars. All 
sorts of cars took away 50,000 people daily. It took three days 
to make a trip that today takes three hours, for the military 
train had to pass at all hazards and had the right of way. They 
passed and passed eternally, it seemed, a few minutes apart, night 
and day. 

The railroad men continuing at their posts of duty, were con- 
scious that on them depended the safety of the women and chil- 
dren, as well as that of the troops. Their patience was tried be- 
yond belief, but they remained at their posts. Never in this 
world, surely, have railroad men given such proof of their readi- 
ness and courage. 

In all France was there but a single example of a chcniinot 
who failed in his duty, and that example is widely known because 
of its singleness. A station master at Rheims, it is said, was 
discovered just before the Germans began arriving there in tele- 
phone conversation with a German officer somewhere out in the 
country. Fate would have it that the man's own boy led the 
French officers who were looking for him to give him orders, 
to the telephone booth. Of course the station master was execu- 
ted as a spy. 

Each day brought new difficulties. On the Northern and East- 
ern railroads, half of whose trackage was within the German 
lines, there were no more machine shops or roundhouses avail- 
able. New ones had to be improvised. Right behind each loco- 
motive was hauled a sort of wrecking car, wherein the train 
crews ate and slept, and wherein were carried relief crews and 
repair materials. 


With the German flood dammed and flung back upon itself, 
the task of these overworked railroad men nevertheless continued. 
They had to bring up re-inforcements to the River .\isne where 
the Germans halted in their retreat from the Marne. Fresh troops, 
more food, more ammunition had to be carried forward. The 
returning trains carried back more refugees, took German 
prisoners to the east and south, and hurried the thousands of 
wounded to the hospitals. 

While the cannon were thundering along the Aisne. the spare 
railroad men about the shops of Paris and Lyons and Orleans 
were put to work manufacturing wagon, caisson and cannon 
wheels, shells and even cannon parts. These they loaded on 
cars. They helped hurry the heavy cannon from Crcusot and 
Saint-Chamond to the Aisne to answer those the Germans had 
brougiit iip, and emptied arsenals of their 50-year old mortars, 
now once more of use in the siege warfare of the trenches. 

Trains carrying troops, ammunition, cannons, food and other 
supplies were run ceaselessly. In five weeks one of the six rail- 

way companies ran no less than 1,600 provision trains, part of the 
run being made over lines new to the crews. At one time no less 
than 1,300 locomotives and 4,000 men were thus detoured. 


Amid this seemingly hurly-burly one astonishing transportation 
feat was accomplished right after the battle of the Marne by one 
railroad when 52 ships arrived at Marseilles in the south of 
France with 70,000 Indian troops and their immense amounts of 
baggage. In three days these troops were discharged at their 
camping ground of Cercottes near Orleans, where they remained 
20 days before proceeding to support the English at Nieuport- 

The people remaining in the regions covered by the German 
invasion had to be fed and provided with the necessaries of life. 
From September 21 to November 14, 43 different trains were 
made up in different parts of France for this purpose. 

A mail service, beginning on a large scale from the end of 
September, demanded a mail car a day attached to every train 
to carry the millions of letters and packages sent to or by the 
soldiers. Gradually the railways also put themselves in position 
to take care of regular demands of commerce. Schedules were 
arranged on a stationary basis by October. The civil life of the 
country now goes on as usual. 

One apparent explanation of the success of the railroad men in 
this ordeal is to be found in the network of roads that spreads 
over France, fan-like, with Paris as the center. When one route 
is interrupted there almost is always a possible detour. 

Another thing which has contributed so largely to the success 
of French arms has been the unfailing good will, and the easy 
going spirit with which the railroad men are blessed. Often ir- 
ritable in small things, the French railroad man, trained in a 
hard school, is never seriously annoyed for any long period by 
any kind of a job. When all seems lost, he begins to look for 
daylight. War, anyway, is an energizer, and it has found a fertile 
field in the French in the midst of their greatest trial. 


The following is the gist of the statement given out by L. F. 
Loree, president of the Delaware & Hudson, in regard to the 
investigation which he made of the amount of .American rail- 
road securities held abroad: 

Requests were sent to 145 railroad corporations, being all 
the railroads in the United States above 100 miles in length. 
Replies were received from 136 companies, 100 companies 
furnishing statements of securities held abroad, while 37 re- 
plied that none of their securities was so owned. Eight com- 
panies have not yet replied, and of them seven are of minor 
and one of medium importance, the combined mileage being 
3.725 miles. They cannot materially aflFect the result. 

The stocks were identified by entries in the transfer books 
of the issuing companies. To the extent that they may be 
carried in the names of domestic bankers, brokers, or institu- 
tions, for foreign holders, the amount would be understated. 
Inquiries indicate that such holdings will not exceed $150,- 
000,000 par value. 

The bonds were in the main identified by the ''slips" filed 
by the payee under the requirements of the federal income tax 
law. Where interest is in default there would be no income 

Oil or before 
Security .Linuary, 1919 

First preferred stock 

Second preferred stock 

Common stock 

Notes $54,921,000.00 

RecciverH' certificates 998,000.00 

Collateral trust bonds 5.606,000.00 

Equipment bonds 1.332.000.00 

Car trusts 792.0OO.0fl 

Debenture bonds 

Mortgage bonds 16.129,400.00 

Total ?ll2.9f«.4no.n" 

Rail«oai> Securities Held .Abiioao 

Jan. I. 1920, Ian. 1, 1925. 

to Dec. 31, 1924 to Dec. 31. 1929 

$6.438!646.i6 $i6.666!66 

n!666]567!66 lolosiiooo.oo 

1.129,700.00 ■ 14,902.589.00 


928,000.00 85,941,500.00 

62,365,367.00 182,978,300.00 

5141,938.274.16 $293,920,389,00 

Jan. 1. 1930. 
to Dec. 31. 1939 




On and after 

.Ian. 1. 1940 Grand total 






$132,453,848.26 227,610.415.26 



1,232,650.00 204.005.310.00 

826,631,443,00 1,269,086,726.00 

$960,317,941.26 $2,576,401,342.42 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

July 2. 1915 



tax certificates in respect of coupons not paid, and to that 
extent the amount would be understated. 

The information was determined from data collected from 
October, 1914, to April, 1915, and during that period there have 
been large sales of these securities for foreign account in the 
American markets, and to that extent the amount would be 

There are held in France several hundred million dollars' 
worth of American railroad securities that are not repayable ex- 
cept in francs and that cannot in any likely contingency come 
upon this market, unless as a result of action by the French gov- 
ernment. Where such bodies are in default it may be that there 
will be issued in place thereof, when reorganization is carried 
through, bonds payable in dollars. The amount of such bonds 
in default is not great. 

There are held in Great Britain many of these securities 
by life and fire insurance companies that are likely to be held 
against calamities. There are also large amounts held by 
trustees and people of large means in that and other countries 
likely to be retained as insuring an income against any pos- 
sibility of disaster. 

It is believed that this information is of such general im- 
portance as well as of such particular importance to the rail- 
roads as to warrant a continuance of this investigation, espe- 
cially in view of the large amount of these securities that have 
since the beginning of the European war been returned to 
this market. Blanks will therefore be sent later in the year 
to the 100 companies as above, with the request that informa- 
tion be reported for the six months, July 1 to December 31, 
as to bonds and other evidences of indebtedness, and for July 
as to stocks. 



By F. T. Morse 

.\ssi!.taiit Engineer, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, Chicago 

The cross section of the roadbed of a railroad taken by the 
government valuation field parties is so different from that 
taken on the original surface of the ground at the time of 
construction that the ordinary formulas or methods do not 
apply. The following method of calculating such areas 
quickly was developed in checking over the I. C. C. inventory 
notes now being taken on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. 

In the accompanying diagram are shown typical sections as 
taken by the I. C. C. field parties. Fig. 1 being in embankment 
on a branch line where the roadbed is surfaced with dirt only. 
Fig. 2 in embankment where there is ballast, the top of the 
section being the bottom of the ballast. Fig. 3 in cut, and Fig. 
4, a side hill section with both cut and fill. In each case 0.0 
is the top of tie. 

.As no vertical distance through the required area is given, 
one cannot conveniently draw triangles and figure the area in 
the usual way. However, by enclosing the section in a rect- 
angle, triangles or trapezoids are obtained which may be 
easily figured and their area subtracted from that of the 
rectangle giving the required section area. The general 
method has been expressed in letters, then these terms ex- 
panded and many cancelled, leaving the result as indicated. 
The method in Fig. 1 is used when the area between the ends 
of the ties is in the form of triangles. In Figs. 2 and 3 this 
area is a rectangle or trapezoid. The same method is used to 
produce the formula as shown below F'ig. 3, which is exactly 
the same as in Fig. 1, with the addition of the two terms -dd 
and -ee, which take care of the difference in area between the 
ends of ties in the two cases. In cut sections, as in Fig. 3, 
it is necessary before multiplying to add to each elevation 
reading an amount equal to the greatest minus reading, to 
bring the reference line A-B to the lowest point of the cross 
section so that we have the general type of section shown in 
Fig. 2. 

The application of this method to a side hill section is 
shown in Fig. 4. Ordinarily the government engineers plot 
all irregular or peculiar sections and measure the area with a 
planimeter, but the same general method explained above can 
be applied to such cases also if desired. 

With practice most of the multiplying' may be done men- 
tally or by the machine when necessary, and the results re- 

b t, a e f 

d, €, r, 


Th*n, ZArta^ tab,-aib*-bci-/ic tcdi-<id*Zdd,-cl^*cl,*f-e,ftflg-fg, n>g, *a,g 
Sine* d and d, are z ero, all terms containing tifher b«com e zero. 
Applied tf fliefea ■0x:i:f,->^:^ M -^x.-«f^,:^J.v/»r/»~;t 










20x0.8 ' 

36 1.1 -367 







0.0 A.. 

— B-7epTie. 









c d e 
-07 -04 -M -M 

-r T T 14 

c, di e, fi 

Fig. 3. 

Bg adding 0.8 (fj, to each reading to bring reference line through lotyesf 
point of cross section the formula becomes similar to Fig.2. 

o,-x , d,+x 
a d 
a, d-dx -ad, *ax 
X - Ofd-adt 

Area hatting largest reading -(c, i-x)^ Area having smallest reading "fe- V J 

2 A -de, *dx Substituting the nalue 
ofx and simplifying 
. (a,tcid'-{d,-ci)ad 
'^ 2(o^-d) 

2A'ab,-ax Substituting the value 
ofx and simplifying 
■ (b,^d,)aHa,-'b!)ad 
^' Zia-i-d) 

Diagram of Typical Crou Section Areas 

corded at the same time, using an Ensign electric calculating 
machine or a comptometer, with the minus quantities in the 
right hand three columns and the plus quantities in the left 
hand three columns. When the last multiplication is com- 
pleted the total plus and minus quantities can then be read 
on the machine, mentally subtracted and divided by two, giv- 
ing the desired area. 

Digitized by 




General News Department 



Among the bills aimed at the railroads which have been 
prepared for introduction in the Alabama legislature are a 
"full crew" bill, a maximum train bill, an anti-negro helper 
and fireman bill, and an employers' liability bill, all prepared 
by railway labor union interests. 

H. U. Mudge has resigned as a member of the western 
group of the Presidents' Conference Committee for the Fed- 
eral Valuation of the Railroads. H. C. Phillips, valuation 
engineer of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, has been 
elected assistant general secretary of this committee. 

The railway department of the American Federation of Labor 
has issued a notice officially calling off the strike of the me- 
chanical department unions which was declared on the Illinois 
Central, the Harriman Lines and the Pere Marquette in 1911. 
From the point of view of the railways the strike was terminated 
over three years ago. 

The freight clerks of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, 
who have been threatening to strike finally agreed, on June 24, 
to submit their claims to arbitration, the leaders of the brother- 
hood and the officers of the railroad company having agreed to 
leave disputed questions to G. W. W. Hanger, assistant com- 
missioner of mediation, at Washington. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad announces that the operation of 
electric trains between Broad street, Philadelphia, and Paoli, will 
not begin until about the middle of August. Copper, needed for 
changes to be made in the overhead structure, cannot be had 
without considerable delay because of the pressing orders for 
munitions of war on which American shops are now engaged. 

Reports from Ottawa say that the agreement between the 
government and the Grand Trunk Pacific for the operation by 
the government of the branch of this road extending to Fort 
William has been concluded, and that the rental to be paid is 
$600,000, said to be equivalent to 4i<^ per cent on the cost of the 
line. Included in this property are the extensive terminal facili- 
ties at Fort William. 

The Canadian Department of Labor has appointed a board 
under the Industrial Disputes Act to deal with a difference 
which has arisen between the Canadian Northern and two 
brotherhoods, those of the locomotive enginemen and the 
firemen. The men have asked that the conditions under 
which they work in the East be raised to the level of condi- 
tions prevailing on the Western lines. 

The Erie Railroad has sold four of its largest steamships 
which are in use on the Great Lakes, and the ownership of 
which the company has to divest itself in accordance with the 
recent decision of the Interstate Commerce Commission. It is 
I'nderstood that the boats will be cut in two and taken through 
the St. Lawrence river to the .Atlantic ocean, there to be again 
put together and to be used by the purchasers in the coastwise 

The Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York City, 
has reduced the working hours of all employees of the station 
department from twelve hours a day to ten hours, with no reduc- 
tion in pay. This puts the station men and train men on the 
same basis as regards hours. The order affects 1,927 persons, 
about two-thirds of whom are on the elevated lines and one third 
in the subways. It will be necessary to employ about 20 per cent 
more employees in this department. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission. Division of Valua- 
tion, is preparing to issue Orders Nos. 17, 18 and 19, requir- 
ing telegraph, telephone and railway companies, respectively, 
to furnish information regarding the purchase of materials 
and rates of compensation similar to that required of the 
railways under Valuation Order No. 14, issued some time 
ago. Only those carriers are expected to furnish this in- 
formation upon whom these orders are served. 

A party of officers of the Chicago Great Western left Chicago 
on Monday on a special train for a "safety first" inspection trip. 

making short stops at various points for the purpose of inspect- 
ing conditions with respect to safety and to receive suggestions 
from the local committees. Short talks were made by J. A. 
Gordon, general manager; G. O. Perkins, superintendent of tele- 
graph ; G. E. Stoup, trainmaster ; T. A. Sweeney, J. W. Mulhern. 
and C. A. Shoemaker, superintendents; G. A. Brown, superin- 
tendent of car service, and G. M. Crownover, superintendent of 
motive power. 

The court at Buffalo, N. Y., has again postponed (to Septem- 
ber 1) the date limiting the time during which the Buffalo & 
Susquehanna may be operated under the present temporary ar- 
rangement. It was September 1, 1914, when, in the receivership 
proceedings, the operation of the road was ordered discontinued, 
because of insufficient income; but negotiations for the sale of 
the property have been continued and now it is hoped soon to 
find a purchaser. It is reported that W. R. Page, of Olean, N. Y.. 
chief owner of electric lines in that region is to take over the 
property and operate it in connection with the electric lines. 

Daniel Willard, LL. D. 

Daniel Willard, president of the Baltimore & Ohio, is now 
doctor of laws, that degree having been conferred on him last 
week by Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. Pro- 
fessor Lord, in introducing Mr. Willard at the commencement 
exercises, alluded to his familiarity with railroad management, 
and his ability to set forth its principles with literary skill and 
convincing force ; and to the fact that his wider interest in human 
and intellectual relations had led to his election as a trustee of 
Johns Hopkins University. In conferring the degree. President 
E. F. Nichols said : 

"Daniel Willard, born among these hills, a man of rare 
sagacity, an acknowledged master mind, and gifted also with that 
liigher, finer appreciation of human values, the college to which 
your youth aspired welcomes you in your maturity and honors 
your large achievements, though compassed without her aid." 

Mr. Willard was born at North Hartland, Vt., in 1861. His 
career, with which our readers are already acquainted, may be 
summarized : Track laborer, fireman and engineman from 1879 
to 1884; trainman, conductor, trainmaster and superintendent. 
1884 to 1901 ; general manager, vice-president and president. 
1901 to 1915. 

Baltimore & Ohio Staff Meeting 

At Deer Park, Md., last week, Friday and Saturday, officers ot 
the Baltimore & Ohio, to the number of 300, led by Vice-presi- 
dent A. W. Thompson, held a general staff meeting, reviewing 
the work of the past 12 months and discussing plans for the 
future. The appropriations for maintenance of equipment for 
the fiscal year now closing will amount to $12,000,000. About 
4,000 cars will be dismantled during the coming year. During 
the year closing 1,690,000 new ties were put in the tracks at a 
cost of 75 cents each, or 50 per cent more than in 1905. Over 
400,000 tons of stone ballast were put into the tracks last year. 
The efficiency of the track forces has been increased, and they 
are receiving higher wages. 

Officers of the traffic department reported that a brighter out- 
look is dawning, judging by conditions in the industrial and 
agricultural communities in which they arc engaged. A letter 
from President Daniel Willard was read at the opening session, 
reviewing the betterments which have been made to the property 
during the last five years at a cost of more than $100,000,000, 
approximately half of which amount was spent for additional 
tracks and terminals, and the reduction of grades. 

Mr. Thompson made an address designed to stimulate the 
pride of each man connected with the property. He urged 
loyalty at all times within the ranks, as well as a due sense 
of the railroad's duty to promote friendly public relations. A 
speaker from each department outlined his work for the en- 
lightenment of his fellow workers in other departments. The 
Baltimore & Ohio glee club of forty-five voices gave a concert 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



at the opening of the night session, and an illustrated lecture on 
the Magnolia cut-off improvement was delivered by Vice-presi- 
dent Thompson. 

J. J. Hill Professorship of Transportation at Harvard 

President Lowell of Harvard University announced during 
the commencement exercises last week a gift of $125,000 to the 
university to endow the James J. Hill professorship of trans- 
portation in the Harvard School of Business Administration, 
contributed by 12 present or former presidents of some of the 
most important railways of the country, over 20 prominent 
bankers, and other friends of Mr. Hill in all parts of the coun- 
try, to the total of 74. The gift was arranged and the sum 
was collected by a committee consisting of Robert Bacon, G. F. 
Baker, Howard Elliott, Arthur Curtiss James, Thomas W. 
Lamont and Robert T. Lincoln. The list of donors is as fol- 

Railroad Presidents 
William C. Brown, former president New York Central Lines, Clarinda. la. 
Frederic A. Delano, former president Wabash, Washington, D. C. 
Howard Elliott, president New york, New Haven & Hartford. Boston. 
S. M. Felton, president Chicago Great Western, Chicago. 
J. M. Hannaford, president Northern Pacific, St. Paul. 
Fairfax Harrison, president Southern, Washington. 
Hale Holden, president Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Chicago. 
I.. E. Johnson, president Norfolk & Western, Roanoke. 
I,. F. Loree, president Delaware & Hudson Company, New York. 
Samuel Rea, president Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
F. D. Underwood, president Erie, New York. 
Daniel Willard, president Baltimore & Ohio, Baltimore. 


Robert Bacon, New York. .lohn R. Mitchell, St. Paul. 

Everett H. Bailey, St. Paul. .Tohn J. Mitchell, Chicago. 

George F. Baker, New York. J. P. Morgan, New York. 

George F. Baker, Jr., New York. Charles D. Norton, New York. 

F. A. Chamberlain, Minneapolis Albert L. Ordean, Duluth. 

H. S. Cole, St. Paul. William H. Porter, New York. 

H. P. Davison, New York. F. H. Rawson, Chicago. 

James B. Forgan, Chicago. Jacob H. Schiff, New York. 

A. Barton Hepburn, New York. Grant B. Schley, New York. 

Francis L. Hine, New York. E. T. Stotesbury, Philadelphia. 

Thomas W. Lamont, New York. A. M, White, New York. 

L. F. Lusk, Missoula, Mont. A. H. Wiggin. New York. 

Other Friends of Mr. Hill 
Charles W. .\mes, law publisher, St. Paul. 
Estate of John H. Barker, Haskell & Barker Car Company, Michigan City, Ind. 

E. A. Baugbman, Richmond, Va. 

Gebhard Bohn, White Enamel Refrigerator Company, St. Paul. 

C. W. Bunn, general counsel Northern Pacific, St. Paul. 
Thomas Burke, lawyer, Seattle, Wash. 

William C. Butler, contractor, St. Paul, Minn. 

Fierce Butler, lawyer, St. Paul, Minn. 

Robert F. Carr, president Dearborn Chemical Company, Chicago. 

Hovey C. Clark, lumberman, Minneapolis. 

D. M. Clough, lumberman, former Governor of Minnesota, Everett, Wash. 
W. H. Cottingham, president Sherwin-Williams Paint Company, Cleveland. 
Otis H. Cutler, president Am. Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, New York. 
William B. Dean, hardware, St. Paul. 

Mrs. W. H. Dunwoody, Minneapolis 

Samuel Hill, Maryhill, Wash. 

A. N. Holter, hardware, Helena, Mont. 

P. L. Howe, director. Great Northern, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Arthur Curtiss James, vice-president El Paso & Southwestern System, New 

William V. Kelley, chairman American Steel Foundries Company, Chicago. 

A. H. Lindeke, dry goods, St. Paul. 

Robert T. Lincoln, chairman of board, Pullman Company, Chicago. 

W. J. McBride, president Haskell & Barker Car Company, Michigan City, Ind. 

J. T. McChesney, real estate, Everett, Wash. 

Alfred H. Mulliken, president Pettibone-Mulliken Company, Chicago. 

Edward A. More, St. Louis. 

B. F. Nelson, lumberman, Minneapolis. 
Northern Malleable Iron Company, St. Paul. 
A. R. Rogers, lumberman, Minneapolis. 

W. J. Rucker, lumberman, Everett, Wash. 

John D. Ryan, president Amalgamated Copper Company, New York. 
T. A. Schuize, boots and shoes, St. Paul. 
Thomas W. Slocum, New York. 
Howard C. Smith, bill broker. New York. 
William B. Thompson, New York. 
Samuel Thorne, director Great Northern, New York. 

Theodore N. Vail, president American Telephone & Telegraph Company, 
New York. 

F. A. Weyerhaeuser, lumberman, St. Paul. 

The Western & Atlantie 

Governor Slaton, of Georgia, in his message to the legis- 
lature, delivered last week, recommends legislation concern- 
ing what shall be done with the Western & Atlantic Railroad, 
owned by the state, the lease of which to the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis will expire in 1919, or before the 
end of the next legislative term. Among the questions which 
have been under discussion in this connection have been 
proposals to lease a part of the property of the railroad in 
Atlanta and also some in Chattanooga, for outside purposes, 
not being needed in the operation of the railroad. The 
governor has appointed an agent, E. M. Durham, Jr., on 
behalf of the state, to participate with the officers of the 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis in the valuation of^ the 
Western & Atlantic in co-operation with the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. The North Georgia Mineral Railway 
is the name of a corporation, chartered last autumn, which 
proposes to build a railroad from Atlanta to a point in 
Bartow county, parallel to the Western & Atlantic. The 
governor raises the question of the effect which the con- 
struction of a new line would have on the value of the 
Western & Atlantic; and a bill has been introduced in the 
legislature designed to forestall any injurious competition in 
this field. 

American Association of Railroad Superintendent* 

The twenty-eighth annual convention of the American As- 
sociation of Railroad Superintendents is to be held at San' 
Francisco on August 19 and 20. The convention will be 
opened with an address of welcome by Mayor James Rolph, 
Jr., of San Francisco, and there will be other addresses 
throughout the two days' sessions. Some of the speakers 
will be: William Sproule, president of the Southern Pacific;; 
Hale Holden, president of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; 
W. R. Scott, vice-president of the Southern Pacific; A. G. 
Wells, general manager of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 
Coast Lines; W. E. Williams, general manager of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas, who will speak on "The Railroad, a 
Public Servant," and W. M. Jeffers, superintendent of the 
Nebraska division of the Union Pacific, who will speak on 
"Discipline." Reports will be presented by the executive and 
advisory committees and also by the committees on trans- 
portation, on interchange car inspection, and on arbitration. 
A complimentary train, including a composite car and five 
sleeping cars, will be run over the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe and the Southern Pacific for the accommodation of mem- 
bers and their families, leaving Chicago on August 14, and 
arriving at San Francisco on August 18. The membership 
of the association is about 500, and it is expected to have 
between 150 and 200 people, including members and their 
families, on this train. The convention headquarters will 
be at the Hotel Sutter. Saturday, August 21, has been set 
aside by the executive committee of the Panama-Pacific In- 
ternational Exposition as Railroad Superintendents' Day. 

Convention of the American Society for Testing Materials 

The eighteenth annual meeting of the American Society 
for Testing Materials was held at the Hotel Traymore, At- 
lantic City, June 22-26, President A. W. Gibbs, chief mechan- 
ical engineer of the Pennsylvania Railroad, presiding. The 
address of the president and a paper by C. D. Young describ- 
ing the test department of the Pennsylvania Railroad are 
published elsewhere in this issue and a complete report of 
the convention will be published next week. The following 
officers were elected for the coming year: President. Mansfield 
Mcrriman; vice-president, W. H. Bixby; members of the 
executive committee, J. H. Gibboney, W. K. Hatt, J. A. 
Mathews and Edward Orton, Jr. 

Joint Committee on Classification of Technical Literature 

The Joint Committee on Classification of Technical Litera- 
ture, W. P. Cutler, secretary, 29 West 39th street, New York, 
is desirous of obtaining assistance in making a collection of 
classifications of applied science which have been developed 
independently in the offices of manufacturing plants, engi- 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, Xo. 1 

neering firms, etc., especially those which exist in manuscript 
form, and have been used for filing or indexing data. The 
committee would especially like to have copies of any exten- 
sions of present systems to cover any special industry or 
branch of engineering not now fully covered by the pub- 
lished classifications. 


The followiug list gives names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings, and places of meeting. 

Ai» Bdake Association.— F. M Ncllis, 53 Slate St., Boston, Mass. Next 
convention. May 2-5, 1916, Atlanta, (Ja. 

Amuican Association of Demuhrage Ofpiceks. — F. A. Pontious, 455 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Next meeting, July 21, 1915, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

.\HEaicAN Association or Dining Cab Supeeintendents. — H. C. Board- 
man, D. L. & W., Hoboken, N. J. Next meeting, October 21-23, 
1915, Boston, Mass. 

.Amekican Association op Feeight Agents. — R. O. Wells, Illinois Central, 
East St. Louis, III. 

American Association or Passencei Tiapfic Officeis. — W. C. Mope, 
C. R. R. of N. J., 143 Liberty St., New York. 

AuEEiCAN Association of Railroad Superintendents. — E. H. Harman, 
Room 101, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. Next meeting, August 
19-20, 1915, San Francisco, Cal. 

American Electric Railway Association. — E. B. Burritt, 8 W. 40th St., 
New York. Annual convention, October 4-8, 1915, San Francisco, 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association. — H. G. McCon- 
naughy, 165 Broadway, New York. Meetings with American Electric 
Railway Association. 

American Railroad Master Tinners, Coppersmiths and Pipefitters' 
.Association.— W. E. Jones, C. 4 N. W., 3814 Fulton St., Chicago. 
Annual meeting, July 13-16, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

.American Railway Association. — W. F. Allen, 75 Church St., New York. 

.American Railway Bridge and Building Association. — C. A. Lichty, C. & 
N. W., Chicago. Next convention, October 19-21, 1915, Detroit, Mich. 

American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, 900 S. Mich- 
igan Ave., Chicago. Next convention, March 21-23, 1916, Chicago. 

.American Railway Master Mechanics' .Association. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 
Karpen Bldg., Chicago. Annual meeting, June, 1916. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Illi- 
nois Central, Chicago. .Annual meeting, July 19-21, 1915, Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago. 

American Society for Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. S7th 
St., New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in month, 
except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. 

.American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W. 
39th St., New York. Annual meeting, December 7-10, 1915, New York. 

American Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, Supt. Timber 
Preservation, B. & C, Mt. Royal Sta., Baltimore, Md. Next con- 
vention, January 18-20, 1916, Chicago. 

Association of American Railway Accounting Officers. — E. R. Wood- 
son, Rooms 1116-8. Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. Annual 
meeting, June 28, 1916, Detroit, Mich. 

Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels. — George W. 
Lyndon, 1214 McCormick Bldg.. Chicago. Annual meeting, 2d 
Tuesday in October. 1915, New York. 

.■\ssociATioN OK Railw.\y Claim Acents. — C. W. Egan, B. & O., Baltimore, 

Association of Railway Electrical Engineers. — Jos. .A. Andreucetti, C. & 
N. W., Room 411, C, & N. W. Sta., Chicago. Semi-annual meeting 
with Master Car Builders* and Master Mechanics* .Associations. An- 
nual meeting, October, 1915. 

.Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents. — P. W. Drew, Soo 
Line, 112 West .Adams St., Chicago. 

-Association of Transportation and Car .Accounting Officers. — G. P. 
tonard. 75 Church St., New York. 

Bridge and Buildinc Supply Men's Association. — L. D. Mitchell, Detroit 
Graphite Co., Chicapo, III. Meetings with American Railway Bridge 
and Building Associatior.. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell, Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and .August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement II. McLcod. 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October, 
November, December, February, March and -April. .Annual meeting, 
January. Montreal. 

Car Foremen's .\ssoriATiON ok Chicago.- — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave., 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club. — H. D. Vought. 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual meeting, 2d Thursday in March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Knoineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles. 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings. 1st and 3d "Tuesday, 

Freight Claim Association. — Warren P. Taylor, Traffic Manager, R. E. 
& P.. Richmond, Va. 

CiENERal Superintendents' Association op Chicago. — .\. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular mcctinRs, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month. Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 


McCormick Bldg,, Chicago. 
International Railway CIeneral Foremen's Associ,\tion. — Wm. Hall. 1126 
W. Broadway, Winona, Minn, Next convention, July 1.V16. 1915. 
Sherman House, ('hicago. 

International Railr".\d Master Blacksmith's .\ssociation. — .\. L. Wood- 
worth, C. H, Jl 1)., Lima, Ohio. Annual meeting, .August 17, 1915, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maintenance of Way and Master Painters' Association of the United 
States and Canada. — T. I. Goodwin, C. R. I. & P., Eldon, Mo, 
Next meeting, October 19-21, 1915, St. Louis, M«. 

Master Boiler Makers' Association. — Harry D. \*ought, 95 Liberty St., 

New York. 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association of the United States 

and Canada. — A. P. Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Next conven 

tion, September 14-16. 1915, Detroit, Mich. 
Master Car Builders' Association. — ^J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., 

Chicago. Annual meeting, June, 1916. 
National Railway Appliance Association. — C. W. Kelly, 349 Peoples 

Gas Bldg., Chicago. Next convention, March, 1916, Chicago. 
New England Railroad Club. — W. E. Cade, Tr., 683 Atlantic Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in month, except June, 

July, August and September, Boston. 
New York Railroad CLUB.^Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 

Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 

29 W. 39th St., New York. 
Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association, — E. N. Frankenberger, 623 Bris 

bane Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings 3d Wednesday in month, New 

York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Peoria Association of Railroad Offices. — M. W. Rotchford, 410 Masonic 

Temple Bldg., Peoria. 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 

Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 
Railroad Club of Kansas City. — Claude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 

City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas City. 
Railroad Men's Improvement Society. — J. B. Curran, Erie R. R,. 50 

Church St., New York. Meetings, alternate Thursdays, October to 

May. Assembly Rooms of Trunk Line Association, 143 Liberty St., 

New York. 
Railway Business Association. — Frank W. Noxon, 30 Church St., New 

York. Annual meeting, December, 1915, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — ^J. B. Anderson, Room 207, P. R. R. Sta,, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 4th Friday in month, except June, 

July and August, Monongahela liouse, Pittsburgh. 
Railway Electrical Supply Manufacturers' Association. — J. Scribner, 

1063 Monadnock Block, Chicago. Meetings with Association of Rail- 
way Electrical Engineers. 
Railway Fire Protection Association. — C. B. Edwards, Fire Ins. Agt,. 

Mobile & Ohio, Mobile, Ala. Next meeting, October 5-7, 1915, 

Railway Signal Association. — C, C. Rosenberg, Klyers Bldg., Bethlehem, 

Pa. Annual meeting, September 14-17, 1915, Salt I-akc City, Utah. 
Railway Storekeepers' Association. — J. P. Murphy, N. Y. C. R. R,, 

Box C, Collingwood, Ohio. 
Railway Supply Manufacturers' -Association. — J. D. Conway. 2136 Oliver 

Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings with Master Car Builders and 

Master Mechanics* Associations. 
Railway Telegraph and Telephone Appliance Association. — G. A. Nel- 
son, 50 Church St., New York. Meetings with Association of Railway 

Telegraph Superintendents. 
Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O., Richmond, Va. 

Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 

RoaDMasters' and Maintenance of Way Association. — L. C. Ryan, C. & 

N. W., Sterling. 111. Annual meeting, September 14-16, 1915, Chicago. 
St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Frauenthal. Union Station, St. Louis, 

Mo. Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and 

August, St. Louis. 
Salt Lake "Transportation Club. — R. E. Rowland, David Keith Bldg., 

Salt Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 1st Saturday of each month. 

Salt Lake City. 
Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmunds, 3868 Park Ave., New 

York. Meeting wiith annual convention Railway Signal Association. 
Society of Railway Financul Officers, — Carl Nyquist, C. R. I. & P.. 

1134 La Salle St. Sta., Chicago. Annual meeting, September, 1915. 
Southern Association of Car Service Officers, — E. W. Sandwich. A. & 

W. P. R. R,. Atlanta, Ga. Next meeting, July 15. 1915, Atlanta, 

Annual meeting, January, 1916. 
Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — --A. J. Merrill, Grant Bldg.. 

Atlanta, Ga. Regular meetings. 3d Thursday, January, March, May. 

July, September, November, 10 A. M,. Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 
Toledo "Transportation Clud. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo, Ohio. Regular 

meetings, 1st Saturday in month. Boody House, Toledo. 
Track Supply Association. — W. C, Kidd, Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn. 

N. Y. Meetings with Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Asso- 
Traffic Club of Chicago, — W, H. Wharton, La Salle, Hotel, Chicago, 
Traffic Club of Newark. — John J. Kautzmann, P. O. Box 238, Newark, 

N. J. Regular meetings. 1st Monday in month, except July and 

August, The Washington. 559 Broad St., Newark. 
Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 291 Broadway. New York. 

Regular meetings last Tuesday in month, except June. July and 

August, Hotel Astor, New York, 
Traffic Club of Pittsburgh, — D, L, Wells, Genl, .Agt,, Erie R. R., 1924 

Oliver Bldg,, Pittsburgh. Pa, Meetings bi-monthly, Pittsburgh, 
Traffic Club of St. Louis, — .A. F. Vcrsen, Mercantile Library Bldg.. 

St. Louis. Mo, -\nnual meeting in November, Noonday meetings 

October to May, 
Train Dispatchers' Association of -America. — J. F, Mackie, 7122 Stewart 

.Ave., Chicago. 
Transportation Club op Detroit, — W. R, Hurley, Supertntendent*s office, 

N, Y. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. Meetings monthly, Normandie Hotel. 

Traveling Engineers* .Associ.wion, — W, O, Thompson. N. Y. C. R. R.. 

East Buffalo, N. \. .Annual meeting, September 7-10, 1915, Chicago, 
I'tah Society of Engineers, — Frank W. Moore, 1111 Newhouse Bldg,. 

Salt Lake City, Utah,' Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, ex 

cept July and August, Salt Lake City. 
Western Canada Railway Club. — L. Kon. Immigration .Agent. Grand 

Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg, Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept June, July and August, Winnipeg. 
Western Railway Ciub. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg,. Chicago. 

Regular meetings, 3d Tuesday in month, except June, July and 

August, Karpen Bldg,. Chicago. 
Western Society of Engineers. ^J. H. Warder. 1735 Monadnock Block. 

Chicago. Regular meetings, Ist Monday in month, except Januar>-. 

July and .August. Chicago. Extra meetings, except in July and 

August, generally on other Mondav evenings.^ Annual meeting. 1st 

Wednesday after 1st Thursday in January. Chicago. 

Digitized by 


JuLV 2, 1915 



Traffic News 

The Southern Pacific has just finished at Galveston, Tex., a 
new l,O0O,00(>-bu. concrete grain elevator, built at a cost of 

In suburban passenger cars on a branch of the Erie road 
in New Jersey passengers now see advertisements like those 
which are common in elevated and subway city railways. 

The Denver & Rio Grande and the Rio Grande Southern will 
place on sale July 1, a new mileage book containing 1,000 coupons 
for $30, which will be good for passage of the buyer and the de- 
pendent members of his family. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio announces that the sale of intoxicants 
has been discontinued on all of its dining and buffet cars. Pro- 
hibitory laws now prevail in a large part of the territory 
traversed by the lines of this company. 

On July 1, the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy and the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis estab- 
lished a new daily through package freight car from Chicago 
to Memphis, Tenn., making third morning delivery in 

Receipts for toils on vessels passing through the Panama 
Canal during the month of April amounted to $442,415, or 
$84,112 more than the cost of operation and maintenance, 
not counting interest on capital investments. April was the 
first month in which the receipts exceeded the charges. 

Pineapples from Cuba, by way of Key West, are being rushed 
north nowadays at the rate of 25 miles an hour. The Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis reports that the first 15 freight 
trains run for this traffic made the distance from Atlanta, Ga., 
to Martin, Tenn., 431 miles, in an average running time of 17 
hours 16 minutes, which makes the average rate noted in the 

The Pere Marquette has made a change in the route by which 
its passenger trains enter the city of Chicago. From Pine, Ind., 
into the city it now uses the tracks of the Baltimore & Ohio and 
the Baltimore & Ohio Chicago Termnial ; and trains arrive in and 
depart from the Grand Central station. Heretofore the Pere 
Marquette used the tracks of the Pennsylvania for part of the 

Trains 39 and 54 of the Central division of the Pennsyl- 
vania now have a day-coach buffet car between Kane, Pa., 
and Erie, 94 miles. These are through trains which have no 
dining cars. The buffet occupies a space of about 8 ft. in 
length at one end of the car, and food is served on small 
tables placed between seats. Breakfast is served on train 39, 
westward in the morning, and supper on train 54, eastward 
in the evening. 

Over 700 car loads of strawberries have been shipped from 
the East Tennessee section and points south of Chattanooga to 
Cincinnati and other western markets this year, according to 
figures of the Queen & Crescent Route, over which practically 
the entire crop moved. The great bulk of this freight comes 
from stations north of Chattanooga on the C. N. O. & T. P. 
The crop this year was much larger than last year, but good 
prices were realized, growers receiving an average of $1.75 a 
crate, or about $700 a car. 

The Missouri Pacific has received a gold medal for its pas- 
senger traffic exhibit at the Panama Pacific Exposition, made 
on behalf of itself, the Denver & Rio Grande and the Western 
Pacific. The exhibit, heretofore described in these columns, is 
an immense globe. 52 feet in diameter, representing the world, 
the Missouri Pacific and affiliated lines being prominently shown, 
with miniature trains running to and fro. The interior of the 
globe is entered through massive arches guarded by statues, and 
is arranged to represent various scenic attractions along the com • 
panics' lines. 

Commission ' and G>u]rt News 


Arguments before the commission in the western advance 
rate case were completed on June 26. Chairman McChord has 
announced that the hearings relative to the rates on various 
commodities scheduled to be held in Chicago on July 19 and 
succeeding days {Railway Age Gazette, June 25, page 1491) 
will be cancelled, as the carriers have agreed to suspend the 
proposed advances until September. The increases mentioned 
were some proposed after the hearings in the original case were 
begun. They were made the subject of a separate case by the 

The Business Men's League of St. Louis has filed a com- 
plaint against the railroads, objecting to the alleged discrimina- 
tion created by the five per cent advance in freight rates and 
advanced passenger rates permitted by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission in Official Classification territory, while no advance 
was made between points in the state of Illinois in the territory 
adjacent to St. Louis. The complaint states that prior to such 
advanced interstate rates becoming effective, passenger and 
freight rates between St. Louis and points in Illinois were, gen- 
erally speaking, on the same general basis as the intrastate rates. 
The commission is asked to require the defendant carriers to 
make' such a readjustment of the Illinois intrastate passenger, 
class and commodity rates as will remove the "unjust, unreason- 
able, discriminatory and unduly prejudicial rates." 

Transportation of Potatoes in Refrigerator Cars 

Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

In Rental Charges for Insulated Cars, 31 I. C. C, 255, the 
commission found not to be imreasonable a proposed charge 
of $5 per car per trip for the use of a refrigerator car in the 
movement of potatoes from points of origin in Minnesota and 
neighboring states and permitted to become effective tariffs nam- 
ing rates on potatoes which contained the following provision : 

Rental charge on insulated cars. — When shipper orders a refrigerator or 
other insulated car to be heated by him or to move without heat, a charge 
of $5 per car per trip will be made for the use of the car and will accrue 
to the owner thereof. 

It has now been proposed to eliminate from the above rule 
the words "and will accrue to the owner thereof." The com- 
mission finds that this change should be made, it being held 
that the charge to avoid discrimination should be uniform and 
collected from every shipper who has the use of a refrigerator 
car. There should be no discrimination between shippers using 
railroads, private car lines or privately owned refrigerator cars, 
and the proposed rule reduces to a minimum the possibility 
or probability of discrimination. (34 I. C. C, 255.) 

Des Moines Commodity Rates 

Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

In accordance with previous decisions of the commission the 
carriers have graded the 80-cent scale of class rates from Chi- 
cago to the Missouri river, back across the state of Iowa to the 
37j/i-cent and the 41.7-cent scales of class rates at the Mississippi 
river. Commodity rates, however, are still based largely on the 
scale of rates from Chicago or St. Louis to Minneapolis and 
St. Paul. The commission is of the opinion that the commodity 
rates would be more equitable if they, too, were scaled back 
across the state like the class rates. 

These complaints, however, were filed in behalf of Des Moines 
only. Without knowing the consequences to other points in 
Iowa, the commission does not believe that it can enter any 
order dealing with Des Moines commodity rates that will re- 
quire a wholesale readjustment of the rates to and from other 
points in Iowa. It is, nevertheless, shown that several of the 
commodity rates to Des Moines are in need of correction and 
the commission suggests that a conference between the jparties 
in interest be held to see if these rates cannot be made the sub- 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59. No. 1 

ject of an agreement between them. The commission will enter 
an order if the parties fail to agree before August 1, 1915. 

Certain complaints involving class and commodity proportional 
rates between Des Moines and the Mississippi river on ship- 
ments originating at or destined to points east of the Illinois- 
Indiana state line are dismissed in view of the fact that the 
entire proportional rate structure has been readjusted in accord- 
ance with the decision in the Interior Iowa Cities case, 28 I. C. 
C, 64, and 29 I. C. C, 536. 

The commission also takes into consideration a number of 
the commodity rates in question. The rates on cherry lumber 
and glove leather from Chicago to Des Moines are found un- 
reasonable to the extent that they exceed the present fourth 
class and second class rates, respectively. (34 I. C. C, 281.) 

Shipments Billed to Intermediate Points to Secure Lower Rates 

Kanotex Refining Company v. Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. 
Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

The Kanotex Refining Company ships regularly large quan- 
tities of petroleum from its refinery at Caney, Kan., to Wood- 
ward, Okla. In order to take advantage of the substantially 
lower Kansas intrastate rates on refined petroleum, the com- 
plainant devised the plan of billing its tank cars to one L. B. 
Hill of Kiowa, the latter point being the last in Kansas inter- 
mediate to Woodward. Hill was its agent for the sole purpose 
of acting as the consignee of the shipments and of rebilling them 
from Kiowa to Woodward, and he took no actual possession. 

The carrier upon learning of this plan refused further to bill 
the shipments from Kiowa, except at the balance of the through 
interstate rate, and it also presented undercharge bills for the 
previous shipments. 

The complainant frankly admitted that the cars were billed to 
Kiowa and then rebilled to Woodward for the sole purpose of 
securing lower rates; that Woodward was the intended desti- 
nation of the shipments; and that the cars were expected to 
move to that point as a continuous shipment, subject only to the 
delay incident to the rebilling at the intermediate point. 

The commission finds that the carrier acted entirely within 
its rights and that it exercised a plain duty under the law, when 
it refused to continue to rebill at Kiowa the shipments involved. 
The commission in so deciding adheres to the proposition that 
on any through carriage of traffic between intertsate points the 
lawfully published interstate rate must be applied, and that where 
the through interstate rate is higher than the aggregate of the 
intermediate rates any plan of first billing to an intermediate 
point a shipment that is really intended to reach a destination 
beyond is simply a device for defeating the lawful through rate, 
and is unlawful. (34 I. C. C, 271.) 


The Railroad Commission of Louisiana has ordered that, 
beginning with July, monthly reports of railroad accidents 
shall be made on forms identical with those prescribed by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

The Pennsylvania Public Service Commission iias begun 
a series of hearings at points throughout the state, which 
indicates that the commissioners will not spend much time 
on vacations. The commission met in Scranton last week 
and is #i Erie this week, considering grade crossing and 
switching cases. It will meet in Harrisburg in the week 
beginning July 6, in Pittsburgh the week of July 13, and in 
Harrisburg the remainder of the month, with hearings to be 
held in Philadelphia, Punxsutawncy, Manheim and Williams- 

It is probable that the superior court of Pennsylvania, al 
its session in Philadelphia on July 20, will be asked to pass 
upon the constitutionality of the act of 1915 providing for 
appeals from decisions of the Public Service Commission to 
the superior court instead of through the Dauphin county 
court. The primary object is to get a decision as to the 
effect of the act on the twenty appeals now pending in the 
Dauphin county court. These appeals include the anthracite- 
rate case and a number of important railroad suits. The 
failure to provide in the new law for the disposition of pend- 
ing appeals has caused the Dauphin county court to refuse 
to hear any appeals until the question is settled. 

The California Railroad Commission, after an investigation, 
has issued an order holding that carriers have a legal right to 
collect an excess charge from passengers boarding trains at 
agency stations without tickets, provided the charge is published 
in their tariffs. The commission says that the manifold duties 
required of conductors in the operation of their trains do not 
permit of their spending any more than the shortest possible 
time in the collection of fares without more or less seriously 
jeopardizing the safety of the passengers; that the collection of 
cash fares demands considerably more additional time of the 
conductor than the collection of tickets, and to minimize such 
practice as much as possible an excess fare is just and reason- 
able; and that to give refund checks for the excess amount 
collected would only tend to considerably increase this practice. 
Carriers are authorized to collect an excess fare of 10 cents on 
amounts up to $1.45, and approximately 10 per cent on amounts 
over that sum up to $5 ; provided that no excess charge will be 
made where passengers have been unable to buy tickets; also, 
no excess fare shall be collected on electric or internrban lines. 

The New York State Public Service Commission, Second dis- 
trict, in an opinion by Commissioner Hodson, has given a de- 
cision on the Salamanca grade crossing case, which has been be- 
fore the commission for a long time and which involves a new 
interpretation of the grade crossing law. It is held that where, 
as in the present case, changes concededly needed in the rail- 
road structure of an existing grade crossing are of such a na- 
ture as to relate back to the original plans for the elimination 
of the crossing they cannot be considered as maintenance and 
repair, for which the railroad [the Erie] alone would have to 
pay, but must be considered as changes in the said original plans, 
the cost of which, like the original work, must be divided among 
the municipality, the state and the railroad. This crossing pre- 
sented structural difficulties in the first place due to the fact that 
the bridge carrying the tracks could not be raised much on ac- 
count of the proximity of a large yard and the level of Main 
street could not be much depressed on account of difficulties of 
drainage. The engineers at that time sacrificed the ballast on the 
bridge and secured the rails to the bridge floor. But water 
leaked through the bridge and the old railroad commission or- 
dered changes in the drainage to be made and assessed against all 
three parties to the elimination. The same trouble has again de- 
veloped, and the commission will take up the case under the 
amended law. 


William T. Gunnison has been appointed a member of the 
New Hampshire Public Service Commission in place of John 
E. Benton. 

R. F. McLaren, secretary of the Montana Railroad Com- 
mission, has resigned. Mr. McLaren was formerly, for 17 
years, in the employ of the Northern Pacific and subsequently 
was superintendent of the Montana, Wyoming & Southern. 


The Supreme Court of Nebraska has denied the petition 
of the Missouri Pacific for a writ of mandamus to compel 
the state railway commission to issue an order increasing 
passenger fares within the state from 2 to 2yi cents a mile. 
The court was divided, four to three, the majority holding 
that the action of the legislature in fixing passenger rates in 
the state at two cents a mile is controlling, while the minor- 
ity were of the opinion that when the legislature later passed 
a bill creating the railroad commission it gave power to the 
commission to change rates fixed by the legislature. 

The Supreme Court of Missouri has this week sustained 
the demurrer of the Chicago & Alton in the suit of the attor- 
ney general of that state against the road to recover $2,0(X),000 
for alleged excess fares collected while suits were pending 
relative to the law limiting all fares to two cents a mile. 
This action of the Supreme Court sustains that of the court 
of Saline county in favor of the road. The attorney general 
had brought similar suits against other companies claiming 
altogether about $24,000,000. When the Supreme Court of 
the United States sustained the law limiting fares to two 
cents, the railroads at once reduced their fares (from 214 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



cents); but nothing was said about refunding the half cent 
a mile (above 2 cents) which had been collected while the 
law was in litigation. 

Secret Rebates Judgment Affirmed 

In an appeal from a judgment of the Pennsylvania Supreme 
Court (241 Pa. St. 536) awarding a shipper of coal damages 
for secret rebates to other shippers, the railroad company- 
contended that part of the shipments — those to Greenwich, 
Pa., "included coal destined to points beyond the state," in 
respect of which no recovery could be had in this action. 
The United States Supreme Court affirmed the state court's 
judgment, holding that there was no evidence that any of the 
coal went out of the state or, if it did, that the circumstances 
were such that its carriage from the mines to Greenwich was 
in fact but part of an intended and connected transportation 
beyond the state. (Pennsylvania v. Mitchell Coal & Coke Com- 
pany, June 14.) 

Transverse Drains Law Upheld 

In an action for the flooding of land in the Missouri river 
bottoms from the defendant's roadbed, which was not pro- 
vided with transverse culverts, or openings of any kind, as 
required by the statute of 1907, it was argued by the defendant 
that the statute was invalid as an ex post facto law. This 
argument was based on a reading of the limiting clause 
"within three months after the completion of the same," which 
would make it apply to railroads already in existence. The 
United States Supreme Court holds that the express limit of 
three months applied only to railroads constructed after the 
passing of the act, and allowed railroads already in existence 
a reasonable time within which to make the openings. It also 
holds that the statute does not impair the obligation of the 
contract betwen the state and the railroad company, and is 
not repugnant to the "due process" and "equal protection" 
provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment. (Chicago & 
.Alton V. Traubarger.) 

Survival of Right to Damages for Pain and Suffering Before Death 

In an action under the federal employees' liability act of 
1908, as amended by the act of 1910, damages were awarded 
by the Arkansas Supreme Court of $1,000 for the pecuniary 
loss (to the father) by reason of the death and $5,000 for the 
conscious pain and suffering of the deceased before he died. 
It appeared that he survived his injuries more than half an 
hour, and that they were such as would naturally cause him 
extreme pain and suffering, if he remained conscious. This 
judgment is affirmed by the United States Supreme Court, 
which says that the original statute made no provision for a 
survival of the right of action for pain and suffering before 
death, and as that statute superseded the state statutes, many 
of which provided for such a survival, the act was apparently 
amended to make it as broad as the state statutes. While 
considering the award large, it involved only a question of 
fact and was not open to reconsideration by the Supreme 
Court. (St. Louis, I. M. & S. v. Craft.) 

Railway Officers 

Coal Docks Not a Nuisance 

A railroad, some time after the grant of a right of way 
from the United States in the city of Missoula, Mont., con- 
structed thereon a coal dock. Residents in the neighbor- 
hood, who had received title to their property after such 
grant, sued the road for maintaining a nuisance, alleging 
that the dock caused coal dust to penetrate into their houses, 
etc. They did not allege that the dock was improperly 
equipped or operated. The Supreme Court of Montana held 
that the railroad was not liable, since the grant carried with 
it the right to maintain all kinds of property and do all sorts 
of acts necessary in constructing and operating the road, 
the term "railroad" fairly including all structures necessary 
to its operation. While cases involving coal docks are rare, 
the authorities are agreed that, when the grant of a right of 
way is made to a railroad without restrictions, it contem- 
plates not merely the railroad as it is established in the first 
instance, but the road with its necessary appurtenances as it 
may from time to time come necessarily to be. Smith v. 
N'orthern Pacific (Mont). 148 Pac, 393. 


Executive, Financial, Legal and Accounting 

H. C. Ansley, treasurer of the Southern Railway at Washing- 
ton. D. C, has been elected treasurer also of the Danville & 
Western, succeding C. L. Booth, resigned. 

Bond Anderson, assistant auditor of the Blue Ridge Railway 
at Anderson, S. C, has been appointed auditor of that road, 
also of the Danville & Western, the Augusta Southern, the 
Tallulah Falls and the Hartwell Railway, with headquarters at 
.\tlanta, Ga. 


J. Lowell White has been appointed assistant to general super- 
intendent of transportation of the Atlantic Coast Line. 

S. Ennes, general superintendent of the Western Maryland 
at Hagerstown, Md., has been appointed general manager, with 
office at Hagerstown, and the position of general superintendent 
has been abolished. 

Alexander Grant has been appointed general superintend- 
ent of mail transportation of the Southern Railway, the 
Virginia & Southern and the Northern Alabama, with head- 
quarters at Washington, D. C. 

S. E. Cotter, general superintendent of the Wabash at St. 
Louis, Mo., has been appointed general manager, with head- 
quarters at St. Louis; J. \V. Jones, superintendent of ter- 
minals at St. Louis, has been appointed superintendent of the 
Western division with headquarters at Moberly, and C. E. 
Ocheltree, assistant superintendent at Forrest, III., succeeds Mr. 

E. T. Whiter, general superintendent of the Northwest sys- 
tem of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, at Pittsburgh. 
Pa., has been appointed to the new position of assistant general 
manager of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, with 
headquarters at Pittsburgh. W. C. Downing, general super- 
intendent of the Central System at Toledo, Ohio, has been pro- 
moted to general superintendent of the Northwest system, with 
headquarters at Pittsburgh, succeeding Mr. Whiter, and I. W. 
Geer, superintendent of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh division 
at Qeveland. has been promoted to general superintendent of 
the Central system, with office at Toledo, succeeding Mr. 

Franklin P. Brady, whose appointment as general superintend- 
ent of the National Transcontinental, in charge of the section be- 
tween Quebec and Winnipeg, and of the Lake Superior branch 
of the Grand Trunk Pacific between Fort William and Superior 
Junction, with headquarters at Cochrane. Ont., has already been 
announced in these columns, was born on June 22. 1853, at Haver- 
hill, N. H., and was educated at Newbury Seminary, Newbury. 
Vt. In May, 1869. he began railway work on the Connecticut & 
Passumpsic Rivers, now a part of the Boston & Maine, and to 
February, 1873, served consecutively as station baggage master 
and telegraph operator at Lyndonville. Vt. He was then train 
despatcher on the Northern New Hampshire, now a part of the 
Boston & Maine at Concord, N. H., and from 1880, to November. 

1887, was chief train despatcher on the South-Eastern Railway, 
now a part of the Canadian Pacific at Farnham. Que. He sub- 
sequently became trainmaster on the same road, and from July. 

1888, to May, 18%. was assistant superintendent ot the Canadian 
Pacific. He was then to May, 1901, superintendent of the same 
road, with headquarters at Smith's Falls, Ont.. and later served 
as superintendent at Toronto, Ont., and at Fort William until 
May, 1903, when he was appointed assistant general superintend- 
ent of the same road at Winnipeg, Man. In February, 1904, he 
was appointed general superintendent at North Bay, Ont., re- 
maining in that position until September, 1908. The following 
May, he became a member of the Government Railways Man- 
aging Board and general superintendent of the Intercolonial and 
the Prince Edward Island Railways. In June, 1913, the Govern- 
ment Railways Managing Board was abolished, and since that 
time Mr. Brady served as general superintendent of the Canadian 

Digitized by 




Vol, 59. Ko. 1 

Government Railways, until his recent appointment as general 
superintendent of the National Transcontinental as above noted. 


J. D. Kenworthy, assistant general freight agent of the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande, at Pueblo, Colo., has been transferred to Salt 
Lake City, Utah, in the same capacity, succeeding S. V. Derrah, 

Thomas F. Hartnett, commercial agent of the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, at Toledo, Ohio, has been appointed 
to the newly created office of Pacific agent, with headquarters 
at San Francisco, Cal. W. F. Benning has been appointed to 
succeed Mr. Hartnett. 

George H. Eaton, general freight agent of the Boston 
& Maine at Boston, Mass., has been appointed assistant 
freight traffic manager; William T. Lamoure, assistant general 
freight agent at Boston, has been appointed general freight 
agent, and Emery W. Abbott, division freight agent at Troy. 
N. Y., has been appointed assistant general freight agent. 

R. M. Burr, traveling passenger agent of the Cincinnati, 
New Orleans & Texas Pacific at Cleveland, Ohio, has been 
promoted to district passenger agent, with headquarters at 
Cleveland, and the office of traveling passenger agent has 
been abolished. J. C. Volz, traveling passenger agent at 
Cincinnati, has been promoted to central passenger agent, 
with headquarters at Cincinnati, and the office of traveling 
passenger agent has been abolished. A. C. Mathias has been 
promoted to northern passenger agent, with headquarters at 

Engineering and Rolling Stock 

J. S. Sheafe, master mechanic, Staten Island Lines of the 
Baltimore & Ohio at Clifton, Staten Island, N. Y., has been 
granted leave of absence for one year. 

E. F. Vincent, assistant chief engineer of the Colorado & 
Southern, has been appointed chief engineer, with headquarters 
at Denver, Col., succeeding H. W. Cowan, deceased. 

W. M. Bosworth, mechanical engineer of the Louisville & 
Xashville, at Louisville, Ky., has been appointed mechanical en- 
gineer of the Norfolk Southern, with office at Berkley, Va. 

Frank E. Wilmore has been appointed assistant road foreman 
of engines of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, with 
headquarters at Fort Wayne, Ind.. succeeding Robert J. Lyons, 
assigned to other duties at his own request. 

A. H. Mahan, locomotive foreman of the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific at Prince George, B. C, has been appointed general loco- 
motive foreman in charge of territory from Prince George to 
Edmonton, Alta., including intervening branch lines ; J. F. 
Moffatt, road foreman at Wainwright. .\lta., has been appointed 
general locomotive foreman in charge of the territory from 
Transcona, Man., to Fort William. Ont. ; H. R. Simpson, road 
foreman at Jasper, Alta., has been appointed general locomo- 
tive foreman in charge of the territory from Watrous, Sask.. 
to Winnipeg. Man., including intervening branch lines; W. G 
McConachie, road foreman at Edmonton, Alta., has been ap- 
pointed general locomotive foreman in charge of the territory 
from Edmonton to Watrous, including intervening branch lines, 
and A. Watt, general foreman at Prince Rupert, B. C, has been 
appointed general locomotive foreman in charge of the territory 
from Prince Rupert to Prince George. D. W. Hay has been 
appointed locomotive foreman, with office at Prince George, 
B. C, succeeding A. H. Mahan, and J. A. Miller has been ap- 
pointed locomotive foreman at Endako, succeeding G. H. Lay- 
cock, transferred to Jasper, .Mta, 


James J, Goodwin, a director of the Erie, died on June 23, at 
Hartford, Conn., at the age of 80, 

William M. Hughes, formerly consulting engineer of the New- 
York, Chicago & St. Louis, and at one time bridge engineer of 
the city of Chicago, died at his honie in Chicago, on June 25. 


The Intercolonial Railway of Canada has ordered 15 loco- 
motives from the Canadian Locomotive Company. 

The Isthmian Canal Commission, Major F. C. Boggs, general 
purchasing officer, will receive sealed proposals until .'August 16 
for 12 electric towing locomotives for canal locks. 

The Carolina, Greeneville & Northern, an electric line. 
F. A. H. Kelley, chief engineer, Greeneville, Tenn., is preparing 
specifications for motive power and rolling stock. Set item 
under Railway Construction. • 


Carolina, Greexeville & Northern. See item above under 
Locomotive Building. 

The Great Northern has ordered 500 box cars from the 
Haskell & Barker Car Company. 

The Northern Pacific has ordered 750 center constructions 
and 750 sets of draft sills from the Western Steel Car & Foundry 

The Baltimore & Ohio is in the market for 35 coaches. 5 
passenger and baggage cars, 2 combination baggage and mail 
cars, 4 baggage cars, 2 parlor-cafe cars and 2 cafe coaches. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy is inquiring for 1,500 
to 2,000 40-ton steel underframe box cars. This company is 
also reported to have asked bids on 55 coaches and 10 dining 

The Intercolonial has ordered 650 80,000-lb. capacity bo.x 
cars from the Canadian Car & Foundry Company, and 350 
80,000-lb. capacity box cars from the National Steel Car Com- 

The Chicago, St. Pavl, Minneapolis & Omaha has ordered 
750 box cars from the American Car & Foundry Company, and 
750 from the Haskell & Barker Car Company. It is also in- 
quiring for 100 refrigerator cars. 

The Intern.\tional & Great Northern, which was reported 
in the Railway Age Gasette of June 11 as negotiating for 1,000 
freight cars with the Mount Vernon Car Manufacturing Com- 
pany, has ordered 500 box cars. 200 stock cars and 300 gondola 
cars from that company. 

The Chicago & North Western has ordered 10 coaches, 3 
smoking cars and 10 60-ft. baggage cars from the American Car 
& Foundry Company, 3 70-ft. baggage cars, 10 70-ft. combination 
baggage and mail cars, 2 reclining chair cars, 5 combination bag- 
gage and passenger cars, 4 parlor cars and 2 dining cars from the 
Pullman Company, and will also place orders for 5 more pas- 
senger cars. 


The El Paso & Southwestern has ordered 8,000 tons of 90- 
ib, rail from the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Pal'l has ordered 585 tons 
of steel from the Federal Bridge Company for five 105-ft spans. 

The New York Public Service Commission, First district, 
will advertise for bids, to be opened July 16, for 40,200 tons of 
rail for equipping new rapid transit lines of the dual system. 

The Siamese Royal Railway Department invites bids for 
three steel viaducts. Specifications and drawings may be ob- 
tained from the Siamese Legation at Gloucester, Mass., on pay- 
ment of a fee of $4 for each set. 

The Union St.\tion Company, Chicago, has ordered 1,150 
tons of steel for its Monroe street bridge from the Chicago 
Bridge & Iron Company, and 155 tons for the machinery of 
this bridge from the Allis-Chalmers Company. 

Digitized by 


JiLY 2. 1915 




Supply Trade News I 

The Linde Air Products Company, New York, is completing 
plans for a one-story 80-ft. by 100-ft. plant to be erected at Mil- 
waukee, Wis., at a cost of $30,CXX). 

H. F. Dow, for a number of years superintendent of the 
screw-machine department of the United Shoe Machinery- 
Company, Beverly, Mass., and later a member of the firm of 
Babson-Dow Manufacturing Company, Boston, has recently 
been placed in charge of the automatic department of the 
American Steam Gage & Valve Company, Boston, Mass. 

The Allegheny Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has completed 
plans to enlarge its plant at Brackenridge, Pa., for the manufac- 
ture of pressed steel side frames for steel cars. Material for the 
new addition will be furnished by. the 100-inch plate mill of the 
company. Several new buildings will be erected, including one 
90 ft. by 126 ft., one 60 ft. by 120 ft., and two 30 ft. by 135 ft. 

The Standard Steel Car Company intends to make some large 
additions to its New Castle, Pa., plant. A contract has already 
been given to the McCIintic-Marshall Company for the steel for 
a new building to replace a structure destroyed last fall by fire. 
A large amount of new equipment will be installed, and it is 
planned to build steel cars complete. Hitherto only parts of the 
cars were made and assembled for finishing at. Butler, Pa. 

Edward M. Hagar, whose election as president of the Hagar 
Portland Cement Company, was announced in this column last 
week, was graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in 1893. In 1894 
he received a master's 
degree from Cornell 
University for postgrad- 
uate work done at that 
school. He then came 
to Chicago and formcfi 
the corporation known as 
Edward M. Hagar & Co., 
which acted as agent for 
several machinery man- 
ufacturers. In 1899 he 
was appointed manager 
of the cement depart- 
ment of the Illinois Steel 
Company. The manu- 
facture and sale of Uni- 
versal Portland cement 
was carried on by the 
Illinois Steel Company 
until 1906 when the Uni- 
versal Portland Cement 
Company was formed 
with Mr. Hagar as its 
president. Under his 
management the manufacture of Universal increased from 32.000 
barrels in 1900 to 12.000,000 barrels in 1914. Mr. Hagar resigned 
the presidency of the Universal Portland Cement Company in 
February of this year to form a new company for the purpose 
of acquiring a chain of Portland cement plants extending across 
the country. 

The International Jury of Award of the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition has awarded to the Western Electric Com- 
pany the following medals for its exhibit in the Palace of Manu- 
facturers : the Grand Prix for the exhibit as a whole ; gold medals 
for telephone switchboards and equipment, for telephone train 
despatching and control apparatus and for insulated wires and 
cables and two bronze medals for mine rescue equipment and 
mine telephones. 

Frank C. Rose, formerly purchasing agent of the Founda- 
tion Company, Ltd., Montreal, has been appointed general 
purchasing agent of W. S. Barstow & Co., Inc., engineers 
and managers. New York, operating the General Gas & 
Electric Company and the Eastern Power & Light Corpora- 

E. M. Hagar 

tion. Previous to his connection with the Foundation Com- 
pany, Ltd., Mr. Rose was assistant purchasing agent of J. S. 
White & Co. and prior to that general confidential assistant 
to the purchasing agent of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 

The United Railway Specialties Company, 30 Church street. 
New York, has been appointed representative of Mudge & Co., 
Chicago, in the New England, eastern and southern states. 
Representation will cover Mudge motor cars, Mudge-Peerless 
ventilators and the Mudge-Slater removable box front end for loco- 
motives. The United Railway Specialties Co. is a comparatively 
new company. Its officers are: R. A. Patterson, president; 
H. M. Buck, treasurer, and John B. Given, vice-president. Mr. 
Patterson was for a number of years associated with Fairbanks- 
Morse & Co., Chicago, in charge of the railroad department of 
their New York office. Mr. Buck has been associated with the 
Railway Supply Company, Chicago, for many years as eastern 
representative. Mr. Given was at one time in the service of 
the Duplex Metals Company and is now also associated with 
the Galena-Signal Oil Company. The United Railway Special- 
ties Company, in addition to representing Mudge & Co., also 
represents the National Standard Company, Niles, Mich.; the 
W. E. Caldwell Company. Louisville, Ky. ; the Continental Fibre 
Company, Newark, Del.; the William Robertson & Co., Chicago; 
the Railway & Traction Supph- Company, Chicago, and a number 
of other companies. 

Charles B. McElhany, general manager of sales of the Cam- 
bria Steel Company, has been elected also a vice-president of 
that company. Mr. McElhany has been in the steel business 

for about 20 years, and 
in the service of the 
Cambria Steel Company 
for four years. His 
early years in the steel in- 
dustry were spent in the 
employ of the Braddock 
Wire Company, the 
-American Steel & Wire 
Company, the Union 
Steel Company and the 
Pittsburgh Steel Com- 
pany. About nine years 
ago he entered the serv- 
ice of the Colorado Fuel 
& Iron Company, be- 
coming assistant general 
manager of sales of that 
company. He then be- 
came assistant manager 
of sales of the Cambria 
.Steel Company, in charge 
of the wire division. He 
C. B. McElhany was 'ater appointed as- 

sistant general manager 
of sales, and on March 1 succeeded J. L. Replogle as general 
manager of sales. 

Two court decisions have recently been handed down relative 
to infringement of patents held by the Safety Car Heating & 
Lighting Company, New York. In the suit of the Safety Car 
Heating & Lighting Company v. the United States Light & Heat- 
ing Company, the circuit court of appeals has affirmed the de- 
cision of Judge Hazel of the western district of New York, 
which held that the first eight claims of the Creveling patent 
No. 747,686. owned by the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Com- 
pany, which were the only claims involved in the suit, were 
valid, that they were entitled to a broad interpretation, and. that 
they were infringed by both the taper charge and stop charge 
systems of the defendant. The Safety Car Heating & Lighting 
Company believes that this patent as thus adjudicated covers not 
only the systems of the United States Light & Heating Com- 
pany, but also practically all modern systems now in use on the 
railroads of this country. In the case of the Safety Car Heating 
& Lighting Company v. the Gould Coupler Company, in which 
the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company sued for infringe- 
ment of the patent to H. G. Thompson, No. 1,070,080 which it 
holds, patent claims 4, 9. 10, 11. 12 and 13 were a-Ueged to be in- 
fringed by the Simplex system of the Gould Coupler Company in 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 1 

both the constant battery current and constant generator current 
forms. Judge Hazel of the United States court for the western 
district of New York at Buffalo, holds all the claims valid and 
all infringed by both the constant battery current system and the 
constant generator current system of the Gould coupler Company. 

Harrison G. Thompson, whose appointment as general 
sales manager of the Edison Storage Battery Company. 
Orange, Ni. J., was announced in this column last week, has 
been in the service oi 
that company since 
July, 1910, and a vice- 
president of it since 
July, 1913. Mr. Thomp- 
son was born at Wes- 
ton, Mass., in 1875. In 
1896 he entered the 
service of the Pullman 
Company and after 
having been with that 
company for two years 
was made foreman of 
electricians. In ISKK) he 
resigned to become 
foreman of the bat- 
tery department of the 
Riker Motor Vehicle 
Company, but left the 
latter at the time of its 
absorption by the Gen- 
eral Vehicle Company, 
of Hartford, Conn., ti' 
become associated with 
W. L. Bliss, one of the 
pioneers in electric car lighting development. In 1905 he 
entered the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad and was 
placed in charge of electric car lighting with headquarters 
at Jersey City, N. J. About one year later he became elec- 
trical superintendent of the Safety Car Heating & Lighting 
Company, New York, and was in charge of that company's 
electrical laboratories during the development of its first 
electric car lighting system. In December, 1909, he was ap- 
pointed manager of the railroad department of the Westing- 
house Storage Battery Company and later for a short time 
was in the employ of the United States Light & Heating 
Company, New York. In July, 1910. he became managei 
of the railway department of the Edison Storage Battery 

Railway G>nstruction 

H. G. Thompson 


Electrical Testing Service. — The Electrical Testing Labo- 
ratories, Inc., New York, have recently issued an attractive 
loose-leaf booklet describing the equipment, organization and 
work of these laboratories. 

Passenger Car Coupiers. — The McConway & Torley Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has recently issued an eight-page booklet de- 
scriptive of the Pitt passenger coupler. In addition to an illus- 
tration of the coupler, the booklet also contains three draw- 
ings showing the coupler's great flexibility of curvature. Fig- 
ure 1 shows the limits of such flexible movement; figure 2, the 
extreme positions to which the couplers will adjust themselves 
in passing over a curve and tangent, and figure 3, the relative 
positions on a reverse curve. 

Connecting Devices for Wiring. — The Fargo Manufacturing 
Company, Inc., Poughkeepsie, X. Y., has issued three very full 
and complete catalogs of its connecting devices for wiring of 
all kinds. These devices are designed to be the very best of 
their class, both for strength and for quality of workmanship. 
Catalog No. 700 showing types A and B illustrates the straight 
connection, type A 3; the steel cable grip type A 4; steel guy 
grip; a cable lug; cable grip type A, and straight connection, 
type B. Bulletin No. 402 shows an insulated case for a straight 
connection, a bus bar connection grounding devices and tee and 
ell connections. Catalog No. 800 shows these and other devices 
with large illustrations and additional details of the uses to 
which they may be put. Ground and terminal connections are 
shown in great variety. 

Alamance, Durham & Orange Railway & Electric Com- 
pany. — Plans have been made to build an electric line from 
Altamahaw and Ossipee, twin manufacturing villages in the 
northwestern section of Alamance county, N. C, in a south- 
easterly direction through the manufacturing villages- of Hub 
Mills, Glencoe, Carolina and Hopedale, thence via Burlington, 
Graham, Swepsonville, Saxapahaw and Chapel Hill to Durham, 
about 50 miles. Contracts for building the line will probably be 
let in November. J. H. Harden, president, Burlington, and 
H. G. Palmer & Co., Yorkville, III., and office at Burlington, 
N. C, are the engineers. 

Americl's, Flint River & Gains. — The city council of Ameri- 
cus, Ga., has given a franchise to the Georgia Lumber Company 
to operate a railroad into Americus. The company has the right 
of way secured, it is said, for a line to be about 25 miles long, 
and construction work is to be started before September. The 
projected route is from Byromville, Ga., west across the Flint 
river, thence to Americus, and the plans call for putting up a 
steel bridge over the Flint river. It is proposed later to extend 
the line which will probably be built under the name of the Ameri- 
cus, Flint River & Gains. The headquarters of the company are 
at Americus, and it is said that the plans call for establishing 
shops at that place. 

Calhoun County Railway. — This company proposes to build 
a railroad from Pearl, III., to run south through Bee Creek, 
Cliflfdale, Kampsville, Hamburg, Batchtown and Brussels to 
Golden Eagle. Grading in the district of Hardin, III., is in pro- 
gress, and it is expected track laying will begin about August 15. 
The general contracts have been awarded to the Western Illinois 
Development Company. John E. Melitk, Kampsville, 111., is 
president and chief engineer of the railroad. 

Carolina, Greeneville & Northern (Electric). — A contract 
has been given to A. H. Jacoby, Greeneville, Tenn., for some oi 
the work on this line. The company plans to build from Bristol, 
Tenn., west to Kingsport. thence southwest via Newport and 
Sevierville to Knoxville, about 140 miles. The maximum grade 
will be 1.5 per cent, and the maximum curvature 10 deg. There 
will be three steel bridges aggregating 1.500 ft. on the line. The 
company expects to develop a traffic in lumber, iron ore and 
coal. H. S. Reed, president, Los Angeles, Cal. ; F. A. H. Kelley. 
chief engineer, Greeneville, Tenn. (June 11, p. 1265.) 

Charle.ston Southern. — L'nder this name a line is projected 
from the Carolina, .Atlantic & Western at Charleston, S. C, 
southwest to Savannah, Ga., 86 miles. The company has not yet 
been incorporated. G. E. Dargan and B. Williamson, iJarling- 
ton, S. C, also J. E. Evans, Florence, S. C, are interested. 

Chesapeake & Curtis Bay. — Incorporated in Maryland with 
$50,000 capital, it is said, to build a line at Curtis Bay and at 
East Brooklyn suburbs of Baltimore to connect with the Bal- 
timore & Ohio. The incorporators include R. D. Upham, New 
York; J. C. Boyd, BaUimore; J. H. Zink and R. B. Pue. 

Florence & Huntsville Interurban. — According to press 
report.s from Florence, A\a., the Lauderdale Power Company is 
promoting the construction of this line. The plans call for 
building from Florence east via Athens to Huntsville. about 75 
miles, and about 12 miles of spur lines. (September 25, p. 587.) 

Keokuk, Rock Island & Chicago.— This company proposes 
to build a railroad from a point on the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy near Keithsburg, III., to a point opposite Muscatine. 
Iowa, and thence to Chillicothe. III., a distance of about 130 
miles. Several bridges will be required. M. J. Healy, Joy, III., 
president and chief engineer, would like to hear from con- 

Montreal & Southern Counties (Electric).— An officer 
writes that work was resumed on June 1, on the extension from 
St. Cesaire. Que., to Granby, 15 miles. This work was first 
started in May, 1914, and was shut down in August of the same 
year. Track has already been laid on three miles. Grant. 
Campbell & Company, St. Cesaire, are the contractors. There 

Digitized by 


July 2, 1915 



will be five short wooden pile trestles on the line, also car-barns 
and substation at Granby, and a station at Abbotsford. (Janu- 
ary 15, p. 116.) 

New York Connecting. — This company has given contracts to 
the Wilson & English Construction Company, New York, for 
the construction of Section 1, and to P. McManus, Incorporated. 
Philadelphia, Pa., for the construction of Section 2. This work 
is for the sections of the New York Connecting Railroad be- 
tween Bowery Bay Road and the Long Island Railroad at Fresh 
Pond Junction, in the borough of Queens, New York. (May 28, 
p. 1139.) 

New York StrewAYs. — The New York Public Service Com- 
mission, First district, will open bids on July 20, for the con- 
struction of Section No. 1 of Route Xo. 49, a part of the Culver 
rapid transit railroad. Section No. 1 extends from a point in 
Thirty-seventh street 246 ft. southeast of Tenth avenue under 
private property and intersecting streets to Gravesend avenue 
and over Gravesend avenue to a point about 525 ft. south of 
Bay Parkway (Twenty-second a\enue) produced. 

Norfolk, Washington & New York. — An officer writes that 
this company has secured most of the right of way on the sec- 
tion between Riverside, Va., and Sheperd's, D. C. The com- 
pany plans to build from Newport News, Va., north via Wash- 
ington, D. C. Channing M. Ward, president, Richmond, Va. 

North Carolina Roads. — Plans are being made, it is said, to 
■|>uild a line from Rurtherfordton. N. C, southwest to Columbus, 
about 15 miles. L. D. Miller, Rutherfordton, may be addressed. 

North Georgia Mineral. — Surveys are reported under way 
on about 25 miles for a line from Atlanta, Ga., north to a point 
in Bartow county. Application was made by this company for 
a charter in Georgia last year with a capital of $l,25O,0(X), to 
build from Atlanta, northwest through the counties of Fulton, 
Cobb, Cherokee and Bartow, about 50 miles. W. J. Morrison, 
A. C. King, J. J. Spalding, Atlanta, are interested. (Septem- 
ber 25, p. 587.) 

Ozark Southern. — This company has projected a line from 
Harrison, Ark., it is said, south to Jasper and Parthenon, about 
20 miles. The line may eventually be extended south of Par- 
thenon. G. W. T. Shaw, Lee Center, III., is consulting engineer, 
and W. T. Allen, Jacksonville, Ala., and F. B. Moody are in- 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — A short branch line is to be built 
at Steelton, Pa., to reach some industries without using main 
line track as at present. 

Southern Pacific. — ^This company announces that the work 
between Eugene, Ore., and fMarshfield is nearly completed. 
There remains some bridge work which is now in progress, after 
which there will be some trestle work, track laying and ballast- 
ing to complete. 

Statesville Air Line. — Financial arrangements are now be- 
ing made, it is said, to carry out work on this line. The plans 
call for building from Statesville, N. C, north via Harmony to 
Houstonville, about 25 miles. Grading has been finished on 
about 20 miles, and track laying may be started soon. W. D. 
Turner, president; W. Wallace, vice-president; D. M. Ausley, 
treasurer and general manager. 

Tennessee Roads (Electric). — Plans are being made to build 
an electric line, it is said, from a connection with the Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis at Lebanon, Tenn., southeast to Smith- 
ville, about 35 miles. C. Edwards, representing White & Com- 
pany, Chicago, III., is said to have made arrangements for build- 
ing the line. J. T. Odum, Lebanon, may be addressed. 


Augusta, Ga. — An officer of the Georgia & Florida is quoted 
as saying that the company will start work at once on a new 
passenger station at Twiggs and Calhoun streets in Augusta. 
The company was granted permission recently by the Railroad 
Commission of Georgia to discontinue use of the union station 
in Augusta, and to build a new station. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — Contracts for the construction of eight ele- 
vated railroad stations in connection with the third-tracking of 

the Broadway elevated railroad in the borough of Brooklyn 
have been approved by the New York Public Service Com- 
mission, First district. 

Claremore, Okla. — The St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 
contemplates building a new depot at this place. No definite 
decision has yet been reached as to the size of the building, or 
when it will be constructed. 

Coleman, Tex. — The Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe has awarded 
the contract for the construction of a brick and stucco depot at 
this point to H. D. McCoy, of Cleburne, Tex. 

Dallas, Tex. — The Dallas Union Terminal Company will 
construct a heat, light and power plant to supply the terminal 
now being built at that place. The estimated cost is $60,000. 

Frostburg, Md. — A contract has been given to the Luten Bridge 
Company. York, Pa., to build a 44-ft. concrete span bridge over 
the Cumberland & Pennsylvania tracks at Bowery street. Frost- 
burg. The town of Frostburg and the Cumberland & Pennsyl- 
vania will jointly pay for the improvements, which are to cost 

Herr's Island, Pa. — A contract has been given by the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad to the Bailey & Lush Company, Philadelphia, 
at $150,0(X) for building a double-deck stock pen on Herr's 

Hopewell, Va. — An officer of the Norfolk & Western writes 
regarding the construction of a new freight warehouse at Hope- 
well, Va.. that nothing definite has been decided as to the con- 
struction of this warehouse. It will probably be of frame con- 
struction and the work may be carried out by company forces. 

Kansas City, Mo. — The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has 
awarded the contract for the steel work of its Kansas City 
bridge to the American Bridge Company. The contract calls 
for 5,500 tons of steel. 

Mansfield, Ohio. — Plans are being made by the Erie for 
building an addition, 40 ft. by SO ft. to the freight house at 
Mansfield, at a cost of between $8,000 and $9,000. 

Phoenixville, Pa. — The Pennsylvania Railroad has given a 
contract to the James McGraw Co., Philadelphia, Pa., for build- 
ing the concrete arch bridge at Campbell's Crossing, west of 
Frick's lock. The bridge is to consist of seven 84-ft. concrete 
arches for double track. (June 11, p. 1266.) 

RiDGEWooD, N. J. — The Erie has given a contract to the Com- 
ing Building Company, Corning, N. Y., for building a new 
statiori at Ridgewood. Another contract has been given to Ar- 
thur McMuIlen, New York, for constructing a pedestrian sub- 
way and the approaches to the new station, also for the paving, 

Railway Property in Asia Minor. — A telegram from Con- 
stantinople received in Amsterdam via Berlin states that it 
is reported in competent circles that the Porte has decided 
to abolish the Turco-French financial agreement drafted last 
year, the execution of which would have impeded the future 
development of the Hedjaz Railway. The government has 
decided to buy back all railway property in Syria and in the 
Lebanon district which is the property of alien enemies. 

Railway Extension in India. — The Indian Railway Board has 
sanctioned the following new construction : the construction by 
the South Indian Railway, on behalf of the District Board of 
Tanjore, of a branch meter-gage line between Tiruturaipundi, a 
station on the South Indian Railway and Vedaraniam. a distance 
of about 23 miles; a survey by the agency of the Darjeeling- 
Himalayan Railway for a line between Thakurgunge and Sikti, a 
distance of about 44 miles; the construction by the Bengal Pro- 
vincial Railway of a 2-ft. 6-in. gage line between Dasghara station 
on the Bengal Provincial Railway, and Jamal Purgunj, a distance 
of about 8 miles ; a survey by the Assam-Bengal Railway adminis- 
tration for meter-gage lines between Karimganj into the Longai 
Valley and Hathikheri, with a branch into the Chargola Valley, 
length about 44 miles, and between Silchar and Dwarbund, with 
branch to Sonaimukh and Dhalai, a length of about 30 miles. On 
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway the four trading lines up to 
Kalyan have made good progress, but the completion of the work 
will be delayed, owing to the war. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 1 

Railway Financial News 


Alabama & Mississippi.— This company has leased the Pasca- 
goula, Moss Point & Northern. The Alabama & Mississippi 
nans from Vinerga Bend, Ala., to Leaksville, Miss., 17 miles, 
and the Pascagoula, Moss Point & Xcrthern runs from Pasca- 
goula, Miss., to Evanston. 

Boston & Maine. — President Hustis gave out the following 
statement after a meeting of the executive committee of the 
Boston & Maine, held on June 29: 

"There is no friction between the directors of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad and the committee representing the leased line 
interests. This committee, of which Richard Olney is chair- 
man, is fully alive to the importance of avoiding a receiver- 
ship and is working to that end. They realize if receivership 
is to be avoided legislation must be secured in New Hamp- 
shire and that to secure legislation in New Hampshire the 
leased line interests must be practically a unit requesting it. 

"The statement that because of a steady improvement in 
net earnings, reorganization is unnecessary, and that there will 
be no need of a receivership in case reorganization is not ef- 
fected should not be regarded seriously. It is understood by 
all interests that no plan short of a permanent reorganization 
and one that will restore credit to the road will avail. 

"It is true that net results of operation as compared with 
last year are continuing to show a favorable tendency. The 
report for the 11-months' perio'd. published today in face of a 
loss in the operating revenue of $1,335,000, shows a shortage 
of only $773,000 in the amount required to pay fixed charges 
as against a shortage of $2,186,000 for the same period of 
the previous year; but regardless of this favorable showing 
it is apparent that fixed charges will not be earned this fiscal 
year, although the result would have been more favorable 
had not track work been started earlier this year than last." 

Chairman MacLeod, of the Massachusetts Public Service 
Commission, gave out on June 29 the following statement : 

"The present corporate body of the Boston & Maine Rail- 
road is a menace to any sound reorganization ; the Public 
Service Commission does not favor any receivership if it can 
be avoided, but a reorganization on a sound basis. In con- 
formity with the law as passed by the legislature, the stock- 
holders may negotiate with the leased line interests, but any 
deal consummated must be within a capitalization fixed under 
the enabling act. 

"Until the Boston & Maine gets rid of the fixed charges 
that it is now under there cannot, in my opinion, be any 
healthy reorganization effected. The road must be reorgan- 
ized on such a basis that it will be able to weather any time 
of future stress." 
Ch iCAGO, Rock Island & Pacific. — Judge Carpenter, in the United 
States district court, has authorized the receivers to issue 
$2,500,000 5 per cent receivers' certificates, the proceeds to be 
used to pay interest due on July 1 on underlying bonds. The 
issue of certificates was opposed by Samuel Untermyer, rep- 
resenting the Amster interests, but the objections were over- 
ruled by Judge Carpenter. The receivers' certificates were sold 
to the First National Bank of New York. 

The following have formed a protective committee to repre- 
sent the interests of the first and refunding mortgage bonds: 
Charles A. Peabody, president of the Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, chairman ; Allen B. Forbes, of Harris, Forbes & 
Company, New York; W. A. Day, president of the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society; A. J. Hemphill, chairman of the board 
of directors of the Guaranty Trust Company, and Alfred W. 
I larris, president of the Harris Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago. 

Florida Railway. — William B. Winslow, of New York, has 
been appointed receiver of the Florida Railway by United 
States District Judge Hand. The receivership suit was 
brought by Carl J. Sauer on the part of certain bondholders 
because it was alleged that the Union Trust Company of 
Florida, which was to have acted as trustee for the bonds, 
never qualified as trustee. The Florida Railway runs from 
Live Oak, Fla., to Jacksonville and Fernandina. 

Hocking Valley.— A dividend of Ir per cent has been declared, 
payable June 30. Six months ago 3 per cent was declared. 
This makes a total of 4 per cent for the year. 

New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago.— The United States district 
court has ordered the sale of the New Orleans, Mobile & 
Chicago under foreclosure within the next two months. A 
petition to intervene in the receivership proceedings made by 
L. S. Berg, formerly president of the company, and represen- 
tatives of French bondholders was denied. 

New York Central.— Residents of Yonkers have, after mak- 
ing an attempt to persuade the New York Central to elec- 
trify the Yonkers branch, made the railroad company tenta- 
tive propositions looking to buying this branch and themselves 
electrifying it and operating it. The cost of electrification has 
been estimated at from $450,000 to $500,000. 

Pascagoula, Moss Poi.nt & Northern.— See Alabama & Missis- 

Pennsylvania Railroad.— This company now has over 93,000 
stockholders, of whom 44,848, or 48.22 per cent, are women. 
This is an increase in the total numbep.of. stockholders of 
3,158 as compared with June, 1914. The •women stockholders, 
while aggregating in number 48.22 per cent of the total stock- 
holders, hold 28.09 per cent of the stock, the average holdings 
per woman stockholder being 63 shares. 

St. Loins & San Francisco. — The bondholders' protective com- 
mittee representing the first and refunding 4 per cent bonds, has 
made arrangements to advance the interest due on July 1 on 
these bonds to holders who have deposited their bonds with 
the committee. 

Southern Pacific— The Supreme Court of the United States 
on Monday handed down a decision holding that the 2,300,000 
acres of land located in Oregon and granted to the Oregon 
& California Railroad Company, a subsidiary of the Southern 
Pacific, is not forfeited to the government and that the South- 
ern Pacific is entitled to hold this land, but an injunction 
is issued preventing the railroad company from selling it for a 
period of six months pending further action by Congress. 

The Southern Pacific will operate beginning with July 1 
as part of its Pacific system the properties of the Corvallis & 
Eastern ; Portland, Eugene & Eastern ; Coos Bay, Roseburg 
& Eastern; Pacific Railway & Navigation, and Salem, Falls 
City & Western. 

Wabash. — The sale of this property, which had been set for 
June 23, has been postponed upon the application of the Equi- 
table Trust Company, New York, to July 8. 

W.\bash-Pittsburc Terminal. — The reorganization committee, 
of which James N. Wallace, of the Central Trust Company 
of New York, is chairman, has submitted to securityiiolders 
a plan of reorganization. This plan provides for a reduction 
in the par value of securities and outstanding indebtedness 
from $91,000,000 to $44,000,000. Of the farmer capitalization 
$81,000,000 was bonds. This would be reduced to $5,000,000, 
reducing fixed charges from $2,783,000 to $261,000 annually. 
The new securities to be issued will consist of $9,100,000 6 
per cent preferred stock, cumulative after January 1, 1921, and 
$30,500,000 common stock, and the $5,000,000 underlying bonds 
will remain undisturbed. 

Dublin Railway Strikes. — Some 200 men left their work at 
Broadstone Railway Station on Monday, June 14, without 
notice. Many of them are members of the Irish Transport 
Union. Some SO men failed to resume work on .Monday 
morning at the locomotive and car shops of the Dublin & 
South-Eastern at Upper Grand Canal street, following an 
application for an advance of 68. ($1.50) per week in wages. 
The men belong to the Transport Union, which sought to 
secure the advance. The directors of the Midland Great 
Western decided on June 15 to grant a war bonus to their 
employees, i. e.. Is. (25 cents) a week to those earning 12s. 
($3) a week or less; to members of the clerical and wages 
staff (1) receiving more than 12s. and not exceeding 305. 
($7.50). Is. 6d. (38 cents) a week, (2) receiving more than 
30s. and not cNcccding .W*. ($0,751. Is. a week. 

Digitized by 


July 9, 191S 



Published Evmy F«iday and Daily Eight Times in June by the 


WooLwOBTH Building, New York. 

CHICAGO: Transportation Bldg. CLEVELAND: Citizens' Bldg. 

LONDON: Queen Anne's Cliambers, Westminster. 

E. A. Simmons, President. 

L. B. Sreemas, Vice-President. Hbney Lee, Sec'y & Trees. 

The address of the company is the address of the officers. 

Samuel O. Dunn, Editor 
Roy V. Weight, Managing Editor 

W. E. HooPEE H. F. Lane W. S. Lachee 

B. B. Adams R. E. Thayee C. W. Foss 

E. T. Howson a. C. Loudon F. W. Keaecee 

H. H. Simmons C. B. Peck J. M. Rutheefoed 

Subscriptions, including S2 regular weekly issues and special daily editions 
published from time to time in New York, or in places other than New 
York, payable in advance and postage free: 

United Sutes and Mexico |t-00 

Canada JOO 

Foreign Countries (excepting daily editions) 1.00 

Single Copies " cwiU Mch 

Engineering and Maintenance of Way Edition and four Maintenance of 
Way Convention daily issues. North America, $1; foreign, $2. 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

WZ OnASAMTEE, that of this iMU« 1,660 copiM were printed; that of 
tbeu a,6M copiei T,S36 wen mailed to recuUr paid snbteribers to the weekly 
•ditton, Ub were pnvided for ooimter and aewa compuiiea' salei, 911 ware 
mailod to advertiaors, exchAnges and oorrespondenta, and 178 were provided 
for new rabwaiptlona, aamplea, oopiea lost in the mall and olBoe uae; that the 
total eopiea printed this year to date were >68,100, an average of 9,118 oopies 
a week. 

The BAILWAT AOE QAZETTE and all other Simmou-Boardmaa puhlioa- 
tiona are members of the Audit Bureau of Circulationa. 

Volume 59 

July 9, 1915 


at a movable frog, which was open because the signal man tried 
to move it when it was clogged with snow. The rule prohibits 
signalmen from thus introducing an obstruction — moving the 
frog was an obstruction — when a train is known to be approach- 
ing; it requires him first to stop the train at home signal. The 
inspector calls for enforcement of the rule; the company says 
that at busy junctions it would cause congestion ; and the in- 
spector ends the discussion by declaring that, at least in the case 
of a passenger train, the moving of a frog (or switch) should 
be prohibited. This general rule, which means that a distant 
and a home signal cannot be depended on to stop a train, has 
for many years been a prominent feature of the English signal- 
ing creed; and for an equal number of years has been ignored 
by individual railways, in many situations, on the plea that it 
was an unreasonable restriction. Logically, this difference o£ 
view, as between the Board of Trade inspectors and the men 
who have the responsibility of actual railway operation, can be 
settled only by early and general adoption of cab signals, or 
their equivalent; but whether or not the inspectors are prepared 
to take such a positive stand does not year appear. 



Editorial Notes 41 

(lovernmcnt Building in Canada 42 

Let Your Light Shine 42 

A Right of the States 43 

The L. C. L. Freight Problem 44 


Depreciation and "Confiscation"; Lawrence K. Frank 44 


*A Study of Grade Crossing Elimination in Cities; C. N. Bainbridge. 45 

.Accident Caused by Defective Wheels 48 

".A Right of the States" Which Is Often Overlooked; .-Mfred P. Thorn 49 

Derailmeht on the North Eastern 53 

•A Simple Method of Checking L. C. L. Freight 53 

Electric Locomotive with Steam Locomotive Characteristics; Q. W. 

Hershey 54 

Hearings on Advances in Western Passenger Fares 55 

•Cafe Day Coach 57 

•New Delaware Hudson Terminal at Albany 58 

Present Welfare Work of French Railroads; Walter S. Hiatt 60 

The American Society for Testing Materials 61 

•Emergency Jacks 68 



Chaloner Whin is the latest train accident reported on by the 
British Board of Trade; and it is another case in which the in- 
spector points out the need of a cab signal 
The Cab Signal q^ its equivalent ; but the recommendation 
Propaganda is couched in the inspectors' customary 

in England "li'd language. Chaloner Whin is two 

miles south of York, on the North Eastern, 
which road has a considerable equipment of cab -signals. The 
report is abstracted on another page. Incidentally it shows also 
the comparative uselessness of an apparatus to enable a signal- 
man to put torpedoes on the rail opposite his cabin. In this 
case the engineman ran past distant and home signals set 
against him and was thrown off the track, just beyond the cabin, 

The annual meeting of the American Society for Testing Mate- 
rials, held in Atlantic City, June 22-26, was successful both in 
the quality of the material presented and 
American Society (he number of members present. The 
lor Testing work of the committee was painstaking in 

Materials ^^^ extreme and their findings were ac- 

cepted with little or no question by the 
society. There were two reports of committees on standard 
specifications and tests for cement and concrete that went 
through with little or no discussion, and it seemed as though 
the whole subject would be passed over in this way, but when 
the first paper, which was on the microstructure of concrete, 
was presented all such ideas were dissipated. The new method 
of examining concrete for the purpose of analyzing the reasons 
for failure was so simple in its procedure and seemed to appeal 
so strongly to the sense of what was fit that the meeting took 
on a tone of vigor that was quite unexpected. Then came three 
more individual papers, each dealing with a method of research 
that was important, which were discussed with interest and ap- 
preciation, the net result being a symposium along a single line 
of work that was valuable and suggestive. One of the most 
important papers, though there was no criticism or discussion 
on it, was that of C. D. Young, engineer of tests of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, descriptive of the Altoona laboratory. This 
was printed in the Railway Age Gazette of July 2, 1915. In 
the first place, very few outsiders realize the extent of the ac- 
tivities of the test department of the Pennsylvania Railroad; 
then to those who are more or less familiar with its early, and 
one might almost say struggling, beginnings, its present magni- 
tude, as indicated by this paper, comes as a startling contrast. 
The use of the proposed tentative specifications has worked out 
in a manner that is very gratifying. By this means the specifi- 
cations are placed for one year in such a position that any 
necessary changes will be made before they are adopted as 
standard. This avoids the frequent disrupting of the standards. 

The last two decades have been marked by an ever-increasing 
demand on the part of the public for the elimination of cross- 
ings of railways with highways at grade. 
The Public This movement has become especially ac- 

and t'^'e within the last five years, particularly 

Grade Separation 

in the smaller cities and the rural com- 

munities, where it is largely a result of 
the "good roads" agitation promoted chiefly by the owners of 
automobiles. In consequence, the railroads are constantly called 
upon to face new demands for work of this kind. Early efforts 
to secure elimination of grade crossings were characterized by 
unreasonable requirements, in some instances amounting to 
virtual confiscation, due largely to a lack of comprehension on 

Digitized by 

Google '' 



Vol. 59, No. 2 

the part of the public authorities of the true considerations in- 
volved and also to a certain extent to a limited point of view. 
Railroads usually receive the most consideration in cities where 
the municipal authorities and the public have a proper under- 
standing of the principles involved, resulting from past experi- 
ence. For this reason, the paper presented by C. N. Bainbridge 
before the Western Society of Engineers and abstracted in this 
issue, is of interest at this time as a clear, concise statement of 
the problem encountered. It draws attention to the necessity for 
careful independent consideration of each individual project. 
Each problem is just as surely one for independent and special 
solution as the location of a new railroad. It is not only neces- 
sary to consider the natural physical situation, but as well the 
arrangement of the improvements to which the community and 
the railroads have already been committed, largely as the result 
of the location originally selected for the railway. It is only in 
extraordinary cases that the slate may be washed clean to get a 
fresh start. It is also necessary to realize at the outset that 
there are several parties to the contract, each of whom is entitled 
to fair consideration and that the object to be attained is the 
elimination of the grade crossings in question at the least ex- 
pense and with the minimum inconvenience to all. It is well to 
remember that the public eventually pays for these expenditures, 
though the immediate distribution of the expense usually is an 
equitable one, and that a city has no right to demand an ex- 
travagant, inefficient plan for track elevation or track depres- 
sion, the cost of which will be borne by the public at large. 


A WESTERN' Canadian editor writes: "We want more rail- 
ways. Optimism will never return to the west until the 
Dominion government builds some." To which the Montreal 
Gazette replies in an editorial : "It will be time enough to build 
new railways when they are needed." It adds : 

"The three prairie provinces and British Columbia have incurred a 
Kigantic indirect liability in guaranteeing railway bonds, while the Dominion 
Kovemment has just been obliged to take over the Transcontinental, »hicli, 
including the Lake Superior branch, is 2,000 miles long and has cost well 
on to $200,000,000. It is likewise engaged in constructing the Hudson Bay 
Railway, which can pay for axle grease only by diverting traffic from the 
Transcontinental and other Canadian routes; and some of these days may 
liave to furnish additional aid to the Canadian Northern or perhaps to 
assume the ownership and operation of that large system. Facts such as 
these impress the eastern man, but the western optimist is never so much 
at ease as when advocating the throwing of good money after bad, provided 
of course it is someone else's money." 

Especially pertinent is the reference to the National Trans- 
continental, which the government "has been obliged" to take 
over, because it was built by a government commission through 
an unproductive territory on such an extravagant scale of ex- 
penditure that the government could not get a private company — 
the Grand Trunk Pacific — to operate it rent-free for seven years 
and thereafter pay for 43 years a rental of three per cent on a 
cost which a government investigating commission found to in- 
clude a waste of $40,000,600. With these facts in mind the 
Montreal Gazette points out that just now it would be difficult 
for the government to borrow for new railways, even if it were 
<lisposed to do so, for the following reason : 

"Our experience of them (government railways) has not been encourag- 
ing. The usual plea in their behalf, that a government can raise money on 
liettcr terms than a company, may be true; but it is equally true that a 
company is less extravagant and far more businesslike. The Trans- 
continental is a monument more lasting than brass to the wasteful and 
liiingling methods of government construction; and we may be sure that 
tio matter how careful Mr, Cochrane and Mr. Gutelius may be supervising 
its operation* the results will scarcely equal those of private management," 

As the government has often failed to earn operating expenses 
on the Intercolonial, to say nothing of interest on the invest- 
ment, there is foundation for this prediction. With reference to 
government railway management in another part of the world 
the Montreal Gazette adds : 

"In Australia the government roads are suffering from poor crops and 
the depression, but instead of practicing economy the minister.' in charge 
li.Tvo been forced to spend freely for useless extensions in onlcr lo provide 
" rk for the unemployed in other walks of life," 

In recent years Canada has been, building railways at a very 
rapid rate. It not only has practically three transcontinental 
lines, but shorter lines and feeders are numerous. Last year 
Canada built 1,978 miles of new railway, or more than the 
United States, and in 1913 railway construction in Canada was 
only 60 miles less than in the United States. But for some 
time not only the government railways but even the better- 
located and better-operated private railways have been suffering 
from a scarcity of traffic. 

Perhaps the Montreal Gazette might appropriately have said: 
"It will be time enough for the Canadian government to build 
more railways when some of the railways already built are 


POR a long time the Pennsylvania Railroad has made a prac- 
* tice of publishing leaflets containing information for em- 
ployees and the public concerning the service of the railroad and 
its many activities in various directions. These are sent to 
newspapers and employees and placed on its trains where they 
may be available to the public. One of its latest bulletins is en- 
titled "He Serves the Railroad Most Who Serves Its Patrons 
Best," and is devoted to a number of instances in the everyday 
routine of the railroad where individual employees have won com- 
mendation for themselves and for the company by acts of special 
courtesy, kindness or thoughtfulness toward patrons. In most 
cases these incidents were brought to the attention of the com- 
pany by letters from patrons written without the knowledge of 
the employees concerned. 

For example, one of the letters was written by a passenger 
who happened to observe the unusual kindness of a station 
master to a foreign woman traveling with three children, who 
v/as compelled to wait over night at his station before resuming 
her journey on a morning train. The station master, noticing 
that the woman appeared ill, found that she and the children 
were hungry and provided lunch for them and lodging for the 
night. Another letter was from a man who was taken ill while 
on a train and wished to call the attention of the company to 
the courtesy of the conductor and trainmen in looking after his 
welfare. Another told of the courtesy of a station agent who 
loaned money to buy a ticket to a man who had inadvertently 
left his purse at home. Several of the letters expressed appre- 
ciation for unusual efforts or promptness on the part of em- 
ployees in tracing and returning lost articles. In one case a 
roll of bills containing $390 was dropped on a station platform 
by a passenger, found by a station porter and returned to the 
owner the following morning. Another story referred to the 
award of a Carnegie medal to a crossing watchman for heroism 
in rescuing a little girl who had run in front of a moving engine. 

Giving publicity to incidents of this kind is of benefit in two 
ways. It not only shows the employees that the company appre- 
ciates courtesy on their part, but it is the best kind of adver- 
tising for the railroad. It shows the public that it is the inten- 
tion of the railroad not only to furnish safe and prompt trans- 
portation but to go further and treat the passenger as a g^uest. 
The employees are made to realize that their efforts to give 
good service are not always unnoticed and the public is given 
an opportunity to recognize that an occasional lack of courtesy 
on the part of an employee does not represent the policy of the 

The Pennsylvania's information bulletins of this kind rep- 
resent an admirable method of obtaining publicity for and set- 
ting the example of good service, which has also been adopted 
to some extent by other roads. The New York, New Haven 
& Hartford has recently begun the issuance of a similar leaflet 
and many other roads accomplish the same result in various 
ways. .*\s far as the employees are concerned the various em- 
ployees' magazines afford an excellent medium for disseminating 
information regarding examples of special service or faithful- 
ness, but the importance of bringing such matters to the atten- 
tion of the public should not be overlooked. 




July 9, 1915 




AVERY notable discussion of regulation of commerce is the 
address by Alfred P. Thom entitled "A Right of the States," 
which was delivered at the recent meeting of the State Bar Asso- 
ciation of Tennessee. An abstract of this address is published 
elsewhere in this issue. The principle of "state's rights" is often 
advanced as an argument against the increase of federal regu- 
lation of commerce. Mr. Thom by broad implication points out 
that this overlooks one of the most vitally important rights of 
the states — their right to be protected by the federal government 
from unfair and burdensome regulation of their commerce by 
one another. 

He recalls the historic fact that the need for reg^ulation by 
some central authority to stop legislation by the individual states 
which burdened the commerce of all was one of the main reasons 
for the creation of the federal government. The states, by their 
jealous, selfish and parochial measures, were mutually ruining 
each other; and it was to forever end this internecine warfare 
that the federal constitution was made to provide that Congress 
should have power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations 
and among the several states." It was recognized from the 
start that this was one of the most important provisions of the 
constitution, and that one of the most important rights of the 
states was to have Congress exercise- the authority conferred 
by it. Therefore, to contend, as some do, that it is an invasion 
of the constitutional rights of the states for Congress to take 
appropriate action to protect them in the enjoyment of their 
express constitutional right to be free from measures adopted 
by individual states which burden the commerce of all is highly 

Turning from the legal to the practical aspect of the matter, 
there never was, as Mr. Thom clearly shows, more need than 
now for the federal government to put into effect measures 
adapted to protect the states and the nation from action by in- 
dividual states having the intention and result of burdening 
commerce in general. A very much larger proportion of the 
country's commerce is "among the states," and a very much 
smaller proportion of it intrastate, than was the case at the time 
of the adoption of the constitution. The tendency of the in- 
dividual states, as strikingly illustrated by their regulation of 
railways, to strive to promote their apparent interests at the 
expense of the interests of the other states and of the nation as 
a whole is, however, as strong now as it was then. The 
result of this relatively enormous increase of commerce "among 
the states," without any diminution of the tendency of the in- 
dividual states to try to secure unfair advantages over the other 
states, is that the right of each and all of the states to have 
their commerce move freely and be handled economically, ef- 
ficiently and profitably, is being flagrantly violated to the injury 
and loss of the people of every state and of the nation. 

The unfair and injurious regulation of commerce by the in- 
dividual states, as applied to railways, takes multifarious forms. 
Texas first, and then other states following its example, have 
tried to so regulate state rates as to make them lower than the 
corresponding interstate rates and than the intrastate rates of 
other states, and as to secure a monopoly of their own markets 
for their own producers and jobbers. This practice has been 
condemned by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Su- 
preme Court of the United States in the Shreveport case, but is 
still widely persisted in. Many states have passed laws making 
requirements as to the construction, equipment and operation 
of railways which are much more drastic and expensive than 
those which have been imposed by their sister states or by the 
federal government The effect of such regulation cannot be 
confined within the boundaries of the states imposing it. It in- 
creases the cost both of transportation in other states and of 
interstate transportation. In many cases it requires the railways, 
in rendering their services in other states and their interstate 
service, to do things which the other states and the federal gov- 
ernment do not want them to do. 

Numerous states have passed laws for the regulation of the 
issuance of securities by railway companies chartered by these 
particular states. There is hardly a railway in the country 
which does not operate in more than one state, and most of 
them operate in several states. In consequence, when one state 
regulates the issuance of securities it determines how and to 
what extent a railway company may finance its development in 
from one to 14 or IS other states. Such regulation is not state 
regulation. It is the regulation of "commerce among the states," 
and if not in violation of the letter is certainly in violation of 
the spirit and intent of the constitutional provision giving Con- 
gress alone power to regulate commerce "among the states." 

Not only do the states pass much regulatory legislation 
by which they harm each other and the nation, but in many 
cases where uniform action by them is needed it is impossible 
to secure it. For example, last winter and spring legislation was 
needed and sought in various New England states to permit the 
reorganization of the Boston & Maine system. Some of the 
states passed it and others refused to. There being no uniform- 
ity, either those that acted were wrong or those that refused to 
act were wrong. 

Moreover, while state regulation very generally harasses and 
burdens the commerce of the several states and of the nation, it 
also often leaves loopholes through which railway companies 
may escape from needed control. There has been much denunci- 
ation of the financial mismanagement of the New York, New- 
Haven & Hartford under the Mellen regime. But this could 
never liave occurred but for the looseness of the laws of one 
state — Connecticut. The New Haven had one charter from 
Massachusetts and another from Connecticut. As the Massachu- 
setts Public Service Commission said, in a report rendered by it 
last February, under the laws of Massachusetts railway compa- 
nies "have been given no broad, unsupervised power to acquire 
even the stock of other railroad companies. The general policy 
of Massachusetts is expressed in an act which provides that a 
railroad corporation shall not without express authorization by 
the proper officials, directly or indirectly subscribe for, take or 
hold the stock or bonds of or guarantee the bonds or dividends 
of any other corporation. "The policy of Connecticut," as the 
Massachusetts commission said, "has been very different. The 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, under 
Connecticut law, has for many years had unlimited power to 
acquire the stock or securities of any other corporation at any 
time and at any price and no matter what kind of a corporation 
it might be. . . . In respect to the issuing of stock and se- 
curities, the inconsistency between the laws of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut is equally marked. . . . The contrast be- 
tween the provisions of the Connecticut and Massachusetts 
statutes in the foregoing and in other respects is very great. 
They cannot be harmonized nor reconciled. To sum the situr.. 
ation up briefly, and yet with reasonable accuracy, Massachu- 
setts has tried to make the New Haven . a supervised railroad 
corporation ; Connecticut has made it largely a non-supervised 
holding company. For years the New Haven company dis- 
regarded the laws of this commonwealth and relied upon the 
broad powers and privileges granted by Connecticut." 

Practically every transaction under the Mellen regime which 
has been condemned by public sentiment was carried through 
under the Connecticut laws which the Public Service Commis- 
sion of Massachusetts denounces. So it has been with respect 
to the abuse of the holding company. Under the common law 
one corporation could not own stock in another corporation. The 
legislatures of New Jersey and several other states abrogated 
this common law principle and turned loose all kinds of holding 
companies to prey upon the people of the United States in order 
that the states creating them might profit by receiving fees for 
chartering them. 

We might go on and fill column after column with other specific 
examples of the way in which the individual states, by foolish or 
vicious legislation, have denied to the several states and to the 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

nation the right to which Mr. Thorn refers to have their com- 
merce left free from injurious restrictions and burdens. Experi- 
ence has demonstrated only too conclusively that this "right of 
the states" will never be properly and adequately safeguarded 
and upheld until the federal government fully asserts its para- 
mount authority over interstate commerce. Such action is es- 
sential for the protection and furtherance of the rights of the 
people of the very states which resort to such foolish and harmful 

The first step in this direction should be the passage of an act 
for the federal incorporation of all corporations doing an inter- 
state business. The next should be the passage of a law either 
abolishing all state regulation of railways which affects inter- 
state commerce, or making all state regulation of railways sub- 
ject to review and control by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission. There is no more sense in the kind of state regulation 
of railways which we have now than there was in the sort of 
state regulation of commerce which contributed so largely to 
forcing upon the attention of the people originally the need for 
the adoption of the federal constitution. 


XJO subject has received more attention from railway men 
-^ ^ during the last three or four years than the reduction of 
Joss and damage claims. Any money paid out on this account is 
a direct economic waste, as it depletes the funds of the railway 
■without adding to the property of the claimant. The largest 
single source of such claims is 1. c. 1. traffic. One road with 
annual gross freight earnings of over $75,000,000 finds that over 
30 per cent of all payments for claims go for I. c. I. shipments 
in spite of the fact that this traffic forms considerably less than 
10 per cent of the total business handled. These heavy losses 
arise primarily from rough handling of fragile materials and 
from errors in forwarding. In another column there is described a 
method to reduce losses from the latter cause employed at the 
Chicago freight house of the "Soo" for a year, which is both 
inexpensive and simple. This is only one of numerous methods 
which are being tried at various points. The test of the practic- 
ability of any of these plans s whether the claims are reduced 
by an amount sufficient to offset the increased expenditure. 

While given a large amount of attention, the reduction of 
claims is only one phase of the 1. c. 1. problem. This class of 
traffic is very expensive to handle at best. Facilities must be pro- 
vided in industrial centers where property values are high and 
■where fixed charges are in proportion. It is therefore necessary 
to design and to operate these facilities to the best advantage in 
•order to reduce the unit overhead cost to the minimum. The 
nature of the traffic also makes necessary a heavy expense for 
iiandling. To reduce the amount of labor necessary, motor trucks, 
•elevators and other forms of mechanical appliances have been 
ipcrfected and are being used while a number of methods are 
^Iso being employed to increase the efficiency of the labor it- 
rself, such as the bonus system and piece-work. 

The handling of 1. c. 1. freight has many ramifications, the 
■study of any one of which may lead to important economies. 
To secure a full discussion of these various developments we 
have announced a contest on The Handling of L. C. L. Freight 
to include all phases of this problem from the time the freight 
lis received at the freight house until it is delivered to the con- 
signee at destination. We desire to secure general discussions 
•of this subject with particular reference to improved designs and 
methods of operation. Data regarding such improvements should 
be given in detail. Prizes of $50 and $35 will be paid for the two 
test papers received, the award being based upon the complete- 
ness of the discussion and the practicability of the ideas presented. 
All other contributions accepted and published will be paid for at 
our regular space rates. All contributions should be sent to the 
Editor of the Railway Age Gaselte, 608 South Dearborn street. 
Chicago, and must be received before August 1, to be considered 
by the judges. 

Letters to the Editor 



New Yoix. 
To THE Editok of the Railway Ace Gazette: 

In his article on "A Billion Dollar Confiscation," Morrell 
Walker Gaines exhibits some confusion regarding the subject 
of depreciation reserves and retirement accounting which should 
be explained, especially since the points were not developed in 
your editorial comment. 

The requirement that plant retired be credited to fixed cap- 
ital and charged to a depreciation reserve is a book transaction, 
designed to keep the fixed capital^ accounts in conformity with 
actual fact. If the reserves arc inadequate and a part of the 
charge must be divided between income and surplus, investors 
are not being mulcted in any way. In fact, their interests are 
being conserved by the required accounting. The depreciation 
reserve is created for the protection of the capital investment: 
income is charged to build up a reserve which will restore the 
capital that has been consumed in the plant retired. If it so 
happens that reserves for this purpose have not been created, 
the charge to income or surplus for any deficit is prima facie 
evidence of neglect in insuring the perpetuity of the capital in- 
vestment and of effective, though perhaps rigorous, steps being 
taken to remedy past neglect. 

Another advantage of the required accounting is that it pro- 
vides for the replacement of original capital investment, not of 
items of plant. From which it follows that any increased costs 
of new plant are automatically capitalized, as they legitimately 
should be. Mr. Gaines also speaks of the hardship to the roads 
in requiring them to charge expense with the annual depreciation 
quota at the same time they are bearing the deficit of their re- 
serves in income. Undoubtedly this charge to expense will 
diminish distributable earnings, but the investors are benefited 
and the credit of the road improved by the process. 

In the first place the creation of a depreciation reserve by 
charging expense results in a diversion of income from surplus 
to the reserve. The road loses nothing by the transaction, but 
really gains from an investing point of view. This is seen to be 
true when it is recalled that a depreciation reserve is pledged 
to the protection of the capital investment, with consequent 
greater security to stockholders and increased stability to bond- 
holders. The practice of issuing long term bonds on the se- 
curity of the stock investment in plant, whereby the term of the 
bonds exceeds the life in service of the plant, requires depreci- 
ation reserves to insure the replacement of the bondholders' 
equity. Therefore, if reserves are created, the bondholders 
are protected and they will accept lower interest rates in con- 

The stockholders also have their proprietor shares enhanced, 
since the depreciation reserves are invested in the plant and are 
unalienable, while surplus may be invested in outside securities 
of doubtful value and subject to market fluctuations. 

From the point of view of sound accounting, depreciation re- 
serves are absolutely necessary in a continuing public utility. 
And they are based on good economic theory. Both the public 
and the investors are protected by the reserves and the carrier's 
best interests as a public utility are conserved. If testimony 
were needed in support of these assertions, the practice of tele- 
phone, telegraph, light and power, water companies and others 
would be sufficient. It should also be recalled that recognition 
of depreciation charges in the expense accounts for the replace- 
ment of capital places the roads in a much better position in 
rate cases, since it removes one more point of dispute regarding 
the legitimate requirements of the road for revenue. 

Lawrence K. Frank. 

Digitized by 


A Study of Grade Crossing Elimination in Cities' 

A Discussion of the More Important Elonents Which 
Must Be Considered in the Solution of This Problem 

By C. N. Bainxkidg£ 

Office Engineer, Chicago, Milwaukee ft St Paul, Chicago 

The question of the separation of grade crossings in municipal- 
ities is vital and its importance cannot be denied. No single 
question affecting the relations of railroads to cities has received 
more consideration during the last decade. Various cities, util- 
ities commissions and legislatures are requiring the railways to 
separate the grades of their tracks from those of the streets, 
and in practically all instances where such orders are issued, 
they specifically designate the manner in which the separation 
of grades shall be made. 

The railroads recognize the right of a city to interfere with 
the grade of the railway tracks only as is imposed by its duty to 
preserve, as far as possible, the safety of public travel upon 
and along the streets and avenues intersected by such tracks, 
but do not concede that a city has authority to determine 
whether grade separation should be accomplished by elevation 
or depression of the tracks. The railways claim that they, and 
not the city, are entitled to the choice between two methods that 
are equally safe. 

Numerous articles have been published covering track eleva- 
tion. Little, however, has been written concerning the depres- 
sion of tracks partially or completely and carrying the streets 
over the tracks on bridges or viaducts. It can not be said con- 
clusively which method is the more satisfactory. Although track 
depression has found favor in several cities, few projects of this 
nature have been carried to completion, and it remains for time 
to determine whether track depression will be as satisfactory as 
track elevation is. 

It is the purpose of the writer to set forth some of the general 
features which must be considered by the engineer, in studying 
a problem of grade crossing elimination. Probably the biggest 
factor is the cost, this being the most vital to the railroads, who 
generally bear the greater burden of the expense. The geological 
character and topography of the country and the effect on the 
grade of the railroad are also big factors in selecting a plan. 
In a flat low district like that around Chicago, there is little 
choice. Track depression would be out of the question on ac- 
count of difficulties due to water and interference with the sewer 
system. This leaves the alternative of elevation, or partial ele- 
vation. Chicago, however, is only one city in many where grade 
separation is being carried on, and at other places where the 
tracks are at the summits of ascending grades, the natural selec- 
tion would be depression, unless this proved to be too expensive. 
There are still other places where the ground is high above wa- 
ter and the present tracks nearly level, where either track ele- 
vation or track depression could be adopted without excessive 

Numerous elements are involved in the study of a project of 
this nature and for convenience they will be considered in the 
following order: Excavation or embankment; clearances; 
bridges; right of way and retaining walls; changes in streets; 
apportioning of expenses; advantages and disadvantages, and 


To carry the tracks over the streets requires a vertical sepa- 
ration of grades of from IS ft. 6 in. to 17 ft 6 in., allowing from 
3 ft 6 in. to 4 ft. for floor depth and 12 ft. to 13 ft. 6 in. for 
lieailroom. To carry the streets over the tracks requires a ver- 
tical separation of grades of from 21 ft. 6 in. to 26 ft. 6 in., al- 

lowing from 18 to 22 ft. for clearance and from 3 ft. 6 in. to 4 
ft. 6 in. for floor depth. The difference of from S to 11 ft. in 
the amount of vertical separation of grade, required for com- 
plete elevation and complete depression, together with the in- 
creased width of roadbed required for track depression over 
that required for track elevation, in order to provide for drain- 
age, makes the amount of excavation, in the case of track depres- 
sion considerably more than the amount of fill required for track 
elevation. This is illustrated by the accompanying figure. 

Other things being equal, material can be excavated as cheaply 
in a cut for track depression as in the borrow pit for track 
elevation; but usually the cost of dumping material for till will 
exceed the cost of wasting material from the cut, due to the 
fact that material for fill is usually dumped from a trestle, and 
the cost of the trestle is chargeable to the fill. The additional 
cost of a trestle will go a long way toward balancing the cost of 
additional yardage required in the project of track depression. 

It is sometimes the case that a project of grade crossing 
elimination is carried on to advantage in conjunction with some 
other project, such as the construction of freight yards, where 
considerable grading is necessary and material may be borrowed 
or wasted to good advantage and at small expense. Other items. 

•Abstracted from a paper presented before the Western Society of Engi- 
neers, Chicago, June 24. 1915. 

Fig. 1 — Typical Section* for Track Elevation and Depretsion 

such as the difference in the cost of bridges and walls, the num- 
ber of tracks, and the cost of maintaining traffic, changes to 
sewers, the nature of the material to be excavated, the depth of 
depression and the amount of elevation may throw the balance 
either one way or another. 


In recent years numerous state legislatures have passed various 
laws regarding vertical and side clearances.! In some cases the 
requirements of these laws are more rigid than the present 
standards. In most cases, however, there is a provision in such 
laws which allows this clearance to be reduced in special cases, 
if approved by the city or railroad commission. For track de- 
pression projects the overhead clearance generally adopted is 
between 18 ft. and 22 ft., but in some instances where passenger 
traffic alone is handled on the lines this is reduced to 16 ft., 
although this latter figure is somewhat scant if electrification is 
contemplated at some future date. 

Where the tracks are elevated, the clearances of the bridges 
over the streets varies in different localities, the usual clearances 
being 12 ft. to 13 ft. for streets without street cars, and 13 ft. 6 
in. to 14 ft 6 in. for those with street cars. For proposed work 
there is little variation from the above clearances for bridges 
over streets, but there is a strong tendency, as indicated by re- 
cent legislation, to specify clearances under bridges over the 

•fFor a discussion of clearance legislation see Railway Agt Gazette, 
August 28, 1914. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

tracks of 21 or 22 ft. wherever possible, although much smaller 
clearances have been used in the past. 


Bridges for track elevation or track depression projects are 
in practically all instances of a permanent nature and are con- 
structed either of structural steel or reinforced concrete; or a 
combination of both. A few of the roads are adopting concrete, 
wherever possible, to the exclusion of steel in structures of this 
class, as the first cost is the same or less than steel, the main- 
tenance is less, and it can be treated aesthetically to better ad- 
vantage where such treatment is warranted. 

Bridges for track elevation can be divided into four types : 

Type A. Structures spanning the full width of the street with single spans. 
Type B. Structures spanning the full width of the street with two spans, 

supports being placed in the center of the street. 
Type C. Structures spanning the full width of the street with three spans, 

supports being pUced at the curb lines. 
Type D. Structures spanning the full width of the street with four spans, 

supports being placed at the curb lines and at the center of 


In practically all types it is desirable to : Keep the floor of the 
bridge as thin as possible; to avoid any projections above the 
top of rail, which might be a menace to safety, and to select a 
type of bridge which can be altered readily to provide for ad- 
ditional tracks. 

Except in cases of narrow streets where comparatively short 
spans can be employed, bridges of types A. B and C have no 
alternative, except the use of steel girders, although they have 
been used to some extent by resorting to a combination of struc- 
tural steel and reinforced concrete, but not to the exclusion of 
the deep side girders. These types, however, have the first 
qualification of thin floors, but cannot in all cases meet the sec- 
ond qualification of no projections above the top of rail, nor do 
they meet the third provision for taking care of additional tracks 
without considerable alteration and expense. 

Bridges of types B and D have the objection that the roadway 
is obstructed by the supports in the center of the street, but, with 
the possible exception of structures spanning boulevards, there 
is no serious disadvantage in this, provided the roadway on each 
side of the center supports is of sufficient width to allow one 
vehicle to pass another going in the same direction. This ob- 
jection would be even less for structures spanning streets with 
double street car tracks, although it requires the spreading of 
the car tracks. The car tracks themselves form a natural bar- 
rier in the center of the street, there being little occasion for 
traffic from one car track to the- other, especially in the short 
distance occupied by the bridges. 

Bridges of type D meet the three requirements of thin floors; 
no projections above the top of the rail and ease of alteration to 
provide for additional tracks. Due to the comparatively short 
spans, this type is well adapted to be constructed either of steel 
or concrete. 

It has been recognized by practically all parties interested that 
tight floors are a necessity in bridges crossing city streets, not 
only to prevent grease, dirt and water from dropping through, 
but also to deaden the noise of trains passing at high speed 
across the bridges. There are numerous types which might be 
adopted, the various roads using the one with which they have 
had the greatest success, but in all probability floors as used in 
concrete bridges of type D will remain the cheapest. 

Bridges for track depression projects may be divided in two 
main types: 

Type E. Bridges spanning the tracks with clear spans. 
Type F. Bridges spanning the tracks with two or more spans with inter- 
mediate supports. 

In bridges for track depression it is also desirable to keep the 
floor of the bridges as thin as possible; avoid any obstructions 
between tracks, and to select a type of bridge which can be al- 
tered readily to provide for additional tracks. 

Bridges of type E meet the first of these requirements, but in 

tFor an article on track elevation subways see Railway .^gf Cazetle. 
M.nrch 6, 19M, page 459. 

most cases not as well as structures of type F. For streets with 
■narrow roadways and short spans, not exceeding three tracks, 
the deck type structure of either concrete or steel can be adopted. 
For longer ^-pans and wide roadways, however, the deck type 
must give way to the through type with girders projecting 
above the roadway, and reinforced concrete cannot be used to 
advantage ; but a combination of structural steel and concrete 
may be used. For narrow roadways but two lines of girders 
need project above the roadway, one on either side at the curbs ; 
but for wide roadways center girders are required. Structures 
of type E do not lend themselves well to the third requirement, 
that of additional tracks. Either additional tracks must be pro- 
vided for when the structure is built, or considerable expense 
must be incurred to lengthen the bridge to provide for them 

Bridges of type F meet the first requirement of thin floors and 
the third requirement of providing for additional tracks, but do 
not meet the second requirement of no obstructions between 
tracks. They are well adapted to the use of concrete. 


In general, for the same number of tracks in each case, track 
depression will require a greater width of right of way than 
track elevation, even where the tracks occupy the full width of 
right of way and where retaining walls are resorted to. It has 
been shown that the amount of additional right of way required 
for track depression over that required for track elevation, if no 
retaining walls are used, depends on the amount of elevation 
and depression of the tracks. 

In cases where the entire right of way is occupied by tracks 
retaining walls would be required for both track elevation and 

Fig. 2 — Relative Track Capacitie* for Track Elevation and 

track depression. In such cases it is seen from the figure that it 
is necessary to acquire additional right of way to accommodate 
the same number of tracks in depression as in elevation, or else 
eliminate one track to allow room for the retaining walls, which 
must be built on railroad property. The loss due to the elimi- 
nation of one track to the railroad company is impossible to 
determine. -An order of any city or commission calling for 
track depression under such circumstances, in the face of the 
railroad's opposition, amounts to confiscation of railroad prop- 
erty without compensation and without due process of law, and 
it is doubtful if it would be upheld in the courts. 

Both of these conditions are serious handicaps for track de- 
pression, for in the majority of cases the districts where grade 
separation is required are such as to make the acquisition of 
additional right of way almost out of the question on account 
of the value of adjacent property, so that the building of retain- 
ing walls is the only alternative. 

There may, however, be instances where the tracks run through 
a strictly residence district, where land values would not be 
excessive, but this condition is the exception rather than the rule. 

Any one of numerous types of retaining walls may be adopted 
on any project, economy being the prime factor in the selection. 
Much literature has been published regarding the economy of 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



various types of walls, and this phase of the subject will not be 
discussed further than to state that for walls of the height re- 
quired for track elevation and track depression a gravity wall 
will, under ordinary conditions, be cheaper than the reinforced 
concrete types 


So far only complete elevation and complete depression of the 
tracks have been considered, which require very little change 
in the grades of the streets. The question immediately arises 
as to whether or not a partial elevation of the tracks with a 
partial depression of the street, or a partial depression of the 
tracks with a partial elevation of the streets, would not be the 
plan to adopt. It might be said here that on practically all pro- 
jects for complete track elevation or depression the plans usu- 
ally provide for at least a slight change in grade of the street, 
varymg from 1 ft. to 3 ft, which change can readily be made 
without incurring excessive expense or property damage. It 
may also be said that to change the grade of the street entirely 
without changing the railroad track is unusual, except in the 
case of isolated crossings or in country districts. 

To change the street grade any appreciable amount brings up 
questions of allowable grades on streets, economy, drainage and 
interference with sewers, gas and water mains, and property 
damages. Chicago has fixed by ordinance a maximum grade of 
3 per cent. To adopt this grade, however, in all cities would be 
unquestionably in error, especially so in a hilly city, where exist- 
ing street grades of from 6 to 8 per cent are not uncommon. 

Although most cities try to limit the allowable grades to 3 
per cent or 4 per cent, the following table gives some of the 
grades which have been used on work of this nature in various 
cities : 

Location Maximum Grade 

Chicago 3}^ per cent, usual 3 per cent 

BufifaTo 4 per cent 

Joliet, 111 354 per cent 

Evanston 3^^ per cent or 3 per cent 

Milwaukee 4 per cent 

Minneapolis 5 per cent, 4 per cent, usual 3 per cent 

Cleveland 6 per cent, usual 4 per cent 

Detroit 4 per cent, usual 3 per cent 

Philadelphia 5 ^ per cent, usual 3 per cent 

Indianapolis 4yi per cent, usual 3 per cent 

Washington 9 per cent, 8 per cent, 6 per cent, usual 3 per cent, 

4 per cent 

Newton, Mass 9 per cent, SH per cent, 7'/i per cent, 6 per cent, 

usual 3 per cent and S per cent 

Lynn, Mass 3 per cent, 4 per cent, and S per cent 

Brockton 9 per cent, 5 per cent 

Where the street is to be carried over the tracks, the side- 
walk and roadway must be elevated the same amount, but where 
the street is carried under the tracks the roadway is sometimes 
depressed 4 or 5 ft. further than the sidewalk at the deepest 
part. This has the disadvantage of high curbs, but where wagons 
would back up to property adjacent to right of way for loading 
or unloading it would be an advantage. It also has the addi- 
tional advantage of producing a smaller actual damage to prop- 
erty, as very often the sidewalks can be left at the original level, 
though the streets may be depressed 4 or S ft. 

At first glance it would be natural to say in most projects 
that the less the grade of the tracks is changed the less the pro- 
ject will cost. Streets, however, may occur with such frequency 
that the cost of excavating or filling streets, the cost of repaving 
streets and sidewalks, alterations to sewers and water pipes, and 
property damaged, will be equal to or greater than the cost of 
excavation or embankment for track elevation or depression. 

Wherever streets are depressed adequate provision should be 
made for drainage. Catch basins with proper connections to 
sewers should be placed some distance outside the portals of the 
bridge so that in winter or spring time, when the thaw starts, 
they will not be in the shadow of the bridge and remain frozen. 
Similar provision and precaution to provide for drainage should 
be exercised in the cut in the case of track depression. 

In cases where the streets or tracks are depressed to such an 
extent as to interfere with sewers, the problem is much more 
complicated. Either new sewers must be constructed at a lower 
level or else the sewage will have to be siphoned. Both of these 

schemes entail considerable expense and are serious handicaps to 
track depression. 

Interference with the water and gas mains is a less serious 
objection, the question of gradients there being a secondary 
consideration. Although it adds quite an item to construction 
cost, provision can be made to carry them across the bridge 
floor, or depress them under the cut. 

The question of property damage is one for which it is im- 
possible to lay down any set rule. In making allowance for this 
phase of the question, each problem will have to be handled 
separately, the damages estimated and an amount allowed which 
would be sutficient to put the property back into as good a condi- 
tion or perhaps better condition than previously existed. It will 
be found, in many cases where damages are settled out of 
court, that considerable saving can be effected by buying the 
property damaged and selling it again after the work is com- 


The question of apportioning the expense incident to the sepa- 
ration of grades is of great importance, and with the excep- 
tion of a few states, where legislation divides the expense on a 
percentage basis, the question is far from settled. There are a 
few cities where the railroads are required to pay the entire cost 
of grade separation. The unfairness of such order, however, 
needs little comment. There have been cases also where the 
expense has been borne by the municipality, the steam railroad, 
the street railway, and the various other public utilities, each do- 
ing the work and bearing the expense incurred by the changes 
to the property which it controls. Where this plan is followed 
there is controversy between the parties interested relative to 
procedure of the work, etc. It has in consequence not proved 
entirely satisfactory and is giving way to the more reasonable 
and logical method of considering the work as a unit and di- 
viding the total cost of the project among the parties interested 
on a percentage basis agreed upon by the interested parties be- 
fore work is started. 

.\n examination of the different state- laws and city ordinances 
enforcing grade separation shows that the apportionment of 
cost on a percentage basis has been followed in the majority of 


Some of the benefits or advantages and disadvantages applying 
especially to either track elevation or track depression may be 
summarized as follows: 

1. For track elevation, the work of construction can be car- 
ried on with little or no interference to traffic, either in the 
streets or on the railroad. It is, however, exceedingly difficult 
to depress the tracks without stopping traffic on both streets and 
railroads, or building a detour around the entire project. The 
question of time on construction is also an important factor. A 
track elevation project can be completed in considerably less 
time than it would take to depress the same number of tracks, 
because it is possible to carry on the work at many different 
points simultaneously. 

2. A distinct advantage of track elevation is the ease with 
which the industrial situation can be handled. Industries having 
side track facilities can adapt themselves to take trackage from 
the elevated level by slight alterations to their buildings and 
doing their receiving and shipping from the second floor. For 
coal yards, trestles can be readily provided and are particularly 
advantageous. Also during construction elevation has the ad- 
vantage that shipping facilities are disturbed very little, causing 
practically no interruption to business. Where tracks are de-. 
pressed, there is usually not sufficient distance between bridges, 
nor between right of way lines to allow inclined tracks to bring 
the cars from the depressed tracks to the former ground level 
to serve the industries, and it is therefore necessary for the in- 

SFor an account of grade separation laws and requiremtni^ ;irc Rail:i;ay 
.Igc Gazette. December 12, 1913. page 1118. 

Digitized by 




Vou 59, No. 2 

dustries to adjust themselves to take trackage from the low- 
ered track level by altering buildings. Even if there were suf- 
ficient distance between bridges to allow inclined tracks, such an 
arrangement is objectionable, as it requires the right of way 
to be encumbered with massive walls which tend to restrict the 
development of the right of way and the industries. Much in- 
convenience and interruption to business must be contended 
with, while the tracks are being lowered and changes to build- 
ings are being made. 

The expense for making such changes, either in the case of 
elevation or depression, represents a considerable sum. The in- 
dustries have claimed that the railways should bear the expense 
of changes to industries and industry tracks made necessary by 
the change in grade of the railway company's tracks. The rail- 
way companies do not concur in this and the practice has been 
for the industries to bear the expense, as the railway companies 
contend that the grade of the tracks are changed not on their 
initiative, or for their benefit, but by orders of the cities, or 
utilities commissions. 

3. The annoyance from noise, smoke and gases will be less 
from track elevation than track depression. Little need be said 
to convince all that the smoke and gas nuisance will be less to 
those on the streets from tracks on a high level than from tracks 
on the lower level. The question of noise, however, is one on 
which there can be some difference of opinion. 

From the foregoing considerations it may be said in a general 
way that track elevation is more satisfactory than track depres- 
sion, both to the railroads and to the industries, and at the 
same time possesses many advantages to the city. With the pos- 
sible exception of cases where the tracks pass through a high 
class residence district where the aesthetic is of such importance 
as to outweigh the other factors, track elevation would appear 
to be the best solution of the problem. 


H. W. Belnap, chief of the division of safety of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, has made a report on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul derailment which took place at Oakwood, 
Wis., on February 9, 1915, an abstract of which follows : 

The accident to the freight train resulted in the derailment of 
29 cars, 11 of which, together with the station building, were 
destroyed by fire. The train involved in the accident was a west- 
bound freight train consisting of 75 cars and a caboose, and was 
derailed at the frog of the house-track switch near the station at 
Oakwood, while moving at a speed estimated to have been about 
25 miles an hour. 

Examination of the track showed that the first indication of 
anything wrong was at a point about one mile east of Oakwood, 
where an oil box, brass, packing waste, etc., were found on the 
east side of the track, .^bout 370 ft. west of this point the rear 
truck under Missouri. Kansas & Texas box car 60628, the tenth 
car in the train, left the rails and ran along on the ties until the 
frog at the house track was reached, where the other 28 cars 
were derailed. The oil box, etc., were found to have come from 
the rear truck of the box car, the partial destruction of the truck 
at this point evidently having been due to the defective condition 
of the wheels under the truck. Three of the four wheels were 
defective, the left forward wheel being the only one intact. The 
others had fiat spots, broken flanges, etc. 

Investigation developed that this car was received fiom the 
Belt Railway at Chicago in a transfer train at 5 :35 p. m. on Feb- 
ruary 8. Before the train was broken up and switched around all 
the cars in the train were inspected and, although wheel defects 
were found in other cars, none was found under car 60628. 
,'Mthough this car was again inspected by two car inspectors, one 
safety-appliance man, and two oilers before being sent out, no 
defects were discovered. 

Engineman Christoph stated that as his train was approaching 
Oakwood he locked back and noticed fire flying from under the 
train, and at once made an application of the air brakes, at about 

which time the derailment occurred. Previous to this he did not 
notice anything wrong. At Wadsworth, a station 30 miles east 
of Oakwood, the train was inspected by the brakemen, but noth- 
ing wrong was discovered at that time. 

This accident was caused by the defective condition of wheels 
in the rear truck of M. K. & T. box car 60628. This de- 
fective condition resulted in the partial destruction of the truck 
and its subsequent derailment 

The examination to determine the reason for the failure of the 
wheels under the car was conducted by James E. Howard, en- 
gineer physicist, tests being made in conjunction with rep- 
resentatives of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at the shops 
of that company in Milwaukee, Wis. 


The examination of the wheels in the truck which was under 
M. K. & T. box car 60628 clearly fixed the immediate responsi- 
bility for this derailment on the worn treads of two of the wheels. 
These flat spots were not "slid flat" places, but were grooves 11 
in. long each, worn in the treads, and having depths of three- 
eighths and five-sixteenths of an inch, respectively. The grooves 
were wider than the head of a 100-lb. rail. The axles drifted to 
the right, in the direction of these wheels, which showed worn 
flanges, approaching vertical faces. 

The examination also revealed the fact that these wheels had 
less depth of chill than customary in wheels of this type, and at 
the worn spots the chilled metal was entirely absent 

The lack of rotundity of the wheels was such that excessive 
wabbling of the journals occurred at every rotation, bringing un- 
due strains on the truck frame. At usual speeds these oscil- 
lations took place several times a second, and they are believed 
to have been the cause of the injury to the truck and the imme- 
diate forerunner of the derailment. 

Furthermore, the mated wheels were of different sizes. Those 
on the right-hand ends of the axles were three and four "tape 
sizes" smaller, respectively, than the left-hand wheels. These 
differences would tend to cause the truck to run in an oblique 
position, not square with the track, and also be the equivalent of 
a certain amount of braking power set against the train. 

A conspicuous feature associated with conditions of these 
wheels is the fact that the inspections which had been made from 
time to time failed to detect the presence of the flat spots. These 
defects in the treads were undoubtedly of long standing, and the 
car must have passed quite a number of inspections since the 
wheels had become unserviceable. These defects were of such a 
nature that they should have been discovered by ordinary in- 

In a previous report covering the investigation of a derailment 
of a passenger train, due to a broken wheel, attention was called 
to the alarming frequency of accidents due to broken wheels, and 
statistics covering a five-year period were published, showing that 
during that period the derailments attributable to defective wheels 
were approximately 31 per cent of the total number of derail- 
ments charged to defective equipment. In the commission's Ac- 
cident Bulletin No. 52 there is published a summary of derail- 
ments due to defects of equipment on steam railways for 13 years 
ending June 30, 1914. This summary shows that of 37,456 de- 
railments due to equipment defects 12,882, or more than 34 per 
cent of the whole, were caused by defective wheels. The prop- 
erty loss suffered by the railroads on account of these 37,456 
derailments was $30,138,241, of which sum $12,506,766, or about 
41.5 per cent of the whole, was attributed to derailments caused 
by defective wheels. 

These figures indicate that defective wheels constitute one of 
the most prominent causes of derailments. In the interest of 
safety, as well as of economy, steps should be taken by the rail- 
roads to insure that sound wheels will be obtained from the 
manufacturers in the first instance; and methods of inspection 
should be adopted to prevent the placing in service of defective 
wheels and insure that wheels which have become defective 
through service shall be removed in ample time to provide for 
the safe operation of trains. 

Digitized by 


"A Right of the States" Which is Often Overlooked' 

Constitutional Duty of Federal Government to Protect 
From Harmful Regulation of Commerce by Sister States 

By Alfred P. Thom, 

General Counsel of the Southern Railway 

One hundred and twenty-six years ago the United States be- 
came a nation. On the 4th of March, 1789, they joined in putting 
into effect the Constitution which formed them into "a more 
perfect union" and organized them to take their place as a unit 
among the nations of the earth. 

Only recently they had been separate and distinct colonies of 
Great Britain, legally foreign to each other, and were bound to- 
gether by no ties except a sense, common to them all, of 
oppression and discontent and a common aspiration and purpose 
of liberty. They combined to declare and to fight for their in- 
dependence, and to assert that, as free and individual states, they 
had "full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, 
establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which 
independent states may of right do." 

During the succeeding epoch-making struggle, they sought to 
bind themselves together by something more enduring than the 
sympathies and exigencies of the existing war, and, to this end, 
adopted as their bond of union the Articles of Confederation. 

The Articles of Confederation were soon found to be utterly 
inadequate to a national existence. A government without a 
purse, and hence without power to provide for the common de- 
fense, or to insure domestic tranquillity, was a mere "rope of 
sand" and could not long endure. 

But there was another cause for dissatisfaction, which was 
hardly of less importance than a provision for the common de- 
fense and for the preservation of the national existence. The 
needs of trade were becoming more and more apparent and its 
just regulation the subject of greater and more universal public 

When the war ended and independence was an accomplished 
fact, each state possessed a sovereignty which was practically 
unlimited over its foreign commerce and over its commerce with 
the other states. Between many of them there was a race of 
greed and selfishness for commercial advantage and supremacy. 

It will be noted that each state possessed the power of im- 
posing expert taxes and could thus keep its products at home, 
excluding them from the use and enjoyment of the people of 
the other states; that each state possessed the power of im- 
posing import duties and thus could exclude people of the other 
states from its markets; and that each state retained complete 
control over its own ports, and thus, by its commercial policy, 
could, through the competition of ports, regulate or break down 
the commercial policy of another state in regard to its own ports 
and in regard to its own commerce. 


Nor were these powers merely theoretical. They were brought 
into active and oppressive operation. They were made the 
means of commercial war by one state upon another. 

For example : 

Virginia, by her export duties and inspection laws, with the 
incidental tax, sought to keep her tobacco at home. 

Maryland, by her inspection laws and taxes, sought to do 
the same with regard to her potash and pearlash. 

Massachusetts prohibited the exportation of grain or unmanu- 
factured calfskins and imposed an onerous inspection tax on 
exports to other states of tobacco, butter, and other products, 
while North Carolina laid, for a limited time an embargo on 
the exportation to other states of corn, wheat flour, beef, bacon, 
and other necessaries of life. 

•Abstract of an address delivered before the State Bar Association of 
Tennessee at Chattanooga on June 25. 

Turning to imports : 

New York, by imposing an import duty, sought to exclude 
from its markets the butter, milk, and other dairy products of 
New Jersey and the firewood of Connecticut. 

Rhode Island imposed an ad valorem tax of five per cent on 
all articles imported into that state from the other states as well 
as from foreign countries, with a proviso for reciprocal relief. 
And so with other states. 

In regard to the commercial rivalry and war of ports, it was 
customary for states having available ports to impose an un- 
limited tax on all goods reaching this continent through their 
ports, and thus subjecting, for the benefit of themselves, the 
people of the other states to a substantial burden of taxation. 

For example, the ports of Boston and New York were at one 
time far behind Newport in the value of their imports, and 
Rhode Island, according to the Supreme" Court of the United 
States, paid all the expenses of her government by duties on 
goods landed at her principal ports. 

The condition at that time of commercial selfishness and greed 
between the states is thus described by Fiske in his work on the 
"Critical Period of American History, 1783-1789," at page 144: 

"Meanwhile, the different states, with their different tariff and tonnage 
acts, began to make commercial war upon one another. No sooner had the 
other three New England states virtually closed their ports to British 
shipping than Connecticut threw hers wide open, an act which she fol- 
lowed by laying duties upon imports from Massachusetts. 

"Pennsylvania discriminated against Delaware; and New Jersey, pillaged 
at once by both her greater neighbors, was compared to a cask tapped at 
both ends. The conduct of New York became especially selfish and blame- 
worthy. . . . The feeling of local patriotism waxed strong, and in no 
one was it more completely manifested than in George Clinton, the 
revolutionary general, whom the people elected governor for nine successive 
terms. ... It was his first article of faith that New York must be 
the greatest state in the union. But his conceptions of statesmanship were 
extremely narrow. In his mind, the welfare of New York meant the 
pulling down and thrusting aside of all her neighbors and rivals. . . . 
Under his guidance, the history of New York, during the five years 
following the peace of 1783, was a shameful story of greedy monopoly and 
sectional hate. Of all the thirteen states none behaved worse except 
Rhode Island. 

"A single instance, which occurred early in 1787, may serve as an illustra- 
tion. The city of New York, with its population of thirty thousand souls, 
had long been supplied with firewood from Connecticut, and with butter 
and cheese, chickens and garden vegetables from the thrifty farms of New 
Jersey. This trade, it was observed, carried thousands of dollars out of 
the city and into the pockets of detested Yankees and despised Jerseymen. 
It was ruinous to domestic industry, said the men of New York. It must 
be stopped by those effective remedies of the Sangrado school of economic 
doctors, a navigation act and a protective uriff. 

"Acts were accordingly passed obliging every Yankee sloop which came 
down through Hell Gate, and every Jersey market boat which was rowed 
across from Paulus Hook to Cortlandt street, to pay entrance fees and 
obtain clearances at the custom house, just as was done by ships from 
London or Hamburg; and not a cart-load of Connecticut firewood could 
be delivered at the back door of a country house in Beekman street until 
it should have paid a heavy duty. Great and just was the wrath of the 
farmers and lumbermen. The New Jersey legislature made up its mind 
to retaliate. . . . Connecticut was equally prompt. At a great meeting 
of business men, held at New London, it was unanimously agreed to suspend 
all commercial intercourse with New York. Every merchant signed an 
agreement, under penalty of two hundred and fifty dollars for the first 
offense, not to send any goods whatever into the hated state for a period 
of twelve months. By such retaliatory measures, it was hoped that New 
York might be compelled to rescind her odious enactment. But such 
meetings and such resolves bore an ominous likeness to the meetings and 
resolves which in the years before 177S had heralded a state of war; and 
but for the good work done by the Federal convention another five years 
would scarcely have elapsed before shots would have been fired and seeds 
of perennial hatred sown on the shores that looked toward Manhattan 

But these discriminations and exactions of one state as against 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

the trade of another, this fierce commercial rivalry, this in- 
ternecine warfare which threatened the commercial destruction 
of some states and the undue elevation, prosperity and dominance 
of others, were not the only reasons for the insistent demand, 
which preceded and finally controlled the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1787, in regard to the establishment of a system of 
just and equitable regulation of commerce between the states by 
an authority fairly representing them all. 

The question of commercial regulation, in addition to its com- 
mercial relation to the trade between the existing states, possessed 
also a most important and commanding political aspect. The 
development of the great west was then going on and had been 
stimulated by the emigration thither from the older states in- 
cident to the readjustments after the war, and the settlement 
of the whole western region was proceeding with great rapidity. 
The west was spoken of by George Washington as a "rising 
world," and signified particularly, in the minds of the statesmen 
of that day, the territory now constituting the states of Tennessee 
and Kentucky and the states afterwards carved out of the terri- 
tory northwest of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi rivers. 
The question of the future political affiliations of this large and 
important territory was a question of prime and of vast im- 
portance to the then existing states. 

Great Britain or Spain, close neighbors on the north and 
south, could easily outbid such a policy of narrowness and 
greed as the people of the west saw already in operation in 
many of the most important eastern states, and it was apparent 
that, whether or not such a policy should be adopted, could not 
be safely left to the individual states. 

George Washington, in speaking of the future political affilia- 
tions of these pioneer western people, said : 

"If we cannot bind these people to us by interest, and it is not otherwise 
to be effected but by a commercial knot, we shall be no more to them after 
a while than Great Britain or Spain, and they may be as closely linked 
with one of those powers as we wish them to be with us, and, in that 
event, they may be a severe thorn in our side." 

It thus became politically, as well as economically, necessary to 
find a way of fairly regulating commerce in the interest of all, 
free from the narrowness, the greed and the selfishness of par- 
ticular states. 


The only way of remedying these commercial evils, which were 
flagrant and were universally recognized, and of meeting the 
political exigencies of the situation, was, according the the prac- 
tically universal belief of the day, to exclude the states from the 
power to regulate commerce among the states and with foreign 
nations, and to confer that power upon a central authority which 
should fairly and equitably represent them all. 

The public consciousness on this subject was, prior to the 
convention, indicated in a great variety of ways and from a 
great variety of sources. 

Alexander Hamilton declared for a central government with 
"complete sovereignty over all that relates to war, peace, trade, 
and finance." 

James Monroe, as chairman of a committee of Congress, in 
1785 submitted a report declaring that: 

"The United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and 
exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the 
cases mentioned in the sixth article, . . . and of regulating the trade 
of the states, as well with foreign nations as with each other." . . . 

James Madison moved in the General Assembly of Virginia 
a resolution for a convention of delegates of all the states "to take 
into consideration the trade of the United States; to examine the 
relative situation and trade of the said states; to consider how 
far a uniform system in their commercial regulations be neces- 
sary to their common interest and permanent harmony," etc. 

There were similar expressions of view in the legislatures of 
Rhode Island, of Connecticut, of New Jersey, in resolutions of 
town meetings and in reports of committees of Congress. 

The Madison resolution resulted in the assembling of the 
Annapolis Convention in 1786 and in a recommendation, by the 

delegates there assembled to consider the regulation of com- 
merce,- that Congress should call a general convention of all the 
states to meet in Philadelphia on the second Monday in May, 
1787, "to devise such further provisions as shall appear to be 
necessary to render the constitution of the federal government 
adequate to the exigencies of the union." 

This was the convention which framed the Constitution, and the 
declaration of the Supreme Court of the United States in the 
case of Cook vs. Pennsylvania, 97 United States, 574, is amply 
justified, to the effect that: 

".\ careful reader of the history of the times which immediately preceded 
the assembling of the convention which framed the .\mericaa constitution 
cannot fail to discover that the need of some equitable and just regulation 
of commerce was among the most influential causes which led to its meeting." 

The result of its deliberations on the four large subjects of 
national concern enumerated by Alexander Hamilton — which are 
the four fundamental essentials of national existence and 
efficiency — and as to which Hamilton declared that the federal 
government should possess complete sovereignty, namelv, the 
purse, war, peace, and commerce, is exhibited in the following 
clauses of the Constitution: 

"The Congress shall have power: 

"To lay and collect taxes, duties, imports and excises, to pay debts and 
provide for the common defense and general welfare. . . . 

"To borrow money on the credit of the United States. 

*'To regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several 
states, and with the Indian tribes. 

"To declare war. . . . 

"To raise and support armies. 

"To provide and maintain a navy." 

The fullness, the competency and the completeness of no one 
of these powers has ever been questioned, except of the power 
to regulate commerce. It is universally recognized that it is a 
right of each state that the federal government shall provide 
for the common defense ; that the federal government shall de- 
termine as between peace and war; that it shall raise and 
support armies and shall equip and maintain a navy. 

But there are other rights of the states not less important and 
not less sacred. These include the right to avail themselves, 
separately and individually, of the protection guaranteed to them 
and to their people by the Federal Constitution against the 
selfishness in trade of their sister states. 

In adopting the commerce clause of the Constitution they 
intended to secure protection against this very thing. In the 
light of the history of its adoption, is it not, since the Con- 
stitution, a right of New Jersey that New York shall not regulate 
the trade between them as it did when it excluded the products 
of New Jersey industry from the New York markets ; is it not a 
right of the state of Connecticut, since the Constitution, that its 
products shall not be excluded from the markets of New York 
and Boston by state action, and is it not since the Constitution, 
a right of each of the states that Virginia and North Carolina 
and Tennessee and the great food-producing states of the west 
shall not be able, as Virginia and North Carolina once did, to 
put an embargo upon the shipments of their products beyond 
their respective borders, and shall not be able to exclude the 
people of the other states from the riches of their farms, of their 
forests, of their mines, and of their factories? Is it not a right 
of each state that Congress alone, which represents all, shall be 
the exclusive arbiter of what is right and just in interstate 
and foreign trade, and that no state shall be permitted to ad- 
vance itself at the expense, and to the disadvantage of the 
others, perchance by its narrowness, its greed, and its selfishness 
in trade? 


The existence of this exclusive power in Congress to regulate 
interstate and foreign commerce is of no less importance — is in 
fact of far larger importance— as a state's right now, than it 
was when the Constitution was adopted. 

Commerce itself in these one hundred and twenty-six years 
has assumed a far greater consequence in the affairs and destinies 
of men and of nations, than it had in those early days. Steam 

Digitized by 


July 9, 191S 



and electricity have come with their mighty revolutionizing in- 
fluence and have brought all the states and all the nations into 
close and intimate commercial relationships. Men no longer deal 
in trade most largely with their immediate neighbors, but find it 
essential to their success to have free and unimpeded and adequate 
access to the markets of the world. 

The interests of the producing states — particularly the states 
of the south and west where there are no markets of the first 
importance — imperatively require easy and quick transportation 
to the world's great market cities, such as New York, Philadel- 
phia, Boston, and Chicago in this country, and Liverpool, London, 
Paris, and Berlin abroad. 

It may be safely stated that at least eighty-five per cent of 
the trade of Tennessee, and of the United States generally, 
moves in interstate' and foreign commerce. 

To meet these economic conditions — to satisfy the essential 
needs and to accommodate the movement of this great traffic — 
it has become necessary to create long and continuous lines 
of railroad in the place of the short and disconnected lines which 
were once adequate to the requirements of trade. These large 
systems of railroad, which have come in obedience to the econo- 
mic law which demands continuous, rapid, and unbroken trans- 
portation, necessarily extend across, and are, under existing 
law, in many respects subject to the varying policies of many 

The pniblem of greatest magnitude which concerns the country 
in regard to them, is how their continuity of service shall be 
preserved unimpeded and what shall be the quality of adequacy 
and efficiency which their transportation facilities shall possess. 

A broad anti wise policy in dealing with the instrumentalities 
of commerce is, therefore, a matter of supreme interest to all 
the states. A narrow, or niggardly, or selfish policy, if adopted 
by any one of the states through which a railroad passes, may 
seriously cripple and depress the commerce of every other state 
which the railroad serves. 

No adequate conception of the railroad problem, as it affects 
the development of the country and the growth of its com- 
merce, can ignore the necessity that transportation facilities 
must be all the time growing and improving to keep pace with 
the growth and expansion of commerce — otherwise there will 
be no growth or expansion of commerce. 

Such an increase in railroad facilities involves the constant 
input of new capital, for no railroad is ever finished except in a 
dead country. It is a mere platitude to say that new capital 
can only be attracted by credit. While no one state through 
which a railroad passes can alone establish its credit, a single 
state can impair or destroy it. 

If a railroad runs through and serves eleven states, ten of 
them may be guided by broad and liberal views and may be 
controlled by the policy of encouraging the establishment and 
maintenance of adequate transportation facilities. The eleventh 
may, however, have no adequate commercial outlook or may 
be temporarily under the domination of small and time-serving 
politicians. It may reduce rates on state traffic so as to barely 
escape the line of confiscation. It may be unwilling that its 
state traffic shall contribute anything to the liberal program, 
favored by the other ten, which would build for the future and 
insure the present and continuing adequacy of the transportation 
facilities oij which all are equally dependent. 

In such a case, what shall be done? Shall the ten states 
bow to the will or caprice of the one and allow it to control? 

If, on the other hand, the standard of facilities is not brought 
down to this low level and is to be made adequate to the needs 
of all, then the commerce of the other ten states, or interstate 
commerce, or both, must bear the burden, which the dissenting 
state has refused to share, of building up adequate transportation 


In either case, the dissenting state, in a very effective way, 
regulates the commerce and the business opportunities of all. 
Moreover, in the Shreveport case, recently decided by the 

Supreme Court of the United States, and in another state which 
I shall not more particularly identify, state rates have been 
greatly reduced for the avowed purpose of preserving state 
markets for state trade, and thus excluding and discriminating 
against the trade of other states. 

Is it not a right of each of these states, thus oppressed by 
the narrow and selfish policy of one, to have its commerce freed 
from these state restrictions and regulated by Congress, repre- 
senting all the states, in accordance with the compact of the 
Constitution ? 

I have referred to the great importance to the welfare of all 
the states of transportation facilities. In this connection, and 
as exerting an important influence on the financial capacity of 
the carriers, it is appropriate to consider their capacity to issue 
and to dispose of their securities. 

It is manifest that, if such issue is to be regulated by the 
individual states, every state is at the mercy of the others. A 
bond, to be available in the market, must, as a rule — especially 
now when most bonds are necessarily junior liens — ^be secured 
upon the whole railroad line; and this crosses many states. One 
of the states, therefore, if it possesses the power to regulate the 
issue of securities of an interstate carrier, may disappoint and 
defeat a financial plan approved by all the other states and 
necessary to the carrier's transportation efficiency. 

Even if the state does not press its authority to the extent of 
absolutely declining to sanction the issue, it may selfishly and as 
a political expedient, attach a condition that a designated portion 
of the proceeds shall be spent within its borders where it may 
not in fact be needed, when the needs of interstate commerce 
and the commerce of other states fairly require that the whole 
shall be expended elsewhere. 

The power of the state to consent, or to withhold its consent, 
is equivalent to a power to control the character and the location 
of additional transportation facilities against the views and the 
interests of all the other states. 

But even if the necessity for the new capital is universally 
recognized, and the approval of the states is not ultimately with- 
held, the time necessary to permit the investigation and to secure 
the approval of so many would, or might, constitute a fatal 
obstacle in the way of a successful financial operation. Prompt- 
ness — ability to avail without unreasonable delay of a favorable 
market — is essential to success in placing large financial offer- 

From whatever standpoint, therefore, it be considered, the 
destructive eflfect of a power in the several states to determine 
and limit the financial capacity of the carriers, through a regu- 
lation of the issue of their securities, is apparent. It is mani- 
fest that the financial capacity of a carrier which serves many 
states is a matter of transcendent importance to them all. No 
one of them should be allowed to control or to injuriously affect 
it. It is a right of each of the states that a matter so important, 
and in which all of them have so vital an interest, shall not be 
controlled by one which may have a selfish interest or an illiberal 

It is a right of the states, in respect of this matter of com- 
mon and supreme concern, that an authority, which is the auth- 
ority of all, whose power is delegated by all, which represents 
all and which acts for all, shall alone be the arbiter of what may 
be conflicting views and interests, and shall alone regulate and 

.^nd yet sixteen states have enacted statutes, each asserting for 
itself the individual right to control the issue of stocks and bonds 
of interstate carriers. And the end is not yet, for many other 
states are considering legislation which will give to them a power 
which they see is already being exercised by others. 

Another striking illustration of the exercise by one state of a 
power to discriminate against and to injure the commerce of 
other states and interstate commerce is found in the state laws 
which impose heavy penalties for failure to furnish cars or other 
instrumentalities of commerce within a limited time. 

One of the states now imposes a fine of $5 for each day of 
delay; an adjoining state fixes the fine at $1 per day; and fhe 

Digitized by '-.^j v_^'-.^^i.*^ 



Vol. 59, No. 2 

interstate commerce law fixes no per diem penalty at all. A 
case may well be imagined where a carrier is reasonably supplied 
with equipment, but a large portion of it has moved in the reg^ular 
channels of commerce to a point on or off its line and distant 
from the place where the demand for it is made. If, under 
these circumstances, there is a demand for a car by a shipper 
of intrastate traffic in the state which imposes a heavy fine for 
delay, and is also made by a shipper in the state which imposes a 
light fine and is also made by a shipper in interstate commerce as 
to which no fine at all is imposed, and there is at the moment, by 
reason of special circumstances, only one car available to meet 
all three of these demands, it, of course, results that the carrier 
in self-protection must deliver the one available car to the 
shipper in the state which imposes the largest fine, and the other 
must go without. In other words, the greediest, the most selfish 
and the most unreasonable state thus secures by its own laws a 
preference for its own commerce over the commerce of its sister 
states and over interstate commerce itself. 

It is not a right of the other states to have the question of a 
fair distribution of available car supply determined, not by one 
of the interested states, but by the authority which represents 
them all and can see that a rule of equity and fairness shall 
prevail ? 

In addition to what has been said, a long and formidable list of 
state statutes, already in effect, might be given, which, without 
the consent of the other states, impose serious burdens of ex- 
pense upon their commerce, and thus upon their people. All 
discriminate or have the effect of discriminating, against their 
commerce, both state and interstate. 

Thus, three states have passed laws making it illegal for a 
carrier having repair shops in the state to send any of its equip- 
ment, which it is possible to repair there, out of the state for re- 
pairs in another state ; fifteen states have attempted to secure pre- 
ferred treatment of their state traffic, either by heavy penalties 
for delays or by prescribing a minimum movement of freight cars, 
some of them requiring a minimum movement of 50 miles per 
day, whereas the average movement for the United States is not 
over 26 miles per day — one of these states imposing a fine of $10 
per hour for the forbidden delay; 20 states have hours-of-ser- 
vice laws, varying from 10 to 16 hours; 20 states have full-crew 
laws; 28 states have headlight laws, with varying requirements 
as to the character of the lights, and 14 states have safety-ap- 
pliance acts. 

Let me take an illustration from a single class of these statutes. 
I will select the full-crew laws of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

These laws impose upon the railroads operating within their 
respective limits an expense for unnecessary employes amounting 
to more than $1,700,000 a year. There is nothing in these state 
laws putting the burden of this expense on their own traffic 
alone. That burden extends to all the traffic these railroads carry, 
and thus the traffic of Virginia and Tennessee and Mississippi 
and of all the American states whose traffic enters New Jersey 
or Pennsylvania is laid under tribute by these state enactments. 

Or, the proposition may be stated another way. The expense 
put upon the railroads by the full-crew statutes of these two 
states would pay the interest at 5 per cent upon a capital fund 
of more than $34,000,000. By requiring an amount equivalent to 
the interest on this capital to be expended on useless employes — 
at least on employes as to which the other states were not 
consulted — instead of being used to obtain new capital, these 
two states have by their own independent action reduced the 
borrowing capacity of the railroads to the extent of $34,000,000. 
That amount of capital would have bought 1,360 locomotives, or 
3,400 steel passenger cars, or 34,000 freight cars, or 1,133,000 tons 
of steel rails, or would have block-signaled 13,600 miles of road. 

Thus, facilities immensely valuable to the traffic of the other 
states have been made impossible — not by their own action, but 
by the independent action of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 


It is apparent that these and similar statutes which impose 
'dens and create discriminations violate the principle of just 

and equal treatment as against the states which have a more 
liberal policy, and constitute serious invasions of the field of 
regulation by the states which adopt them to the substantial 
prejudice of those which have not sought to obtain special or 
preferential treatment. 

Again, it may be asked, is it not a right of the states that no 
one state shall possess the power of imposing a burden which 
the people of other states must help to bear, or of securing a 
preference for its own traffic over the traffic of the others ? 

In order to secure equality of burden and of privilege and the 
benefit of an adequate and efficient transportation system, the 
power to regulate commerce among the states and with foreign 
nations was, by their own action, withdrawn from the individual 
states and conferred upon Congress, which represents them all. 

In fact, it may be truly said that the Constitution itself was 
the offspring of the insistent demand of the states for protection 
in trade against the other states. It is, therefore, peculiarly a 
right of the states to have this purpose fully and fairly carried 
into effect. 

It seems not unprofitable to turn from the problem of com- 
mercial regulation, considered only as a problem of peace, to the 
lessons we must learn in regard to it from the great events now 
occurring on the continent of Europe. 

We had fondly dreamed that the possibility of great wars had 
disappeared in the purer light of civilization, and that the bar- 
baric and savage instinct of nations had been obliterated by the 
advance of moral and intellectual principles among mankind. 

This dream has been rudely dissipated and the world has been 
made to realize that, when it comes to war, there has been no 
advance in humanity or morality since the Goths and Huns and 
Vandals fought and slew and pillaged fourteen centuries ago. 
The only difference is a difference in slaying power and in 
efficiency. The world has marveled to see a nation, with com- 
paratively small territorial possessions, rise in arms against the 
strongest nations of the earth and defy them all with its organized 
energy and power. 

Whatever may be the ultimate result of this titanic struggle, 
the lesson of national efficiency has been taught and will never 
be forgotten. We have had it borne in upon us that the most 
militant and most efficient nation of Europe has outgrown its 
territorial limits and is looking for other lands to colonize, into 
which it will introduce its own national ideals, its own national 
efficiency and its own militant and aggressive spirit. - 

If it should happen that her policies embrace the acquisi- 
tion and colonization of certain parts of South America, our 
Monroe Doctrine would stand in the path of her ambition. What- 
ever course we may then pursue — whether we limit the applica- 
tion of this doctrine to North America or undertake to enforce 
it as to the entire Western Hemisphere — we shall be confronted 
by greatly increased international complications and will need 
both national power and national efficiency to deal with the con- 
ditions which will be certain to arise. 


Steam and Electricity and Science have done their work and 
have made great nations essential to meet these mighty forces. 

Wisdom requires us to recognize the change which these 
mighty forces and these mighty events have wrought We can- 
not step backward and disintegrate ourselves into separate states. 
We must be efficient as a nation if we are to deal successfully 
with our national emergencies. 

We must realize that the agitation must cease for a divided 
sovereignty in respect of functions which are in essence national. 
We must appreciate that efficient transportation is an essential 
condition of national efficiency, and if we are to halt or weaken 
our transportation systems at state lines, by permitting the 
imposition of burdens or the exercise of hurtful, inharmonious 
or unwise regulation, we will make national efficiency impossible. 

Is it wise for us to subject a matter of such universal concern 
and of such national importance to the uncertain policies and 
partial and inadequate outlook of a single state? The Con- 
stitution confides it to Congress, which represents the general 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



welfare and common interests of all the states. The evolution 
of forces, the progress of events, and the growth of nations em- 
phasize the wisdom and necessity of reposing the power of 
commercial regulation, which so essentially involves the national 
interest and the national efKciency, in the hands of the authority 
which is alone responsible to all the people for the performance 
of national duties and the preservation of our national liberty. 

If it was to the interest of the individual states to have a single 
and impartial regulation of interstate commerce and its instru- 
mentalities when the question was the free introduction into 
New York of the firewood of Connecticut and the dairy products 
of New Jersey, it is far more so now in view of the influential 
relationship which transportation has come to bear to our na- 
tional efliciency and to the liberties and destinies of ouf people. 

It must also be realized that the regulation of interstate com- 
merce and its instrumentalities is no violation of the rights of 
the states, is no invasion of their prerogatives, is in no sense in 
derogation of their reserved sovereignty, but in reality is merely 
the specific performance of the contract which each state bar- 
gained for when it subscribed to the Constitution. It is their 
convenanted right, and the covenanted right of each of them, as 
well as their highest interest, that the commerce in which one 
in common with another state is interested shall be regulated by 
the fair and impartial judgment of the authority which alone 
springs from and is responsible to them all. 


The British Board of Trade has issued a report, by Lieut. 
Col. P. G. von Donop, on a derailment at Chaloner Whin, on 
the North Eastern Railway, two miles south of York, on the 
night of March 18, about 10 o'clock. No person was killed or in- 
jured, but the inspector reports the case in great detail because 
of the general interest in its causes. The signalman, in dis- 
regard of a clearing-house rule, gave authority for the train to 
leave the last station north of him before he had set up the route 
over which it was to pass ; and when he came to set the switches, 
including a movable-point frog, he was unable to do so, because 
of snow. He at once sent two trackmen to clear out the snow ; 
and while he was watching these men at the work the train came 
on, at high speed, having passed a distant and a home signal 
set against it. The engineman and fireman say that the distant 
signal was off, but the inspector finds that this testimony can- 
not be accepted. 

To the claim of the company that the rule forbidding switches 
to be moved after a train has left the last preceding block sta- 
tion cannot be enforced regularly, the inspector replies that, 
perhaps, with freight trains this is to be admitted; but with 
passenger trains, at all events, such difficulties should not arise; 
the rule should be enforced. 

This signal cabin has a torpedo placer, provided for emer- 
gencies; but in this case the signalman, watching the men at 
work on the tracks, did not see the train until it was close to his 
cabin, and it was then too late to make use of the torpedoes. 
Moreover the obstruction was only a few yards beyond the cabin. 

Continuing, Colonel von Donop says: 

"This case is another instance of an accident mainly due to 
the fact of a driver not noticing that his distant signal was at 
danger. This is a matter to which the North Eastern Railway 
Company has, for some years past, been devoting attention ; trials 
have been made by them of different devices for giving the driver 
an indication on the engine as to the position of the distant sig- 
nal when he passes it, and over certain portions of the system 
devices are fixed which are in operation with North Eastern en- 
gines. None of them were, however, installed at Chaloner Whin, 
and even had one of them been installed there it would not have 
acted in this instance, as the engine, which belonged to the Mid- 
land Railway, would not have been equipped with the necessary 
apparatus. No such device has, however, as yet been decided on 
for general adoption on the company's system, and they inform 
me that at the present time the matter is practically at a standstill. 

as far as their system is concerned ; the reason of this is that they 
consider that it is essential that whatever system is decided on 
should be universally adopted by all railway companies, and they 
are therefor^ waiting until railway companies can agree upon 
a method suitable for universal adoption. It is understood that 
a committee has been appointed by the railway companies to con- 
sider this matter, and it is hoped that a decision may before 
long be arrived at." 

Engines of six different roads run past Chaloner Whin 
every day, namely, the North Eastern, the Great Northern, the 
London & North Western, the Midland, the Great Eastern and 
the Great Central. These companies own in the aggregate about 
14,000 locomotives. There are numerous union stations and junc- 
tions, both in England and in Scotland, where conditions much 
like this prevail. 


A very complete and simple system of securing two independ- 
ent checks of outbound 1. c. 1. freight is in force at the new local 
freight terminal of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie 
at Chicago (described in the Railway Age Gasette of August 22, 
1913). This system was installed when the terminal was opened 
about a year ago and has been in continuous use since that time 
with very satisfactory results. 

As soon as the general plans for the new terminal were de- 
cided upon the local agent and his staff began the study of the 
methods under which it should be operated. The locations of 
the cars set at the house were first fixed, placing them so that 
trains might be made up in station order by doubling from one 
track to another and eliminating all switching. It is interesting 
to note a recent performance in this connection whereby without 
any attempt to make a record one of the regular merchandise 
trains was made up and passed the Soo Line outer yard, 19 
miles out of the terminal 2 hr. and 5 min. after the house was 

•Idas. Car 









X Aok«rTllXe 






Adams Cantar 












X Agnaw 

















































« P 
















Alna Cantar 




















S P 






If n 










X Altamont 






Z AlTarno 






Z Ambrldga 






I Prepaid 


K&S Monday and 


D Dally 

W&S Wadnasday a 

nd Saturday 

Fig. 1 — Sample Page from Receiving CIerk'« Book 

closed. In fixing the location of the cars, those normally loaded 
heavy were placed next to the house, and cars loaded more 
lightly on tracks further removed, the refrigerator cars being 
placed on the outside tracks. In this way trucking through the 
cars was reduced to the minimum. Permanent numbers were as- 
signed to these locations, eight numbers being allotted to each 
door or run, as for instance, 81 to 88. 

Having determined on the car locations a complete list of all 
stations for which freight can be received at this terminal was 
very carefully prepared from the tariffs. This list was made 
alphabetically and was grouped by states and provinces, a con- 

Digitized by 





Vol. 59, No. 2 

siderable amount of freight being received here for points in 
western Canada. Where alternate routes exist, as for instance 
to AUouez in Fig. 1, these are given separately. Opposite each 
station is placed the road over which freight should be for- 
warded and the number of the location of the car at the house 
in which it should be loaded with a symbol indicating the days 
on which refrigerator cars are loaded for those points. 

A copy of this complete list is given to the receiving clerk 
at each receiving door. As freight is received the caller calls 
the destination to the receiving clerk, who secures the car lo- 
cation from the book and marks the number of the run on the 


tAY CAR - S?A?IOn 


BLOOr 61 


Winnipeg and Beyond 

Aeh«80tt kltz, Baleonie 


vatiktsha iru. 

First Out 

Alix " BiTine 


Dnplalnvill* " 

Ansell " Blggor 
ArdroBS&n " Bender 


Tempi* ton " 


Coleate " 

Ab«rnethy >i3k. Rlucher 


St. Huborts Spur " 

Adair " boanty 


Hu6t>7 Jet. " 

Adanac •• Bredsnlmry 


Aotemile " 

Aloooda " Broadaoree 


SohlelBlngervllle " 

Alt)at,roa3 " Broadview 


Cedar Lake 

AXlift • iror» 


Allenton " 

Anazon " ruccleuch 



Anglla " l-ulycfc 


Thereia " 

Antltfr •* RurroKB 


Lomira ■ 

ArcolG ■' Ealcarras 



Ar«llla - E»nror 



Asqulth " t'^'tlflford 


Bo land 

Ltst Out 

Fig. 2 — Sample Pages from Stower's Book 

shipping bill while the caller marks it in chalk on the box. 
Freight for destinations not shown in the book is refused by 
the receiving clerk. The truckers then take the freight to the 
runs and cars indicated by the chalk marks. 

-•Another list is prepared for the use of the stowers, showing 
all points for which freight may be loaded in each car, the sta- 
tions being shown in alphabetical order for "gateway" and in 
station order for way cars. A separate sheet is prepared for 
each car. These lists for each run are bound separately into 
books fiir the use of the stowers in charge of those runs and 
show only the stations for which he can load. When freight 
is brought to a run by a trucker the stower disregards entirely 
the previous chalk marks. Noting the destination on the box 
he refers to his bock to satisfy himself that this freight belongs 








Fig. 3 — Stower's Report on Errors 

in his run and determines the car in which it belongs as well as 
the position in the car, if a way car. If he cannot find the sta- 
tion in his book, he refuses to accept the freight and fills out all 
but the fourth line in the slip shown in Fig. 3, sending it with 
the freight to the foreman, who investigates and designates 
where it should g". 

In this way there are two entirely independent checks on the 
loading of each piece of freight. While it is possible for both 
the receiving clerk and the stower to make errors with the same 
box, this is not usual and the stowers catch from 8 to 10 errors 

daily, all of which have passed the receiving clerks and would 
otherwise be loaded in the wrong car. While all of the stowers 
are foreigners with only a very meager knowledge of English, 
it is surprising to see the care with which they detect errors. 
All mistakes caught by them are investigated by the foreman. 
If the number clialked on the box is incorrect, while the shipping 
bill shows the correct run, the error arose from the caller 
writing it down incorrectly, while if the run number on both 
the bill and the freight is wrong, the fault evidently lies with 
the receiving clerk who called it. Likewise, all "overs" found 
on the line caused by wrong loading are reported by car num- 
ber and the responsibility placed with the stower at fault. 

Since each of these 8 or 10 errors caught daily by the stowers 
would have gone wrong otherwise, the payments for claims on 
freight shipped from Chicago have shown a material decrease, 
although no definite comparison has been made. Aside from 
this, each receiving clerk has at hand for ready reference, a 
complete list of the stations for which freight can be accepted 
and he has no excuse for accepting freight which cannot be 
handled by this line. He also has no excuse for guessing at the 
car in which irregular shipments should go and it is not neces- 
sary for him to consult the foreman in such instances. Like- 
wise, the foreman is relieved from work of this nature and can 
devote his entire time to supervision. While these lists neces- 
sarily had to be compiled with great care to include all stations 
correctly, after once being prepared it has enabled a double 
check to be secured on all shipments with no increased labor or 

This system was devised and put into operation by J. Corri- 
gan, local agent of the "Soo" Line, Chicago, 111. 


By Q. W. Hershey 

In the usual operation with steam locomotives where long, 
heavy trains are being handled, with one or more locomotives 
on the head-end and one or more locomotives doing pusher 
service, concurrent starting of the head-end and pusher loco- 
motives is secured by signaling with the whistle. Little or no 
difficulty in starting heavy trains in this manner is experienced 
owing to the well known characteristic of the steam locomotive to 
take up slack and stand against the load. 

In connection with the electrification of the Elkhorn grade of 
the Norfolk & Western* the practical necessity that the loco- 
motives be able to take up slack to their full tractive effort and 
stand stationary against the load until the action of the locomo- 
tives on both ends of the train becomes concurrent, was taken 
into consideration in the design of the electric locomotives. The 
traffic on the Elkhorn grade consists almost wholly of long heavy 
tonnage trains which are operated under such conditions that 
there is difficulty in securing simultaneous action in the starting 
and stopping of the locomotives at opposite ends of the trains. 

The use of three-phase current at the motors has made posible 
the application of polyphase induction motors designed and con- 
structed without commutators or commutating devices of any 
kind. They are therefore not subject to sparking, burning, pit- 
ting or brush troubles which would be found with ordinary di- 
rect current or series type motors. The peculiar "hang-on" fea- 
ture of the alternating current locomotive is available entirely on 
account of the inherent characteristics of the induction motor; 
and the Norfolk & Western locomotives have been designed to 
approximate very closely steam locomotive characteristics which 
are necessary to make practicable the use of heavy electric loco- 
motives for long train, heavy tonnage service, such as is found 
on the Norfolk & Western. 

"For a description of the Elkhorn grade electrification, including a de- 
scription of the locomotives, see the Railway Age Gazette issue of Ju 
page 1153 

June 4, 

Digitized by 


Hearing on Advances in Western Passenger Fares 

Roads Present Testimony to Interstate Oimmerce Com- 
mission Why Passenger Revenues Should Be bicreased 

Examiner Thurtell of the Interstate Commerce Commission be- 
gan a hearing at the Hotel La Salle, Chicago, on Tuesday, July 
6, on advances in passenger fares in the territory west and south- 
west of Chicago to the Rocky mountains, sought by 46 roads. 
The tariffs were filed by the roads early in the year and were 
suspended by the commission under Investigation and Suspension 
Docket 600. It is expected that it will take about two weeks in 
all to hear both sides, the carriers presenting their testimony first. 

The railways' case is being handled by two committees of at- 
torneys, one for the roads in the Northwest, and the other for 
the Southwest. The committee for the Northwest consists of C. 
C. Wright, general solicitor of the Chicago & Northwestern, 
chairman ; O. W. Dynes, commerce counsel, Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul ; E. C. Lindley, general solicitor. Great Northern ; 
R. B. Scott, interstate commerce attorney, Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy; H. A. Scandrett, interstate commerce attorney, Union 
Pacific; and Charles Donnelly, assistant general counsel. North- 
ern Pacific. 

The Southwestern committee consists of S. T. Bledsoe, chair- 
man, assistant general counsel, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe; 
H. G. Herbel, general attorney, Missouri Pacific ; W. T. Hughes, 
assistant general attorney, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; E. T. 
Miller, general attorney, St. Louis & San Francisco ; and C. S. 
Burg, interstate commerce attorney, Missouri, Kansas & Texas. 

The railroads are opposed by a committee of State Commis- 
sioners, headed by P. W. Dougherty, of the South Dakota Rail- 
road Commission, who was delegated by the protesting State 
Commissions to conduct the case, assisted by A. E. Helm of 
the Kansas Public Utilities Commission. 

Mr. Wright made an opening statement on behalf of the roads 
in part as follows: 


"The proposed advance in passenger fares, covers the territory 
from Chicago west and southwest to the Rocky mountains, in- 
cluding Wisconsin, the northern peninsula of Michigan, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, 
Kansas, Nebraska, North and South Dakota. It also includes 
the interstate rates from Illinois west. 

"Of that territory, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Mis- 
souri, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma now have 
rates adjusted on a basis of 2 cents per passenger mile. North 
and South Dakota are upon the basis of 2;^ cents per pas- 
senger mile. Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas are upon the basis 
of 3 cents. The territory west of the states described, viz, Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico, has rates practi- 
cally on a basis of 3 cents per mile. The advance in the passenger 
rates in the states named necessarily includes an advance in 
rates from and to that territory from districts in which no ad- 
vance is proposed. 

"The lines operating in Trunk Line and Central Passenger 
Association territory, that is, from Chicago and St. Louis east to 
the Atlantic Coast, have generally advanced their rates to the 
basis of 2H cents per passenger mile, with mileage books at the 
rate of 2% cents per mile. In the territory involved in the 
present proceeding, which lies east of the Missouri river and 
west of the Missouri river on and north of the Union Pacific in 
Kansas, the rates under suspension are upon the same basis, with 
mileage books at 2% cents per mile. In the territory south of 
the Union Pacific in Kansas and west of the Missouri river, the 
proposed rates are upon the basis of 3 cents, with mileage books 
at 2;^ cents. The passenger rates have been advanced by the 
carriers under the conviction that the earnings from the pas- 
senger business are not sufficient to provide the necessary pas- 
senger service and yield a fair return upon the property devoted 

to that service. It is believed the evidence will demonstrate, 
that the passenger service is not paying a fair share of the ex- 
penses of the maintenance of the roads, and that the evidence 
will show that the ratio of profit and the net rate of return from 
the passenger business, are materially less than the return from 
the freight business. 

"The carriers will follow substantially the same lines as in the 
recent freight advance case. It was stipulated that the testi- 
mony taken in that case in relation to the general financial needs 
of the carriers, may be treated as part of the evidence in this 
case. The carriers have taken the same roads which were in- 
volved in the composite showing and added thereto the Union 
Pacific, Great Northern, Northern Pacific. Duluth, South Shore 
& Atlantic, Toledo, Peoria & Western and Texas Midland, and 
eliminated the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, whose interstate rates 
were already advanced by permission of the commission. 

"The operated line covered includes a little over 120,000 miles. 
Not all of the mileage included lies within the territory where 
the advance is sought. Lines like the Union Pacific, Santa Fe, 
Great Northern, Northern Pacific and some others, now main- 
tain a 2H-cent or 3-cent basis on the larger portion of their 
mileage. Different groups of roads have been considered to- 
gether and the composite results of operation shown, as was done 
in the freight case, for the purpose of eliminating the effect of 
rates on portions of the lines which lie outside the territory 

"The results of passenger operation for the last 14 years 
will be presented to the commission, divided into two periods 
of 7 years each, giving the results for each year, both as to the 
entire systems interested in the proceeding and as to the group 
which will be presented. 

"It will be shown that the passenger revenue on these roads 
in 1914 was approximately $271,000,000. Not all of this is af- 
fected by the advance. It is impossible to determine exactly what 
may be the effect upon the revenue in the territory involved, 
owing to the fact that under the proposed rates mileage books 
will be sold at less than the regular rate. It is believed that 
the advance will not amount to more than 8 or 9 per cent of the 
revenue in the territory in question, or in round figures, from 
$20,000,000 to $25,000,000. 

"The carriers expect to show that the net operating income 
of those involved, during the. last 7 years, has been materially 
less per mile of road than for the 7 years prior. It will be 
shown, that this is true, notwithstanding an increase in the 
volume of business and in property investment. This, of 
course, results in a materially higher operating ratio and a less 
net rate of return than has been maintained heretofore. 

"Comparisons will also be made to present the conditions 
at the present time with those in 1910. It will be shown that 
this increase in expenses is largely due to the increase in cost 
of labor and rate of taxation, and that the economies which 
have been effected and the increased volume of business have 
not been sufficient to meet the increasing costs of operation. 

"Taking the lines together, it will be shown that under any 
of the bases of division of expenses, as between passenger and 
freight, the return upon property devoted to passenger service 
does not amount to 3 per cent upon the value of the property 
devoted to such service. 

"In the present case the carriers will treat the passenger rates 
as a whole, without an attempt to make definite separation of 
expenses as between state and interstate business. Information 
will be furnished, however, as to the proportion of the business 
which is state and interstate, the length of haul on each class 
of business and other matters of that kind affecting the pas- 
senger traffic. It is believed by the carriers that it is impracti- 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

cable to maintain state and interstate passenger rates upon any 
substantially different basis. This belief is based on the thought 
that to maintain any substantially different basis of passenger 
rates on interstate business would not only be discriminatory, 
but would be impractical from an operating standpoint" 

The first witness for the railroads was L. E. Wettling, who 
has had charge of the compilation of the fundamental statistical 


Mr. Wettling tiled and gave testimony in explanation of a 
statistical exhibit of 217 pages, giving the results of operation, 
traffic statistics, etc., for the 46 roads or systems involved in 
the case for each year from 1901 to 1914, inclusive, with com- 
parisons of the periods 1901-1907 and 1908-1914. The figures 
were given for the individual roads, for all the roads combined, 
and for the roads combined into 7 groups. A large number 
of the exhibits were like those presented by Mr. Wettling in 
the freight advance case, which were described in the Railway 
Age Gasette of March 12, except that only 41 roads were in- 
cluded in that case. 

The 46 roads operated 120,790 miles of line in 1914. Their 
net cost of road and equipment was $6,433,968,625 and the net 
operating income for the year was 4.24 per cent on that amount, 
or equivalent to 7 per cent on a value of $3,898,830,406 or $32,- 
278 per mile. For the period 1901-1907 the net operating income 
was $2,509 per mile. For the period 1908-1914 it was only 
$2,394 per mile. For the first period this was 5.43 per cent of 
the cost of road and equipment. For the second period the re- 
turn was 4.74 per cent. In 1914 the net cost of road and equip- 
ment had increased 64.04 per cent, as compared with 1901. 
In the same time operating revenue had increased 105.85 per 
cent and the ratio of operating revenue to cost of road and 
equipment had increased from 14.21 per cent to 17.84 per cent. 
Operating expenses meanwhile had increased 137.96 per cent 
and the operating ratio from 65.94 to 76.22, while the net operating 
income had increased only 43.71 per cent. The cost of road 
and equipment per mile of line owned increased from $48,878 
in the first period to 54,907 in the second period. 

The total increase in capitalization, 1914 over 1901, was 
$2,858,553,071. In 1901, 46.42 per cent of the total was re- 
presented by stock and 53.58 per cent by bonds. In 1914 
the proportion was 40.71 per cent of stock and 59.29 per cent 
bonds. From July 1, 1907, to June 30, 1914, the 46 roads 
expended $936,818,405 for additions and betterments, of which 
$390,435,682 was for equipment. 

For the first period gross operating revenues per mile 
averaged $7,713, of which $3,003 was paid for labor, $240 for 
taxes and $1,958 for material and other items, leaving a 
balance of $2,509 per mile available for interest, dividends 
and surplus. For the second period, while gross operating 
revenues had increased to $9,160 per mile $3,849 was paid for 
labor. $379 for taxes and $2,536 for material and other items, 
leaving a balance of $2,394 available for interest, dividends 
and surplus. 

One exhibit showed that the requirements in the next seven 
years for refunding or refinancing maturing obligations now 
outstanding would amount to $538,591,699 for 33 operating 
systems of which $100,764,614 will mature in 1915. 

A large number of exhibits were devoted to maintenance 
expenses. For the first period total maintenance averaged 
25.59 per cent of operating revenue and 4.6 per cent of the 
cost of road and equipment. For the second period the 
average was 27.76 per cent of operating revenue and 5.3 per 
cent of cost of road and equipment. For maintenance of 
way and structures the averages were 13.86 per cent of oper- 
ating revenue and 2.49 per cent of road and equipment for 
the first period and 13.54 and 2.59 per cent respectively, for 
the second period. Maintenance of equipment had taken 
11.73 and 2.11 per cent, respectively, for the first period and 
,'4.22 and 2.71 per cent for the second period. While the 

proportion of maintenance of way and structures charged to 
passenger service had decreased from .577 cent per passenger 
mile in the first period to .5084 cent in the second period, the 
cost of maintenanace of equipment in passenger service increased 
from .2983 cent per passenger mile for the first period to .324 
cent for the second period. 

Several exhibits were devoted to the increases in taxes and 
in expenditures for labor. In 1914 the 46 roads paid $28,025,- 
956 more for taxes than they would have paid at the 1901 
rate, and $101,806,957 more for labor than they would have 
paid at the 1900 rates. 

From 1900 to 1914 the average daily compensation, includ- 
ing general officers, increased steadily from $2.00 to $2.52, and 
excluding, general officers, from $1.96 to $2.48. In 1901, 37.7/ 
cents out of each dollar of revenue was paid for labor; in 
1914, 42.98 cents. In 1901, out of each dollar 3.17 cents was 
paid in taxes; in 1914, 4.97 cents. Labor costs per train mile 
showed a steady increase, with the exception of only one 
year, from 66.14 cents in 1901 to 103.98 cents in 1914. Total 
labor costs per car mile showed an increase from 4.05 cents 
in 1901 to 5.48 cents in 1914. 

For the period 1901-1907 locomotive repairs, renewals, de- 
preciation and charges to profit and loss per locomotive mile 
averaged 7.215 cents. For the period 19081914 the average 
was 10.689 cents. Repairs and renewals per locomotive mile 
were 6.983 cents in the first period and 9.399 cents in the 
second period, while charges to depreciation and profit and 
loss per locomotive mile were .232 cent in the first period and 
1.290 cents in the second period. 

One of the exhibits was a chart showing graphically the 
disposition of each dollar of revenue paid to the 46 roads by 
the public. In \9Q\ operating expenses, including taxes, took 
65.94 cents, leaving a balance of 34.06 cents available for in- 
terest, dividends and surplus. Labor consumed 37.77 cents, 
taxes 3.17 cents and material and other items 25 cents. In 
1914 operating expenses and taxes took 76.22 cents of each 
dollar, leaving 23.78 cents for interest, dividends and surplus. 
Labor consumed 42.98 cents, taxes 4.97 cents and material 
and other items 28.27 cents. Operating expenses were di- 
vided between freight and passenger service on six different 
bases. Basis 6, an average of the results obtained by the 
other bases, assigned 57.93 per cent of the maintenance of 
way and structure expenses to freight and 42.07 per cent to 
passenger, and 67.22 per cent of total operating expenses 
to freight and 32.78 per cent to passenger. 

The average revenue per passenger mile for the period 
1901-1907 was 2.13 cents and for the period 1908-1914 was 
2.07 cents. In 1901 it was 2.18 cents and in 1914 it was 2.09. 
Several exhibits were devoted to passenger traffic statistics 
for 30 states and two Canadian provinces for 40 roads for 
1914. The average passenger mileage per mile of line was 
107,322, of which 53,294 was intrastate and 54,028 was inter- 
state. The total passenger revenue was $246,432,097, of which 
$123,611,446 was intrastate and $122,820,650 was interstate. 
The average haul was 44.8 miles, but the average haul in- 
trastate was only 28.67 miles as against 100.63 miles inter- 
state. Because of the shorter average haul in intrastate busi- 
ness, out of a total of 263,327,957 revenue passengers, 204,- 
312,678 were intrastate and 59,015,279 interstate. The number 
of passengers carried one mile was 11,796,186,229, made up 
of 5,857,738,762 intrastate and 5,938,447,467 interstate. The 
average revenue per passenger mile was 2.089 cents, on in- 
trastate traffic 2.110 cents, and on interstate traffic 2.068 
cents. The revenue per passenger mile ranged from 1.569 
cents in Illinois to 7.606 in Nevada for intrastate traffic and 
from 1.872 cents in Wisconsin to 2.708 in British Columbia 
for interstate traffic. The average revenue per train mile 
was $1.0770, ranging from 5.71 cents in Nevada to $1.4893 in 
Tennessee, and the average revenue per car mile was 26.74 
cents, ranging from 5.71 cents in Nevada to 35.75 cents in 
Oregon. The total passenger train mileage was 228.803,538, 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



including mixed train mileage, and the total car miles of 
cars carrying passengers was 921,682,764. 

Total failure of predictions made in 1907, when passenger 
tares in many states were reduced to 2 cents per mile, that 
the lower fares would be more than offset by the stimulus 
to travel, was also described in figures by Mr. Wettling. He 
presented statistics showing that the return on property de- 
voted to passenger service is only 2.37 per cent, while many 
roads operate at an actual deficit. 

"The reductions to 2 cents per mile in passenger fares," 
said Mr. Wettling, "brought no stimulus to travel such as 
was anticipated. The mileage traveled by passengers for 
each mile of road in 1901 was 62,757. This had grown by 
1914 to 107,255, a gain of 70.91 per cent. In the seven years 
ending with 1907, when the rates were reduced, the increase 
in travel was from 62,757 passenger miles per mile of road 
in 1901 to 95,235 in 1907, a gain of 51.75 per cent. In the 
seven years after the rates were reduced the gain was from 
99,040 passenger miles per mile of line in 1908 to 107,255 in 
1914, a gain of only a little over 8 per cent, compared with 
the 51.75 per cent gain in the seven years before the rates 
were forced down. 

"On top of this failure of the growth in travel to hold its 
pace, there was, resulting from the rate reductions, a gradual 
decline in the average revenue, both for hauling the ton one 
mile and for carrying the passenger one mile. The average 
revenue per ton mile in the first seven years from 1901 to 
1907 was 8.63 mills, which declined in the second seven years 
to an average of 8.58 mills and amounted in 1914 to only 8.42 
mills. The average revenue per passenger mile in the first 
seven years was 2.13 cents and in the second 2.07 cents. 

"Efforts at efficiency, to offset the adverse factors of rising 
costs and falling rates, although they have brought conspi- 
cuous results have not been adequate. With larger power 
and equipment and denser traffic, the tons carried per train 
on these railroads rose from 241 in 1901 to 387 in 1914, but 
the tons per car, in spite of the larger and heavier equip- 
ment, rose only from 10.10 tons to 12.27 in the same time. 
The number of pasengers per train rose from 37.22 in 1901 
to 51.82 in 1914 and the passengers per car rose in the same 
time from 7.56 to 9.31. All of this represents greater effi- 
ciency in handling traffic, in spite of which the earning power 
has declined. 

■'In providing the service demanded by the public, there 
has been a steady gain in number, size and value of equip- 
ment. On Tune 30, 1906, there was a total of 11,959 passenger 
cars owned or leased by 42 of these railroads, of which 11,899 
were wooden cars, 60 were steel underframe and none were 
all-steel. The average value of all was $5,740 and the aver- 
age weight 71,307 pounds. On June 30, 1914, there were in 
service 16,958 cars, of which 13,030 were wooden, 1,636 were 
steel underframe and 2,292 were all-steel. The average value 
had risen to $7,409 and the average weight to 85,291 pounds. 
The average value of the all-steel cars was $12,343 and their 
average weight 121,170 pounds. On June 30. 1914, there were 
167 passenger train cars, including Pullmans, owned or leasea 
for every 1,000 miles of road, against 139 in 1906. There were 
in service June 30, 1914, 21,331 locomotives against 15.691, 
June 30, 1906. Of these there were in the passenger service 
in 1914, 5,108 locomotives with an average weight of 116.85 
tons against only 3,978 in 1906 with an average weight of 
only 87.42 tons. 

"As the result of decreased rates and higher expenses, the 
profit from passenger service is excessively small and on 
some of the roads, especially in the Southwest, the passenger 
service is operated at a deficit. This has been determined 
by a separation of operating costs between freight and pas- 
senger service. In 1914, 67.22 per cent of ell operating ex- 
penses were due to freight service and 32.78 per cent to pas- 
senger. The average ratio of expenses to revenue in both 

services was 76.22 per cent. The ratio in the freight service 
was 72.51 per cent, while in the passenger service the ratio 
of expense to revenue was 85.16 per cent. 

"Both services combined earned a net return equalling 4.24 
per cent on the value of the property. In the freight service 
alone the return was 5.15 per cent while the passenger serv- 
ice earned only 2.37 per cent on the value of the property 
devoted to passenger traffic on all of these 46 railroads as a 

The replies of the various roads to the scries of 18 ques- 
tions bearing on the reasonableness of existing passenger 
tares which were submitted by the commission some time 
ago, were filed at the opening of the hea.-ing. 

Mr. Wettling was to be followed on the witness stand by 
E. E. MacLeod, chairman of the Western Passenger Asso- 
ciation. E. L. Bevington. secretary of the Transcontinental 
Passenger .Association, W. J. Cannon, assistant general pass- 
enger agent of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, and H. 
H. Butler, assistant general passenger agent of the Missouri 

caf£ day coach 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has equipped, and put in service, 
an all-steel cafe day coach, provided with a broiler buffet from 
which meals will be served. This car will be tried out as an 
experiment, and if it is found to meet a sufficient demand on the 
part of the traveling public, others of like character may be 

The Kitchen of the Cafe Coach 

placed in operation. It will not be used, however, to supplant 
dining cars. 

The new car is intended for use on trains where a dining car 
is not warranted. The buffet occupies eight feet of space at one 
end of the car and is similar to those installed in broiler-buffet 
Pullman cars, but is of an iiiiprovcd type, alcohol broilers being 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

used instead of coal fires. Meals will be served on tables placed 
between the seats, with the outer ends resting on the arms. Both 
single and double tables are provided, the latter being used where 
two seats are turned to face each other. With a double table, a 
party of four can eat together. No extra fare will be charged 
for riding in the car, as it will be in the regular service as an 
ordinary day coach. 

The car has a seating capacity of 70, and except for the buffet 
it is exactly like the steel day coaches used by the Pennsylvania. 
A supplementary use for this car will be to serve breakfasts in 

had become inadequate. They were al>o located too far from 
the business center for convenience. The plan finally determined 
on by the road provided for a new freight terminal of adequate 
size in the heart of the business center. It was also desired to 
raise the main passenger tracks to the level of those of the 
Union station located two blocks north and to connect them to 
the present station tracks. At the present time the Delaware & 
Hudson trains depart from tracks adjacent to but considerably 
below the main station tracks. This change in grade will also 
avoid trouble with occasional high water in the Hudson river. 
While the office building and freight house nre now completed, 
the station tracks have not yet been raised. 

Because of the common interest involved it was necessary for 
the city to co-operate with the railway company in the exchange 
of property and it was finally agreed that the railway would be 
granted permission to elevate its tracks and extend its terminal 
facilities by the construction of a new freight house and yard on 
condition that the office building be of such a character as to 
harmonize with the plans outlined by the city for the remainder 
of the district. 

The plan agreed upon is shown in the accompanying general 

Interior of the Pennsylvania Railroad Cafe Coach 

sleeping cars on trains where no buffets or dining cars are pro- 
vided. The new car has been placed in service between Kane, 
Pa., and Erie, Pa., on trains Nos. 39 and 54, which are through 
trains between Philadelphia and Erie. 


The Delaware & Hudson has recently completed and moved 
into a new office building and freight house in Albany, N. Y., 
which is of unusually fine appearance for a structure of this kind 
and is situated in a very convenient location. The entire project 
is an example of co-operation between the municipality and the 
railroad to their mutual advantage. 

The building occupies a portion of the site of Beverwycke, the 
original Dutch settlement which covered an area of about 8 acres 
between Broadway and the river at the foot of Main street. Re- 
sisting the trend of modern advancement, this district retained 
its century -old characteristics, with ancient buildings, many falling 
into decay, on narrow and crooked streets, and had long been an 
eyesore to the citizens of .Albany. The matter was finally taken 
up by the local Chamber of Commerce, which prevailed upon the 
city administration to extend the scheme of river front improve- 
ment which had already been undertaken, to include the creation 
of a civic center in what was the most unsightly section of the 
city. The Delaware & Hudson, whose main tracks occupied a 
narrow strip of right of way adjacent to the river had already 
begun the purchase of some property in this district. The com- 
pany had a freight house at Livingston avenue, five blocks north, 
and another at Church street, ten blocks south, both of which 


» I 1 • "\ 


• \* \ 


III ill ih ,.i III ill III ill III III III ill ill 
II 111 II > ! Ill ni ni i;i III ir. Ill ;;> v.. in :ii ill ill 


New D. & H. Office Building from the City Side 

layout. The building occupies an irregular area between the 
tracks and the plaza, an open space roughly triangular in shape, 
bounded on the west by Broadway, with its axis approximately 
on the center line of State street, an avenue 100 ft. wide, which 
connects the plaza with the state capitol grounds four blocks 
west. Just south of the building is a pedestrian subway leading 
from the plaza east underneath the tracks to Quay street, abut- 
ting on Albany basin, an artificial body of water 200 ft. wide, 
separated from the Hudson river by the municipal recreation 

The building, which was designed by Marcus T. Reynolds, 
architect, Albany, consists of a tower 52 ft. by 62 ft., 13 stories in 
height, joined on the north by a four-story wing 260 ft. long by 
50 ft. wide. To the north of this, and facing on Dean street, is 
the freight house. I-leniish Gothic in design, the building is of 
imposing appearance and has an unusually line setting, with the 
axis of the tower on the center line ••( State street facing t\ic 
State capitol. It is also conspicuous fnim the river side, hiving 
the first building of importance to meet the eyes of travelers, ap- 
proaching the city on river .steamers, or by trains crossing' the 
river bridge just north of the building. The exterior wall.'s are 
of Plymouth seam-faced granite, laid in random ashla^.r and 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



trimmed with Gothic details of synthetic stone. This synthetic 
or artificial stone for the trim was made by a special patented 
process using sand molds and has an excellent finish. The 
material is well adapted to the use of elaborate details. The 
roof is covered with heavy slate of variegated colors, the lower 
course being 1 in. thick and graded to the customary size at 

total area of 128,000 sq. ft. An open arcade facing west on the 
first story permits passage under cover throughout the length of 
the building, and facing on this arcade and the plaza beyond are 
seven shops which may be rented out for various purposes, one 
being occupied by the city ticket office of the Delaware & Hud- 
son. A well in the center of the tower, isolated by fireproof 

General Layout of Delaware & Hudson Terminal at Albany 

the ridge. The tnwer is crowned with a copper covered spire 
70 ft. in height, bearing a weather vane representing Hendrick 
Hudson's ship "De Halve Maen." 

With the exception of the first floor, the tower and its wings 
are used entirely for the general offices of the road, having a 

walls and doors, contains two elevators and a stairway. An- 
other stairway and elevator are located midway in the length of 
the wing. One unusual feature of the tower, combining utility 
and architectural enhancement is a turret-shaped pilaster lo- 
cated in the northwest corner, which contains a winding stair- 


Office Building and Freight House from the River Side 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59. No. 2 

way. Being protected by fireproof doors and small fireproof 
windows, it will afford an unusually efficient fire escape. 

The entire building is supported on Raymond concrete piles. 
The tower is of fireproof steel-skeleton construction, while the 
wing and the freight house are of reinforced concrete flat slab 
construction. There is no basement except under the north 
end of the wing, which is occupied by the heating plant, con- 
sisting of three Mills sectional safety boilers. A Custodis radial 
brick chimney of 42 in. inside diameter, extending only a short 
distance above the roof, is enclosed above the basement in a 
fireproof ventilating flue. 

The freight house consists of a new three-story portion 317 
ft. by 70 ft., designed to lake one additional floor in the future, 
and an old 4-story brick building 73 ft. by 63 ft. on the north, 
facing on Maiden Lane, formerly owned and occupied by the 
National Express Company, and now remodeled for use in 
conjunction with the new building. The first floor is used as an 
ordinary freight house, the second for storage and the third for 
offices for the freight clerks, while the upper floors of the old 
express building will be used for division offices. The new por- 
tion consists of 14 bays, 23 ft. 2 in. center to center of columns, 
with one double rolling door 11 ft. 6 in. wide to each bay, on 
both the street and the track sides. There are four stairways, 
one to every third bay, isolated by fire walls and fire-resisting 
doors. Adjacent to two of these stairways there are freight ele- 
vators with 8 ft. by 9 ft. platforms, while next to each of the 
other two are 8 ft. by 9 ft. platform scales equipped with Spring- 
field automatic weighers of 10,000 lb. capacity. All three floors 
of the freight house are equipped with automatic sprinklers. 
Openings leading into adjoining portions of the building are 
protected by automatic fire doors. The floors throughout the 
office building and the new freight house are of concrete. The 
first and second floors of the freight house are illuminated by 
ceiling outlets, one in the center of each panel, equipped with 
100-watt incandescent lamps and reflectors, while over each 
freight door is a 100-watt lamp, set with the axis of lamp and 
reflector horizontal. 

The layout of the tracks and platform is shown in the accom- 
panying drawing. Twelve house tracks with a total capacity of 
100 cars, are located in pairs 12 ft. center to center, on a skew 
with the face of the building. Platforms between each pair of 
tracks are 12 ft. wide and connect to a head platform 17 ft. wide 
along the face of the house. In order to work out with a fu- 
ture arrangement of the main tracks at a higher grade, the 
house tracks are on a 1^ per cent grade descending toward the 
house, which is protected against runaway cars by heavy con- 
crete bumping posts. The platforms are entirely of timber con- 
struction supported on small concrete pedestals, because it was 
thought undesirable to use permanent construction at this time 
on the filled ground which they occupy. It is proposed to re- 
place them by permanent structures when renewal becomes 

In addition to the new freight house facilities a new team 
yard has been provided some distance south of the station along 
Church street, from Pruyn street to Ferry street, a distance of 
about 1,300 ft., which will give eventually a capacity of about 
150 cars. Plans are also under way for an express building on 
Maiden Lane for the United Traction Company, which operates 
the street cars in Albany, and serves also as a terminal trans- 
fer between the Delaware & Hudson and two interurban lines— 
the Albany Southern and the Schenectady Railway. 

All work on the entire building was under contract to 
J. Henry Miller, Inc., Baltimore, Md., the contract price being 
$610,000. The total cost of the terminal work to date, exclusive 
of real estate, is about $750,000. The work on the building 
was prosecuted with unusual speed. Preliminary work was 
commenced in April, 1914, and the entire office building was 
ready for occupancy in April, 1915. All work is under the di- 
rection of James McMartin, chief engineer of the Delaware & 
Hudson, with Otis F. Rowtawd, assistant engineer in immediate 


By Walter S. Hiatt* 

Despite the enormous financial losses sustained by French 
railroads because of the war and the consequent reduction in 
commercial tonnage and passenger traffic, these railroads have 
continued their usual welfare work in the interest of their em- 
ployees and have, indeed, increased it surprisingly in certain di- 

This fact is indicated in a recently issued report of the Paris- 
Lyons-Mediterranean Railway. In view of the facts that the 
railroad is under the control of the war department and that 
it has suffered tremendous war losses on every hand, some of 
these expenses might have been cut down by the board of di- 
rectors. The railroad, however, seems to have shouldered all 
it could and to have helped freely in the united effort of the 
French people to keep going in war time. Even new homes for 
employees in conformance with plans made before the war, have 
been completed. The report does not call any particular atten- 
tion to the work, but barely outlines the facts. The board of 
directors voted the usual sum to provide pensions for its 80,000 
employees— a little over $5,000,000 this year. The sum set aside 
for various kinds of welfare work totaled over $6,500,000. 

During the first few months of the war more than $280,000 
of the total was spent to aid the 12,000 younger employees who 
went to the front as soldiers, these men having served less than 
six months on the railroad and being subject to enrollment as 
soldiers and not as railroad employees engaged in military 
transportation. These soldiers were paid one-half their salaries 
and, when they had families to support, the railroad continued 
half of their salaries, and when possible gave the women em- 
ployment as ticket sellers or clerks. In addition, such employees 
received their usual end of the year bonus, and their time as 
soldiers was counted as company service time towards pro- 
motions and participation in pensions. 

The welfare work for the year 1914 is subdivided as follows : 

Allowances to large families $450,000 

Allowances to co-operative societies 30.000 

Gifts to the treasury of pensions 4,450,000 

Special pensions 593,000 

To schools, orphans, apprentice shops, sanitariums 88,000 

Salaries and half salaries to the sick 471,000 

Medical supplies and care of sick 175.000 

Hot drinks and mineral waters to employees 15,000 

Interest on free loans 1,500 

Among the interesting details of the general welfare work of 
the road, which is typical of all the French railroads, is its care 
of orphans of employees. In addition to the above sums, the 
company found homes for 188 of its own orphans and made a 
contribution to the national organization which cares for the 
870 orphans of the railroads of France, this number having 
been grievously increased, because of the many deaths of sol- 
diers at the front during the past few months. The company 
also provided for the schooling of 444 boys and girls of em- 

Further, this company provided homes to the number of 1,388 
in the districts on its lines where rent is high or else in the 
country where modern houses are not available. 

Note is also made of the satisfactory results of the system of 
loans without interest to employees, begun in 1899. During the 
past year $86,000 was loaned to 2,887 employees who found them- 
selves in urgent need of ready money, and in 1913 $100,000 
was loaned to 3,294 employees. Since 1899 the company has 
loaned $1,100,000 to 32,959 employees, and during that period of 
15 years has lost but $1,300 through failures to refund. 

A final paragraph of the report states that the company gave 
employment to some of the Belgian railroad men driven out of 
their own country. It also started an employment agency foi; 
the refugees from the invaded regions of northern France and 
found work on its own lines for 1,200 persons. At the same 
time it granted reduced fares to those moving to new homes. 

'Our special European correspondent. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The American Society for Testing Materials 

An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual 
Meeting; Some of the More Important Specifications 

As mentioned in last week's issue the eighteenth annual con- 
vention of the American Society for Testing Materials was held 
at the Hotel Traymore, Atlantic City, June 22-26, President 
A. W. Gibbs, chief mechanical engineer of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, presiding. The address of the president and a paper 
by C. D. Young, describing the test department of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, were published in last week's issue. The follow- 
ing officers were elected for the coming year : President, Mans- 
field Merriman; vice-president, W. H. Bixby; members of the 
executive committee, J. H. Gibboney, W. K. Hatt, J. A. Mathews 
and Edward Orton, Jr. 

Proposed standard specifications for iron and steel chain were 
referred to letter ballot for adoption. These specifications differ 
slightly from the specifications of the Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation, but members of that association who are members of the 
committee of the American Society for Testing Materials feel 
confident that the M. C. B. Association will revise its specifica- 
tions to conform to those proposed by the committee. Revised 
standard specifications for malleable iron castings were also re- 
ferred to letter ballot of the society for adoption as standard. 

A paper on the Fusibility of Coal Ash was presented by A. C. 
Fieldner, A. E. Hall and A. L. Feild. A study was made of the 
principal causes for variations in the softening temperatures of 
coal ash as indicated by the deformation of Seger cones molded 
from the pulverized ash. Comparative tests were made on a 
series of 18 types of coal ash in six different furnaces which are 
in more or less common use for determining the degree of fusi- 
bility of silicate mixtures. 


The following is taken from a paper on this subject by Robert 
Job and F. F. White: 

The serviceability of the zinc element of a gravity cell, such as 
is commonly used in railway service, is generally considered to 
depend mainly upon its composition, and it is specified usually 
that the percentage of iron shall be a minimum, say, not exceed- 
ing 0.10 per cent, lead not to exceed O.SO per cent and not less 
than 2 per cent of mercury. 

A recent investigation has been of interest in proving the 
radical influence which the details of the method of manufacture 
exert upon the practical value of the metal in service. In the 
course of routine tests, two shipments of zinc were received and 
on analysis were found to have the following composition: 

Shipment A. Shipment B. 

Mercury, per cent 2.49 2.26 

Lead, per cent 0.17 0.17 

Iron, per cent O.IS 0.10 

These results were within the specification limits, or nearly 
so, and the shipments were approved. It developed in service, 
however, that shipment A was far superior to shipment B. The 
zincs in the latter lot, after comparatively short service, became 
coated with copper which protected the zinc from the action of 
the electrolyte, and in consequence the cell became 'Mead" when 
but little of the zinc had been dissolved. 

In view of the satisfactory average analysis of the zincs, it was 
felt that the difference in service was probably due to character- 
istics other than composition, and an investigation was made of 
each of the components of the cell. The copper sulphate con- 
tained 0.75 per cent of iron. This amount was the maximum 
permitted by the specifications, but the same copper sulphate gave 
good results when used with zincs of shipment A. It was de- 
cided then that the difference in the zincs was probably physical, 
and in order to develop possible variations in structure, trans- 
verse sections were taken from several samples in each shipment, 
and were polished and etched lightly. 

The etchings and subsequent microscopic examination showed 
marked difference. The good samples were fine grained and of 
uniform structure, clear to the outside surface of the zincs, 
whereas the others were coarse grained, indicating pouring into 
molds at a high temperature. Also, a distinct band of bright 
metal was seen around the contour of the defective sections. 
The natural inference was that the outside metal contained little 
mercury, and in order to determine this we took borings from 
each section around the surface to a depth of 1/16 in., and 
found the mercury content for a specimen representing ship- 
ment A, to be 2.49 per cent, and that for one representing ship- 
ment B, 0.64 per cent. These results showed the condition 
clearly and indicated the main cause of failure of shipment B. 

It is a well-known fact that mercury volatilizes to a consider- 
able extent when added to molten zinc, unless suitable precautions 
are taken; consequently it is necessary not only to avoid over- 
heating the bath of metal, but also to keep the molds cooled. 
Evidently in the case of shipment B this latter practice had not 
been followed, and hence the proportion of mercury upon the 
surface of the zincs was extremely low and evidently insufficient 
to protect the zincs from local action. 

The foundry practice necessary to produce well-mixed, sound 
and serviceable battery zincs is not difficult, but it is particularly 
essential that overheating of the metal be avoided, either in the 
melting pot or in the mold, and that after addition of the mer- 
cury the bath be kept carefully stirred in order to avoid segre- 

Acknowledgment is made of the assistance of H. W. Lewis, 
signal engineer of the Lehigh Valley, in noting the characteristics 
of the shipments in service, and for help rendered in carrying 
out the investigation. 


1. The steel shall be made by the open-hearth process. 

2. The splice bars shall be punched, slotted and, in the case 
of special designs, shaped at a temperature not less than 750 deg. 
C, and subsequently quenched. 

3. The steel shall conform to the following requirements as 
to chemical composition: 

Carbon not over 0.60 per cent 

Manganese " " 0.80 " " 

Phosphorus " " 0.04 " " 

4. An analysis to determine the percentages of carbon, man- 
ganese, phosphorus and sulphur shall be made by the manufac- 
turer from a test ingot taken during the pouring of each melt, 
a copy of which shall be given to the purchaser or his representa- 
tive. This analysis shall conform to the requirements specified 
in Section 3. Drillings for analysis shall be taken not less than 
% in. beneath the surface of the test ingot. 

5. Analyses may be made by the purchaser from finished splice 
bars representing each melt, in which case an excess of 25 per 
cent above the requirement as to phosphorus specified in Section 
3 shall be allowed. 

6. The splice bars shall conform to the following minimum re- 
quirements as to tensile properties : 

Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in. 
Yield point, '' " . 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent. 




7. The bend test specimen specified in Section 8 shall bend cold 
through 90 deg. around a pin, the diameter of which is equal 
to three times the thickness of the specimen, without cracking 
on the outside of the bent portion. 

8. Tension and bend test specimens shall be taken from the 
finished bars. Tension test specimens shall be of the form and 
dimensions shown in the illustration. Bend test specimens may 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

be yi in. square in section, or rectangular in section with two 
oarallel faces as rolled, with corners rounded to a radius not over 
i/16 in. 

9. If preferred by the manufacturer and approved by the pur- 
chaser, the following bend test may be substituted for that de- 
.scribed in Section 7 : A piece of the finished bar shall bend 
cold through 45 deg. around a pin the diameter of which is equal 
to three times the greatest thickness of the section, without 
cracking cm the outside of the bent portion. 

10. (a) One tension and one bend test shall be made from 
each melt. 

(b) If any test specimen shows defective machining or de- 
velops flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen sub- 

(c) If the percentage of elongation of any tension test speci- 
men is less tiian that specified in Section 6 and any part of the 

2-"- .i^f-H 

Tension Teat Specimen 

fracture is more tiim li in. from the center of the gage length, 
as indicated by scribe scratches marked on the specimen before 
testing, a retest shall be allowed. 

11. If the results of the physical tests of any test lot do not 
conform to the requirements specified, the manufacturer may 
re-treat such lot one <-ir more times and retests shall be made as 
specified in Section 10. 

12. The splice bars shall be smoothly rolled, true to templet, 
and shall accurately fit the rails for which they are intended. 
The bars shall be sheared to length, and the punching and notch- 
ing shall conform to the dimensions specified by the purchaser. 
A variation of 1/32 in. from the specified size of holes, of 1/16 
in. from the .specified location of holes, and of Ys in. from the 
specified length of splice bar, will be permitted. Any variation 
from a straight line in a vertical plane shall be such as will make 
the bars high in tlie center. The maximum camber in either 
plane shall not exceed 1/16 in. in 24 in. 

13. The finished splice bars shall be free from injurious defects 
and shall have a workmanlike finish. 

14. The name or brand of the manufacturer and the year of 
manufacture shall be rolled in raised letters and figures on the 
side of the rolled bars, and a portion of this marking shall ap- 
pear on each finished splice tar. 

15. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have free 
entry, at all times while work on the contract of the purchaser 
is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer's works 
which concern the manufacture of the splice bars ordered. The 
manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free of cost, all reason- 
able facilities tcj satisfy him that the sphce bars are being fur- 
nished m accordance with these specifications. All tests (e.xcept 
check analyses) and inspection shall be made at the place of 
manufacture prior to shipment, unless otherwise specified, and 
shall be so conducted as not to interfere unnecessarily with the 
operation of the works. 

16. (a) Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on tests 
made in accordance with Section 5 shall be reported within five 
working d.iys from the receipt of samples. 

(/)) Splice bars which show injurious defects subsequent to 
their acceptance at the manufacturer's works will be rejected, and 
the manufacturer shall be notified. 

17. Sample? tested in accordance with Section 5, wiiich rep- 

resent rejected splice bars, shall be preserved for two weeks 
from the date of the test report. In case of dissatisfaction with 
the results of the tests, the manufacturer may make claim for a 
rehearing within that time. 
The report was referred to letter ballot. 


1. (a) The steel for the bolts shall be made by the open-hearth 

(6) The steel for the nuts shall be made by the Bessemer or 
open-hearth process. 

2. The bolts shall enter the quenching medium at a temperature 
not less than 70 deg. C. The threads may be rolled either hot or 

3. The steel for the bolts shall conform to the following re- 
quirements as to chemical composition : 

Carbon not under 0.30 per cent 

Phosphorus not over 0.04 " " 

4. An analysis to determine the percentages of carbon, man- 
ganese, phosphorus and sulphur shall be made by the manu- 
facturer from a test ingot taken during the pouring of each melt, 
a copy of which shall be given to the purchaser or his representa- 
tive. This analysis shall conform to the requirements specified 
in Section 3. Drillings for analysis shall be taken not less than 
yi in. beneath the surface of the test ingot. 

5. .Analyses may be made by the purchaser from finished bolts 
representing each melt, in which case an excess of 25 per cent 
above the requirement as to phosphorus specified in Section 3 
shall be allowed. 

6. (a) The bolts shall conform to the following minimum re- 
quirements as to tensile properties : 

Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in 100,000 

Yield point, '' " 70,000 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent 12 

(b) Nuts shall be capable of developing the strength of the 
finished bolt up to its yield point. 

7. Full-size bolts shall bend cold through 45 deg. around a pin 
the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the bolt, with- 
out cracking on the outside of the bent portion. 

8. Tension test specimens shall be taken from the finished bolts 
and shall be of the form and dimensions shown in Fig. 1 (for 
carbon steel splice bars). 

9. (a) One tension and one bend test shall be made from each 
lot of SO kegs or fraction thereof. 

(6) If any test specimen shows defective machining or develop.^ 
flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen substituted. 

(c) If the percentage of elongation of any tension test speci- 
men is less than that specified in Section 6 (a) and any part of 
the fracture is more than }i in. from the center of the gage 
length, as indicated by scribe scratches marked on the spectincn 
before testing, or if the bend test specimen breaks in the threaded 
portion, a retest shall be allowed. 

10. If the results of the physical tests of any test lot do not 
conform to the requirements specified, two additional tension and 
two additional bend tests shall be made from such lot, all of 
which shall conform to the requirements specified. 

11. The bolts and nuts shall conform to the dimensions speci- 
fied by the purchaser. The bolts shall be neatly formed, free 
from fins or nickings. The head shall be concentric with, and 
firmly joined to, the bottom of the bolt, with the under side of 
the head at right angles to the body of the bolt. The threads 
shall be sharp and true to gage and of the pattern specified by 
the purchaser. The nuts shall fit the bolts tightly so as to re- 
quire a wrench not more than 10 in. in length to turn them down 
without distorting the threads or twisting the bolts. The nuts 
shall be screwed on before shipping, a sufficient number of turns 
to hold them on to destination. A variation of 1/32 in. under 
and 1/64 in. over the specified diameter of the body of the bolt 
will be permitted. The diameter of the rolled thread shall not 
exceed the diameter of the body of the bolt more than 1/16 in. 
for ')<-in. bolts and 3/32 in. for 1-in. bolts. A variation in the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

July 9, 1915 



dimensions of the elliptical shoulders under the head of the bolt 
of 1/32 in. from the specified size will be permitted. A taper of 
the shoulder of 1/32 in. will be permitted. 

12. The finished bolts and nuts shall be free from injurious 
defects and shall have a workmanlike finish. 

13. A letter or brand indicating the manufacturer shall be 
pressed on the head of the bolt when it is formed. 

14. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have free 
entry, at all times while work on the contract of the purchaser is 
being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer's works which 
concern the manufacture of the bolts and nuts ordered. The 
manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free of cost, all reason- 
able facilities to satisfy him that the bolts and nuts are being 
furnished in accordance with these specifications. All tests (ex- 
cept check analyses) and inspection shall be made at the place 
of manufacture prior to shipment, unless otherwise specified, and 
shall be so conducted as to not interfere unnecessarily with the 
operation of the works. 

15. (o) Unless otherwis* specified, any rejection based on tests 
made in accordance with Section 5 shall be reported within five 
working days from the receipt of samples. 

(b) Bolts and nuts which show injurious defects subsequent 
lo their acceptance at the manufacturer's works will be rejected, 
and the manufacturer shall be notified. 

16. Samples tested in accordance with Section 5, which rep- 
resent rejected bolts and nuts, shall be preserved for two weeks 
from the date of the test report. In case of dissatisfaction with 
the results of the tests, the manufacturer may make claim for a 
rehearing within that time. 

This report was referred to letter ballot. 


1. (a) The steel for the bolts shall be made by the open-hearth 
or electric process. 

(b) The steel for the nuts shall be made by the Bessemer or 
open-hearth process. 

2. The bolts shall enter the quenching medium at a temperature 
of not less than 790 deg. C. The threads may be rolled either 
hot or cold. 

3. The steel for the bolts shall conform to the following re- 
quirement as to chemical composition : 

Phosphorus not over O.OJS per cent 

4. An analysis to determine the percentages of carbon, man- 
ganese, phosphorus and sulphur and any other elements used 
to obtain the physical properties specified in Sections 6 and 7 
shall be made by the manufacturer from a test ingot taken dur- 
ing the pouring of each melt, a copy of which shall be given 
to the purchaser or his representative. This analysis shall con- 
form to the requirement specified in Section 3. Drillings for 
analysis shall be taken not less than yi in. beneath the surface of 
the test ingot. 

5. Analyses may be made by the purchaser from finished bolts 
representing each melt, in which case an excess of 25 per cent 
above the requirement as to phosphorus specified in Section 3 
shall be allowed. 

6. (a) The bolts shall conform to the following minimum re- 
quirements as to tensile properties : 

Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in 1 10.000 

Yield point, lb. |>er sq. in 85,000 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent 12 

The rest of the five specifications are the same as for Heat- 
Treated Carbon Steel Track Bolts. 


The Committee on Steel submitted proposed tentative specifi- 
cations for silico-manganese steel bars for automobile and rail- 
way springs, for chrome-vanadium steel bars for automobile and 
railway springs, for helical and elliptical railway springs, for al- 
loy steel forgings and for quenched-and-tempered alloy steel 
axles and other car and locomotive forgings. The latter are as 
follows : 

1. (o) These specifications cover the various classes of alloy- 

steel forgings now commonly used in locomotive and car con- 

(b) The purposes for which these classes are frequently used 
are as follows: 

Class K, for forgings for main and side rods, straps, piston 
rods, and all other forgings which are to be machined with 
milling cutters or complicated forming tools; 

Class L, for forgings for driving and trailing-truck axles, 
crank pins, and other parts not requiring the use of milling 
cutters or complicated forming tools. 

2. The steel may be made by the open-hearth or any other 
process approved by the purchaser. 

3. A sufficient discard shall be made from each ingot to secure 
freedom from injurious piping and undue segregation. 

4. For test purposes, a prolongation shall be left on each forg- 
ing, unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. 

5. (a) Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, all forg- 
ings over 7 in. in diameter shall be bored, and all axles, shafts 
and similar forgings shall be rough-turned all over. The boring 
and rough-turning shall be done before quenching. 

(&) If boring is specified, the diameter of thf hole shall be at 
least 20 per cent of the maximum outside diameter or thickness 
of the forging, exclusive of collars and flanges. 

6. For quenching and tempering, the forgings shall be allowed 
to become cold after forging. They shall then be uniformly re- 
heated to the proper temperature to refine the grain (a group 
thus reheated being known as a "quenching charge"), and 
quenched in some medium under substantially uniform condi- 
tions for each quenching charge. Finally, they shall be uniformly 
reheated to the proper temperature for tempering or "drawing 
back" (a group thus reheated being known as a "tempering 
charge"), and allowed to cool uniformly. 

7. The steel shall conform to the following requirements as to 
chemical composition : 


Phosphorus not over O.OS 

Sulphur not over O.OS 

not over 0.04 per cent 
not over 0.05 per cent 

The composition of alloy steel, other than phosphorus and sul- 
phur, shall be agreed upon by the manufacturer and the pur- 

8. An analysis to determine the percentages of carbon and 
the elements specified in Section 7 shall be made by the manu- 
facturer from a test ingot taken during the pouring of each 
melt, a copy of which shall be given to the purchaser or his 
representative. This analysis shall conform to the requirements 
specified in Section 7. 

9. Analyses may be made by the purchaser from a forging rep- 
resenting each melt, which shall conform to the requirements 
specified in Section 7. Drillings for analysis may be taken from 
the forging or from a full-size prolongation of the same, at any 
point midway between the center and surface of solid forgings, 
and at any point midway between the inner and outer surfaces of 
the wall of bored forgings ; or turnings may be taken from a test 

In addition to the complete analysis, a phosphorus determi- 
nation may be made by the purchaser from each broken tension 
test specimen, and this determination shall conform to the re- 
ciuirement for phosphorus specified in Section 7. 

10. (a) The forgings shall conform to the requirements as 
to tensile properties specified in Table I. 

(fc) The classification by size of the forging shall be deter- 
mined by the specified diameter or thickness which governs the 
size of the prolongation from which the test specimen is taken. 

(t) The elastic limit shall be determined by means of an ex- 

(rf) Tests of forgings shall be made only after final treat- 

11. If specified by the purchaser, bend tests shall be made as 

(<i) For the first and second classes by size, the test speci- 
men shall bend cold through 180 deg. around a 1-in. flat man- 

Digitized by 





Vol. 59, No. 2 

dre! having a rounded edge of J^-in. radius, without cracking on 
the outside of the bent portion. 

(b) For the third and fourth classes by size, the test speci- 
men shall bend cold through 180 deg. around a VA-'m. flat 
mandrel having a rounded edge of ^-in. radius, without crack- 
ing on the outside of the bent portion. 

12. Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, all forgings 
shall be subjected to an impact proof test. The details of this 
test shall be agreed upon by the manufacturer and the pur- 

13. (a) Tension and bend test specimens shall be taken from 
a full-size prolongation of any forging. For forgings with large 
ends or collars the prolongation may be of the same cross- 
f^cction as that of the forging back of the large end or collar. 
Specimens may be. taken from the forging itself with a hollow 
drill, if approved by the purchaser. 

(b) The axis of the specimen shall be located at any point 
midway between the center and surface of solid forgings, and 
at any point midway between the inner and outer surfaces of 
the wall of bored forgings, and shall be parallel to the axis of 

fied by the purchaser. Axles, shafts and similar forgings, un- 
less otherwise specified, shall be rough-turned all over with an 
allowance of % in. on the surface for finishing. In centering, 
60-deg. centers Vvith clearance drilled for points shall be used. 

17. The forgings shall be free from injurious defects and shall 
have a workmanlike finish. 

18. Identification marks shall be legibly stamped on each 
forging and on each test specimen. The purchaser shall indi- 
cate the location of such identification marks. 

19. (a) The inspector representing the purchaser shall have 
free entry, at all times while work on the contract of the pur- 
chaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer's 
works which concern the manufacture of the forgings ordered. 
The manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free of cost, all 
reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the forgings are being 
furnished in accordance with these specifications. Tests and 
inspection at the place of manufacture shall be made prior to 

{b) The purchaser may make the tests to govern the ac- 
ceptance or rejection of the forgings in his own laboratory or 

Tabie I^Tensile Properties (Classes K and L) 
For Forgings whose Maximum Outside Diameter or Thickness is not over 10 in. when Solid, and not ot'er 20 in. when Bored 



Alloy Steel, 



Alloy Steel, 



Tensile Elastic Elongation Reduction 

Strength, Limit, miti., in 2 in., min., of Area, min., 

lb. per hq. ill. lb. per sq. in. percent percent 

V.S,00O— 115,000 70,000 20 SO 

W.OOO— 110,000 55,000 20 50 

'10.000—110,000 65,000 20 50 

'10,000—110,000 65,000 20 50 

85,000-105,000 60,000 20 50 

Up to 3 in. in outside diameter or thickness, 1-in. max. wall 105,000—125,000 80,000 20 50 

Over 2 to 4 in. in outside diameter or thickness, 2-in. max. wall 100,000 — 120,000 75,000 20 50 

Over 4 to 7 in. in outside diameter or thickness, 3)4-in. max. wall 100,000 — 120,000 75,000 20 50 

Over 7 to 10 in. in outside diameter or thickness, S-in. max. wall 100,000—120,000 75,000 18 45 

Outside diameter or thickness not over 20 in., 5 to 8-in. wall 95,000 — 115,000 70,000 18 45 


Up to 2 in. in outside diameter or thickness, 1-in. max. wall 

Over 2 to 4 in. in outside diameter or thickness, max. wall... 
Over 4 to 7 in. in outside diameter or thickness, 3j4-in. max. wall.. 
Over 7 to 10 in. in outside diameter or thickness, 5-in. max. wall.. 
Outside diameter or thickness not over 20 in., 5 to 8-in. wall 

the forging in the direction in which the metal is most drawn 

(c) Tension test specimens shall be of the form and dimen- 
sions shown in the illustration. 

(d) Bend test specimens shall be Yz in. square in section 
with corners rounded to a radius not over 1/16 in., and need 
not exceed 6 in. in length. 

14. (a) One tension and, if specified by the purchased, one 
bend test shall be made from each tempering charge. If more 
than one quenching charge is represented in a tempering charge, 
one tension and, if specified, one bend test shall be made from 
each quenching charge. If more than one melt is represented 
in a quenching charge, one tension and, if specified, one bend 
test shall be made from each melt. 

(ft) If more than one class of forgings by size is represented 
in any lot, one tension and, if specified, one bend test from a 
forging of each class by size shall be made as specified in Sec- 
tions 10, 11 and 13. 

(c) If any test specimen shows defective machining or de- 
velops flaws, it may be discarded and another specimen sub- 

(rf) If the percentage of elongation of any tension test speci- 
men is less than that specified in Section 10 (o) and any part 
of the fracture is more than Ya, in. from the center of the gage 
length, as indicated by scribe scratches marked on the specimen 
before testing, a retest shall be allowed. 

15. (a) If the results of the physical te.sts of any test lot do 
not conform to the requirements specified, the manufacturer may 
retemper or requench and temper such lot, but not more than 
three additional times unless authorized by the purchaser, and re- 
tests shall be made as specified in Section 14. 

(6) If the fracture of any tension test specimen shows over 
15 per cent crystalline, a second test shall be made. If the frac- 
ture of the second specimen shows over 15 per cent crystalline, 
the forgings represented by such specimen shall be retempered 
or requenched and tempered. 

J6. The forgings shall conform to the sizes and shapes speci- 

elsewhere. Such tests, however, shall be made at the expense 
of the purchaser. 

(c) Tests and inspection shall be so conducted as not to 
interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works. 

20. (o) Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on 
tests made in accordance with Section 19 (b) shall be reported 
within five working days from the receipt of samples. 

{b) Forgings which show injurious defects while being fin- 
ished by the purchaser will be rejected, and the manufacturer 
shall be notified. 

21. Samples tested in accordance with Section 19 (b), which 
represent rejected forgings, shall be preserve<l for two weeks 
from the date of the test report. In case of dissatisfaction 
with the results of the tests, the manufacturer may make claim 
for a rehearing within that time. 


In a recent paper by G. K. Burgess, J. J. Crowe, H. S. 
Rawdon and R. G. Waltenburg, which was issued by the Bu- 
reau of Standards under the title "Observations on Finishing 
Temperatures and Properties of Rails" (Railway Age Gazette, 
June 26, 1914) the standard specifications for steel rails adopted 
by the American Society for Testing Materials are criticized, 
in a general condemnation of the use of shrinkage allowance as 
the basis of temperature determination. 

2. In that the shrinkage permitted is too great. 

The committee took these criticisms under consideration, and 
presents a report. 

Shrinkage Allowance vs. Pyrometer Control 
Theoretically the determination of the finishing temperature 
of a bar of steel, because of the sensitiveness of the measuring 
apparatus, should be much more exact than measuring the 
variation in the change of length of a bar in cooling. There 
are, however, two reasons why the cruder means is preferable. 

1. It is much easier to enforce. The mill must set the saws 
at such a distance apart in the case of gang saws, or at such dis- 
tance from the stop in the case of a single saw, that when rails 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



are cold they will be within the close tolerances for length 
prescribed by the specifications. The penalty for not observing 
this is the milling of every rail to length, and the penalty is so 
severe in a modern rail mill that there is no question that the 
proper adjustment of the hot length will be provided. The 
measurement of temperatures of rails by pyrometer is a much 
more complicated proposition. Carrying the identity of each 
hot rail as to its observed temperature through the mill and 
out to the finishing shed where it can be rejected where neces- 
sary, would be a difficult and expensive procedure. 

2, The pyrometer measures the temperature at the particular 
portion of the bar that is under observation. For a simple 
section this does not vary greatly, but in a complex section, like 
a T rail, there is a wide variation in the temperature of the 
various parts. 

The Amount of Shrinkage 

The authors of the paper have taken the maximum shrinkage 
allowed in the specifications of the society, and by dividing by 
the coefficient of shrinkage established by their experiments, 
have arrived at a temperature which they claim could be used 
in rolling rails, and yet keep within the requirements of the 
specifications. Such a method of arriving at rolling tempera- 
tures is not admissible in the case of unbalanced sections. The 
shrinkage allowance necessary for rails is a function, not only 
of the average temperature, but also of the section. The flanges 
of a section cool much more rapidly than the other 
parts of the section, and in cooling first, they become more rigid 
than the remainder of the section. When cut by the saws the 
cooler base and hotter head are of the same length, but as the 
head has a greater range to cool through, its shrinkage would 
be greater and cold length less than the base. This is corrected 
by the cambering rolls, which stretch the head to such length 
as will compensate for its greater shrinkage. 

The shrinkage allowance necessary for any rail is not the 
shrinkage allowance based on the average temperature of the 
rail, nor the temperature of the head or base, such as observed 
in the Bureau of Standards' experiments; but the shrinkage 
allowance in sawing, which is necessary for any rail, is the 
amount of shrinkage of the portion which cools and becomes 
rigid first. 

In view of the importance of the subject, it seems very de- 
sirable to secure some data as to the effect of the variation in 
the finishing temperature on the quality of the rail. While there 
is a large amount of literature bearing on the subject, actual 
iKpendable data regarding the quality of the rails are very 
scarce. M. H. Wickhorst reported on a series of tests made on 
liessemer rails, the finishing temperatures of which measured 
on the heads varied from 940 to 1,030 deg. C, and more re- 
cently he reported on a similar series of tests made on open- 
hearth rails. The rails were subjected to drop tests, bend tests, 
tension tests, transverse tests, of base, and the structure was 
examined under the microscope. 

As a result of the tests on Bessemer steel rails, Mr. Wick- 
horts reported "that the ductility and deflection in the drop 
test were influenced little, if any, by the temperature. The num- 
ber of blows that it took to break the rails in the drop test was 
uninfluenced by the temperature of rolling. The yield point 
and tensile strength in the tension tests were influenced little, 
if any. The elongation in the tension test decreased some as 
the temperature increased. The influence of temperature 
showed most prominently in the tension test, in the reduction 
of area, which decreased as the temperature of rolling increased. 
The size of the grain, as shown by the microscope, increased as 
the temperature increased." 

His conclusions on the open-hearth series, which were rolled 
at temperatures between 695 and 850 deg. C, were as follows: 

"It may be said that the results in the drop tests, slow l)end- 
ing tests and transverse tests of the base, were about the same 
for the different finishing temperatures, varied by holding the 
rail bar between rolls before final finishing. In the tensile tests 
the results were also about the same, except that the lower 

finishing temperatures showed a little greater elongation and re- 
duction of area. The lower finishing temperatures also showed 
a somewhat finer grain structure." 

In all of the hiformation as to actual tests which the com- 
mittee was able to obtain, there is lacking anything which points 
to such decided differences in the quality of rails rolled at vary- 
ing temperatures, as theoretical considerations have led some 
to expect. The differences are so slight that it seems hardly 
justifiable to go to any great expense in determining finishing 
temperatures any more accurately than is possible with the 
shrinkage clause, which on account of its easy application is by 
far the most convenient means of checking the finishing tem- 


At the opening of the fifth session the secretary presented a 
report from the joint executive committee composed of the in- 
coming and outgoing oflicers, recommending that the dues of 
members be increased from $10 to $15 per year; those of juniors 
from $5 to $7.50 and those of members in perpetuity from $200 
to $300. It was voted to accept the report and refer the sugges- 
tion to letter ballot. 


The report called attention to the possibility of detecting the 
amount and de|)th of decarburization of the surface and stated, 
in conclusion, that surface decarburization frequently exists in 
heat-treated steel parts, due either to the mill practice or to the 
heat treatment itself. From whatever cause, it should be in- 
vestigated by the metallurgist and its extent ascertained. The 
microscope is undoubtedly the most efficient means of accom- 
plishing this purpose in hypo-eutectoid steels. When the exact 
cause and extent have been determined, means may be provided 
for correcting it — at least to a certain extent. In the grinding 
operation, however, there sometimes lies the opportunity of en- 
tirely removing its deleterious effects by a judicious determina- 
tion of the grinding limits, and in this the metallurgist should ' 
play a more conspicuous part than he has in the past. 


This paper showed that there is a close relationship between 
the hardness of a steel and the maximum strength; and that this 
relationship exists whether the same maximum strength be ob- 
tained from different steels by a difference in the heat-treatment 
to which they are subjected or whether the hardness is different 
because of difference in the steels themselves. In this it appears 
that there is no relationship between the chemical comjiosition 
and the hardness, but only between the hardness and the 
maximum strength. 

Discussion. — In the brief discussion that followed attention 
was called to the desirability that there should be found to be 
some relationship between the hardness and the limit of elasticity 
as this is really the quality with which the designer is most 
concerned. It is exceedingly desirable that some quick method 
should be found for determining the elastic limit of materials 
and that without mutilation. It was shown that this might be 
done for any specific steel treated in a definite manner, where 
the limit of elasticity was known from other means and that 
the hardness test might thus be made to indicate the elastic 
limit of another piece similarly treated. 


The two points to which attention was particularly called in 
this paper were that, in the heating of a piece of steel to a point 
above its temperature of saturation, there was a pause in the rate 
of heating as the temperature of the piece was passing through 
the saturation temperature; and further that with constant fur- 
nace temperatures, the higher temperatures were reached by the 
pieces in a shorter time than the lower ones. For example, a 
temperature of 1,200 deg. F. was reached in a shorter time 
than one of 1.000 deg. and one of 1,600 deg. in a shorter time 
still, while to reach 1,400 deg. took the longest of all. The 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

explanation of this is that the absorption of heat varies as the 
difference between the fourth powers of the temperatures of the 
furnace and the piece being heated and that this difference in- 
creases as the furnace temperature increases, so that the absorp- 
tion of heat is correspondingly more rapid. The seeming ex- 
ception in the case of the rise to 1,400 deg. is explained on the 
ground of the phenomenon of lag in passing through the tem- 
perature of saturation, which is at about 1,350 deg., and there- 
fore close to 1,400, where the difference of the fourth power is 
small, resulting in a slow increase of temperature at that point. 
Discussion. — ^The discussion called attention to the practice of 
specifications calling for a slow heating and a rapid cooling as 
though the two practices were in opposition to each other, but 
it was explained that, in heating a piece, it was put under ten- 
sion and that if the work were to be done rapidly, cracks would 
be developed, while in the case of cooling the surfaces were put 
in compression and there was not the same danger. 


It was shown that the quenching power of a liquid depends 
largely on the lat»nt heat of vaporization, and refutes the views 
commonly held that it depends upon the initial temperature or the 
heat conductivity of the medium. The addition of salt to in- 
crease the quenching power of water is also proved fallacious, 
and the experiments of Le Chatelier that the conductivity for 
heat is no measure of the cooling power of a liquid are confirmed. 

Mercury has a heat conductivity of over ten times that of water, 
but both of these able physicists demonstrate that it is decidedly 
weaker as a cooling medium. Le Chatelier considers that the 
specific heat of the cooling medium governs the cooling speed — 
and this is confirmed by Benedicts — providing the temperature 
of the body is low, but the latent heat of vaporization is the 
controlling factor when the temperature of the body is high. 
This theory is tenable considering the large amount of heat 
which can be carried off by a relatively small weight of vapor, 
and accounts for the efficiency of water as a quenching medium. 

Water is the oldest known cooling medium for quenching 
steel. Subsequently, various animal and vegetable oils were 
employed, and many of the artisans using them are still under 
the belief that carbon is added to the steel by these liquids and 
the properties thereby improved. In this country mineral oil, 
because of its low cost, has almost entirely displaced the animal 
and vegetable oils, and for many years was used almost exclu- 
sively for quenching spring plates and large objects. Water, 
however, possesses manifest advantages of cheapness, cleanliness, 
freedom from odor, freedom from fire hazard, and above all, 
efficiency. It is true that a higher clastic limit, tensile strength 
and elastic ratio for a corresponding elongation and reduction 
of area, or a higher reduction of area and elongation for a corres- 
|)onding elastic limit, can be obtained on a water-quenched steel 
than can be secured by the methods of oil quenching generally 
practiced. Opposing these manifest advantages is the danger 
from fractures as the result of the lag in the temperature of the 

The results of these experiments are as follows : 

1. That the tensile properties of water-quenched steel arc 
superior to obtained by quenching in any other of the 
usual quenching mediums. 

2. The internal stresses induced in a water-quenched object 
are of much greater magnitude than those developed by quench- 
ing in any other of the usual quenching mediums. 

3. They confirm the laboratory experiments of Doctor 
Benedicts, that the efficiency of the quenching mediums is not 
dependent to a marked extent on the initial temperature of the 
cooling mediums. 

4. With but few exceptions, which can no doubt be explained 
by some inequality in the steel, the induced internal stresses are 
affected by the initial temperature, except in the case of water. 

5. Internal stresses induced by quenching in water are inde- 
licndent of the initial temperature. 

6. The small difference between the temperature of the 
cooling mediums, before and after quenching, confirms Doctor 
Benedicts' explanation that large quantities of heat are carried 
off by the latent heat of vaporization. 

7. Light oils have a greater quenching speed than heavy oils 
but not markedly so. A good tempering oil, however, should 
be free from tar and should not become thick from the precipita- 
tion of the burnt tar. 


The following is from a paper on this subject by P. H. Bates. 
The question of the finer grinding and the addition of more SO, to 
Portland cement is frequently discussed, and the consensus of 
opinion seems to be that further investigation is needed. Ten 
commercial cements either had more SOj added to them, 
were ground finer, or were both ground finer and 
had more SOa added. From the four groups of ten cements 
each, the customary physical tests and small specimens were 
made. In addition cylinders of l:iyi:4l4 concrete were made, 
and expansion bars of neat and 1 :3 standard sand mortars. 
Some of the neat tension briquettes were also examined micro- 
scopically for relative amounts of hydration. . 

The results show that the time of set is affected somewhat 
by each of the above treatments, finer grinding tending to 
produce a quicker set, and the addition of more SOd a quicker 
initial but slower final set. The addition of SO, to the coarser- 
ground cements does not materially affect the strength ; finer 
grinding produces considerable increase; while the addition of 
SOj to the finer-ground cements tends to produce results very 
slightly less than those obtained when they contain the normal 
amount. Expansion measurements show that the addition of 
SO, to the coarse cements produces a large increase in length of 
neat cenjents; to finer-ground cements the increase is not so 
great. Finer grinding alone does not materially affect the expan- 
sion due to hydration; the expansion of the mortar bars is not 
materially affected by the use of the different cements. 

All conclusions made in this paper are deduced from results 
obtained from specimens tested at the end of 90 days. Speci- 
mens have been made to be tested at the end of six months, 
one year, and two later periods, and consequently the present 
conclusions may have to be materially modified. 


The committee has very carefully reconsidered its report of 
last year, which was referred back to it by the Society. 

For the determination of viscosity, the committee reaffirms 
its recommendation of last year to the Society that the Saybolt 
Standard L'niversal Viscosimeter be the standard. The very 
careful investigation of Dr. C. W. Waidner of the Bureau of 
Standards, showing that the Saybolt instrument possesses as 
great accuracy as any other viscosimeter used for the determina- 
tion of the viscosity of lubricants, confirms the previous opinion 
of the committee. The Saybolt viscosimeter is the instrument 
in practically universal use in the United States for the deter- 
mination of the viscosity of lubricants, and possesses many other 
advantages covered by the committee's report of last year. 

On the question of an alternate instrument for viscosity, the 
committee after very careful consideration has concluded that 
the adoption of an alternate instrument would entirely destroy 
the value of a standard instrument. The committee realizes, 
however, that there arc many who for years past have used 
other instruments than the .Saybolt and will probably con- 
tinue to do so, and in order not to work undue hardship in 
these cases, the committee is now submitting, and will submit 
from time to time, conversion tables for converting readings on 
various viscosimcters into readings on the Saybolt Standard 
I'nivcrsal X'iscosimctcr. 

The committee recommends that the proposed Standard Tests 
for Lubricants covering viscosity, specific gravity, free acid, and 
cloud and pour tests, be referred to letter ballot of the society. 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 




The special sub-committee, to which was referred the motion 
made at the last annual meeting of the society charging it to 
renew its efforts to obtain such additional information as would 
enable the committee to describe the composition of the several 
paints of the HaVre de Grace, bridge tests more satisfactorily to 
the engineering profession, than could be interpreted from the 
committee's published analyses, and also to compile a brief 
resume of the methods and conditions of the test, reports as 
follows : 

Under date of November 20, 1914, a circular letter was 
sent to each of the manufacturers who furnished paints for the 
Havre de Grace bridge tests. This letter referred to the con- 
tinued demand for fuller information as to the composition of 
the paints, and for an identification of the manufacturers' names 
with the paints tested. Two inquiries were made of each manu- 
facturer, namely: (1) "Would you object to the committee 

reporting to the Society that panels and section Nos. were 

painted with paint furnished by you?"; and (2) "It is our plan 
to publish a brief description of your paint, such description to 
be based either upon the analysis which we have made, or upon 
information received from you. Would the following description 
of your paint be satisfactory?" 

The letter also requested "that if the enclosed description 
is not satisfactory, please send one that is," adding that informa- 
tion of value to engineers was desired. Furthermore, there was 
enclosed to each manufacturer a blue-print "log," giving the 
record of the particular paint as applied, with a statement that 
copy of this had been sent originally upon completion of the 
painting of the bridge, and that such record was to be published 
by the committee. 

The receipt of this letter was acknowledged by all but two 
of the contributing manufacturers. Of those who acknowledged 
the receipt of the letter, the manufacturers of nine paints were 
willing to have their names published in connection with the 
paints. The manufacturers of six paints were unwilling, and the 
manufacturers of two paints did not reply to this specific inquiry. 
The manufacturers of seven paints accepted the sub-committee's 
description without suggesting modifications. Ten suggested 

The objections of the manufacturers of six paints to the 
publication of their names in connection with the paints makes 
it impossible for the sub-committee in good faith to publish any 
information relating thereto. 

Satisfactory replies to the original circular letter asking for 
contributions to defray the expenses of the test having been re- 
ceived from a sufficient number of manufacturers to warrant 
the inauguration of the test, costs were figured on an area 
basis and a second circular letter sent to those who had agreed 
to enter the competition, the most important point involved 
being the following questions propounded, covering the compo- 
sition and proportioning of the materials of each paint : 

Volatile thinner; 

Vehicle or liquid non-volatile matter, particular information being de- 
sired as to the following: 

1. Saponifiable oils, that is, linseed, etc.; 

2. Resinous matter, that is, resins and gums; 

3. Bituminous matter, that is. asphaltum, pitch, etc.; 

Mineral matter such as lead, manganese, lime, etc., other than that 
present as pigment. 

Unfortunately these questions were regarded as too search- 
ing by many paint manufacturers on the ground that if answered 
they would disclose trade secrets and methods of manufacture, 
since the committee had stated that in formulating the above 
list of questions the information sought was not intended to 
include trade secrets or particular methods of treatment or 
manufacture of the constituents of the paints. 

In view of the attitude of the manufacturers, and to avoid 
the complete jeopardizing of the proposed tests, the above 
questions were specifically withdrawn and only such information 
as the manufacturers were willing to submit was asked for. 
This, coupled with that to be derived from the duplicate analyses 

of each paint by the committee, comprised all the data accumu- 
lated whereon to base descriptions of the paints such as are 
desired by the large engineering membership of the society. 

It must be understood that the committee fully recognized, 
as soon as the manufacturers refused the fullest information 
regarding their paint products, that a considerable part of the 
anticipated value of these tests would not be realized. Appre- 
ciating as time went on during the annual inspections, that the 
action of certain paints might be more intelligently interpreted 
with fuller detailed information not in the possession of the com- 
mittee and not to be derived from a study of the most complete 
analyses but probably within the knowledge of the manufac- 
turers, the unsatisfactory conditions imposed through the manu- 
facturers' refusal to answer the original questions became so 
apparent that informal attempts were made from time to time 
to sound the manufacturers regarding the possibility of their 
meeting the committee's wishes. But with the development of 
the tests, it became more and more apparent that such informa- 
tion as desired by the committee could only have been obtained 
as originally proposed at the time of inauguration of the tests. 

The test logs of the several paints give detailed information 
regarding the conduct of the tests which, as originally stated, was 
aimed to be "eminently fair to each competitor and to the paints 
themselves." The annual inspections were carefully carried out, 
all ratings being with the same scale, and detailed examination 
of yearly reports will demonstrate the surprising concordance 
of these with conditions likely to exist. 

No attempt has been made in the reports on the Havre de 
Grace bridge tests to give full information as to the prices of the 
paints used, although it is recognized that engineers must con- 
sider price in figuring the cost of protection against rust. 


[These proposed revised standard specifications are to be 
applied to solid members and not to composite members.] 
General Requirements: 

1. Except as noted, all timber shall be cut from sound trees 
and sawed standard size; close-grained and solid; free from 
defects such as injurious ring shakes and crooked grain; unsound 
knots; knots in groups; decay; large pitch pockets, or other 
defects that will materially impair its strength. 

2. (a) Dense southern yellow pine shall show on either end 
an average of at least six annual rings per inch and at least 
one-third summer wood, or else the greater number of the 
rings shall show at least one-third summer wood, all as meas- 
ured over the third, fourth, and fifth inches on a radial line 
from the pith. Wide-ringed material excluded by this rule will 
be acceptable, provided that the amount of summer wood as 
above measured shall be at least one-half. 

(b) The contrast in color between summer wood and spring 
wood shall be sharp and the summer wood shall be dark in color, 
except in pieces having considerably above the minimum require- 
ment for summer wood. 

(c) In cases where timbers do not contain the pith, and it 
is impossible to locate it with any degree of accuracy, the same 
inspection shall be made over 3 in. on an approximate radial 
line beginning at the edge nearest the pith in timbers over 3 
in. in thickness and on the second inch (on the piece) nearest 
to the pith in timbers 3 in. or less in thickness. 

(d) In dimension material containing the pith but not a 5-in. 
radial line, which is less than 2 in. by 8 in. in section or less 
than 8 in. in width, that does not show over 16 sq. in. on the 
cross-section, the inspection shall apply to the second inch from 
the pith. In larger material that does not show a 5-in. radial 
line the inspection shall apply to the 3 in. farthest from the pith. 

(e) The radial line chosen shall be representative. In case of 
disagreement between purchaser and seller the average summer 
wood and number of rings shall be the average of the two radial 
lines chosen. 

3. Sound southern yellow pine shall include pieces of southern 
pine without any ring or summer-wood requirement. 

4. Rough timbers sawed to standard size, shall mean that they 
shall not be over J4 in. scant from actual size specified. For in- 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

stance, a 12-in. by 12-in. timber shall measure not less than 11>^ 
in. by 11^ in. 

5. Standard dressing means that not more than % in. shall be 
allowed for dressing each surface. For instance, a 12-in. by 12-in. 
timber shall, after dressing four sides, not measure less than 11^ 
in. by \\% in. 

//. Stringers 

6. (a) Dense southern yellow pine shall show not less than 80 
per cent of heart on each of the four sides, measured across the 
sides anywhere in the length of the piece; loose knots, or knots 
greater than \% in. in diameter, will not be permitted at points 
within 4 in. of the edges of the piece. 

(6) Sound southern yellow pine shall be square-edged, except 
it may have I in. wane on one comer. Knots shall not exceed in 
their largest diameter one-fourth the width of the face of the 
stick in which they occur. Ring shakes extending not over one- 
eighth of the length of the piece are admissible. 

///. Caps and Sills 

7. (a) Dense southern yellow pine shall show 85. per cent of 
heart on each of the four sides, measured across the sides any- 
where in the length of the piece, and shall be free from knots 
over 2'A in. in diameter. Knots shall not be in groups. 

(6) Sound southern yellow pine shall be square-edged, ex- 
cept that it may have 1 in. wane on one corner, or J4 in. wane on 
two corners. Knots shall not exceed in their largest diameter 
one-fourth the width of the face of the stick in which they occur. 
Ring shakes extending not over one-eighth the length of the piece. 

ly. Posts 

8. (a) Dense southern yellow pine shall show not less than 75 
per cent of heart, measured across the face anywhere on the 
length of the piece, and shall be free from knots over lyi in. in 
diameter. Knots shall not be in groups. 

(b) Sound southern yellow pine shall be square-edged, except 
it may have 1 in. wane on one corner, or J4 in. wane on two 
corners. Knots shall not exceed in their largest diameter one- 
fourth the width of the face of the stick in which they occur. 
Ring shakes shall not extend over one-eighth of the length of the 

y. Longitudinal Struts or Girts 

9. (a) Dense southern yellow pine shall show one face alt 
heart; the other face and two sides shall show not less than 85 
per cent of heart, measured across the face or side anywhere in 
the piece, and shall be free from knots 1 ^ in. or over in diameter. 

(b) Sound southern yellow pine shall be square-edged and 
sound, and shall be free from knots 1J4 in. or over in diameter. 
VI. Longitudinal X-Braces, Sash Braces and Sway Braces. 

10. (a) Dense southern yellow pine shall show not less than 
80 per cent of heart on two faces and four square edges, and shall 
be free from knots over V/i in. in diameter. 

(b) Sound southern yellow pine shall be square-edged and 
sound, and shall be free from knots 25^2 in. or over in diameter. 


1. The specifications as to strength shall agree with the re- 
quirements that will be finally adopted by the Society under the 
Standard Classification of Structural Timber stipulating the num- 
ber of rings per inch or some substitute therefor. (Included in 
this section will also be a list of the allowable defects, etc.) 

2. All piles or telegraph poles shall show 40 per cent sapwood 
in cross-section, or there shall be a ring of sapwood not less 
than 1 in. in thickness all around the heartwood. 

3. (a) Piles and poles shall be cut from sound live trees, of 
straight grain and regular taper; without crooks exceeding one- 
fourth the diameter of the stick at the middle of the crook when 
peeled. They shall be free from rot, red heart, holes or rotten 
knots, shakes and felling checks. 

(b) All piles and poles shall have the bark and inner skin 
carefully removed when the tree is felled; all limbs and knots 
trimmed flush and butts cut square. 

4. The minimum diameter of piles after peeling shall be as fol- 

Butts, Tops, 

Length In. In. 

36 ft. and under 14 10 

38 ft. and under SO ft 14 9 

50 ft and over 15 9 

No pile with butt diameter over 18 in., nor top diameter over 
13J4 in., will be accepted. The length of each pile is to be legibly 
marked on the butt with white or black paint. 


1. The specifications as to strength shall agree with the re- 
quirements that will be finally adopted by the society under the 
Standard Classification of Structural Timber, covering the num- 
ber of rings per inch or some substitute therefor. (Included in 
this section will also be a list of the allowable defects, etc.) 

2. All, pieces shall show at least 30 per cent sapwood in cross- 
section. This is based on a minimum treatment of 12 lb. of 
creosote per cubic foot of timber. 

3. In bridge stringers knots greater than 1^ in. in diameter 
shall be at least 4 in. from the edges of the stick. There shall 
be no knots more than 4 in. in greatest diameter in any part of 
the stick. 

4. Caps, sills, posts and sawed poles must be free from knots 
more than 2J4 in. in diameter. 

5. Longitudinal bracing, cross-arms and similar pieces having 
small cross-section shall have no knots more than 1 in. in 

6. Track ties shall show at least 20 per cent sapwood in cross- 
section. This is based on a minimum full-cell treatment of 8 lb. 
creosote per cubic foot of timber. 


The jacks shown in the illustration include several features 
which are especially valuable in equipment designed for emer- 
gency use. These are the swivel top, to which is pivoted an 
auxiliary hook for low lifting operations and an auxiliary heel 
plate which enables the operator to use the jack at an angle 
without blocking up. An adjustable auxiliary lift is shown 
on one of the jacks, which may be quickly adjusted to the 
load without sacrificing a portion of the lifting range of the 
jack. The foot of the jack is so designed that the auxiliary 
heel plate may be applied in two positions at right angles to 

Jacks with Adjustable Heel Plates and Low Lifting Hooks 

each other, thus permitting the operation of the jack tilted 
either sideways or forward. The heel plate provides a sub- 
stantial footing for the tool in any position without the neces- 
sity of special blocking. When so desired it may be removed 
and the jack operated upon its own base. 

These jacks have recently been added to the line of the 
Buckeye Jack Manufacturing Company, Alliance, Ohio. In de- 
signing them special attention was given to the elimination of un- 
necessary parts in order that the number of repair parts required 
may be kept at a minimum. The parts are easily assembled, and 
repairs may be made by the ordinary shop labor. 

Digitized by 




General News Department 


The Chicago & Alton has increased the working time at its 
shops at Bloomington, III., from eight to nine hours a day. 

In the Federal Court at Charleston, W. Va., July 2, the gov- 
ernment filed suit against the Chesapeake & Ohio for 21 violations 
of the hours-of-service law, the charges relating to the operation 
of freight trains on the Coal River branch. 

The Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio is now open for regular 
passenger and freight business to Elkhom City, Ky., 35 mites 
north of the former northern terminus at Dante, Va. Through 
passenger trains began running on the first of July. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission, Department of Valu- 
ation, has modified its valuation order No. 9, fixing the compen- 
sation of the railways for the movement of outfit cars used by 
the federal valuation parties so as to provide a minimum charge 
of $2 per movement. 

During the month of June the Norfolk & Western dumped 
853,845 tons of coal over its coal piers at Lambert's Point, Nor- 
folk, establishing a new high record. The record for the previous 
month was 716,002 tons, which was the previous high record, ex- 
ceeding that of 694,000 tons established in September, 1914. 

The Southern Pacific announces that the Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position has awarded to it the grand prize, which will consist 
of a medal and a diploma covering track, equipment and shop 
products, and the company's safety first exhibition in the Trans- 
portation building; and also the traffic promotion exhibit in the 
company's own building. 

In the state court at Columbia, S. C, July 2, the Southern 
Railway and other carriers secured a temporary injunction re- 
straining the state tax commissioners, and other state officers, 
from collecting the three-mill annual license tax imposed on the 
railroads, insofar as the assessment is based on income from 
interstate commerce. The court will give a hearing on July IS. 

Patrick W. Mulligan, crossing watchman of the Pennsyl- 
vania at Norristown, Pa., who received from President Wil- 
son a medal, awarded in accordance with the Act of Congress, 
in recognition of his heroism in saving a little child who 
was in danger of being run over by a locomotive, has re- 
ceived a second medal, one from the Carnegie Hero Fund. 

The Pennsylvania Public Service Commission has prepared 
a report showing that there are 151 tunnels in operation in 
that state. These tunnels aggregate 31 miles in length, the 
longest being at Greentree on the Wabash-Pittsburgh, which 
is 4,716 ft. long. Others are at Gallitzin, on the Pennsyl- 
vania, 4,716 ft.; Mahanoy, Philadelphia & Reading, 3,406 ft., 
and Big Savage, Western Maryland, 3,296 ft. The Gallitzin 
and Mahanoy tunnels have electric ventilating apparatus. 

J. A. McCrea, general manager of the Long Island, says 
that it is only by the rarest chance that there was not a series 
of disastrous accidents to automobiles at grade crossings on 
that road during the week ending June 28. Every day he 
receives reports to the effect that the crossing gates at this 
or that place have been broken by drivers who thought more 
of speed than of safety. In that one week there were a dozen 
or more such cases. Mr. McCrea has issued a list of these 
"near accidents." 

The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake has issued to its 
employees a special bulletin on trespassing, urging them to 
begin a campaign of agitation in their individual circles of 
influence to arouse the public to a realization of the dangers 
of trespassing. The bulletin says: "The Salt Lake route is 
a safe road to ride upon. In the last eight years no pas- 
sengers have been killed in train accidents. It is a very un- 
safe road to walk upon. During the same period 101 tres- 
passers have been killed." 

Upon the recent retirement of William McNab. principal 
assistant engineer. Grand Trunk, from the board of direction 

of the American Railway Engineering Association after a con- 
tinuous service of 11 years, he was elected an honorary mem- 
ber of the governing board and appropriate resolutions were 
passed in appreciation of his long service in various im- 
portant positions, including that of president. These reso- 
lutions have been incorporated in an elaborate book which 
has been prepared for presentation to Mr. McNab. 

In the United States District Court at New York City, July 7, 
Judge Grubb and a jury decided in favor of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad in the suit for $25,000 damages 
brought by Florence Clarke, a widow of George L. Clarke, en- 
gineer of the Boston Express, who was killed in the Westport 
derailment, October 3, 1912. Mrs. Clarke contended that the 
wreck was due to the bad condition of the track. Counsel for 
the New Haven convinced the jury that it was Engineer Clarke's 
failure to obey the stop signals set against the train that resulted 
in the wreck. All the other suits for loss of life have been set- 
tled by the road. It has also paid $450,000 to claimants for per- 
sonal injuries. 

A remarkable record has just been made by the main- 
tenance of way department of the Lehigh Valley in the 
loading of rails. Two work trains, equipped with every sort 
of a loading device from a locomotive crane to a ditching 
machine, in one day loaded from alongside the tracks 171,988 
feet of 90-lb. relaying rail, with joints complete. This amount 
of work equals 2,303.41 tons or 16 track miles, believed to be 
the greatest amount of rail ever loaded on one division in 
one day. The cost of this work amounted to 15.7 cents a 
ton. A few days later on the Seneca division of the same 
road one work train loaded 149,466 feet of 90-lb. rail with 
joints complete, an even greater record. This equals 14.15 
track miles or 2,001.78 tons of rail; cost per ton 15.6 cents. 

President Fairfax Harrison, of the Southern Railway, has 
signalized the close of the company's fiscal year by sending to 
all officers and employees the following message: "We are 
closing today a fiscal year which has been full of anxiety and 
difficulty, but through team work and loyal self-sacrifices and ef- 
fort by the entire organization, we have come out of it sound 
and full of courage for the future. This result has not been due 
to any one man or to any group of men, but to the co-operation 
of every man who has recognized the problem and given us in 
our common duty the best that was in him. I send my personal 
thanks then to everyone of you. The fight is not yet over, but the 
spirit of the past ten months is bound to see us through. Mean- 
while, I want you to know my pride in you and in what has been 
done already." 

J. E. Sexton, general manager of the Eureka & Palisade, the 
narrow gage railroad running trains three times a week between 
Palisade, Nev., and Eureka, 84 miles, who has complained, with- 
out avail, to the postoffice department because the government 
hires the mails carried by a mule team — taking 33 hours to tra- 
verse the 84 miles, when his train runs through in ten hours — 
has written an open letter to the presidents of the Southern Pa- 
cific and the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe to enlist their as- 
sistance. In this letter he begins by protesting, as a stockholder, 
against the granting of free transportation by these roads to the 
employees of the California State Railroad Commission, which 
free transportation, he says, is contrary to the provisions of the 
constitution of that state.' The commission has 200 employees and 
they travel all over the state on many errands, having nothing to 
do with railroad business, their investigations having to do with 
water companies, light companie sand other kinds of public util- 
ities. From this general protest against the over-reaching prac- 
tices of government, Mr. Sexton goes on to re-state his grievance 
against the postoffice department. With this our readers have al- 
ready been made acquainted. The gist of the complaint is that 
the government is working against its own interest when, 
following the technicalities of the law, it employs a slow mule 
team to carry mail which could be carried much more quickly 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

by the steam locomotive. Referring to the postmaster general and 
his action under the constitution, Mr. Sexton says: "If the con- 
stitution was formed to establish justice, insure domestic tran- 
quillity and guarantee to every person the equal protection of the 
law, the postmaster general is yet ignorant of the fact, but I will 
venture the opinion that if the inhibition complained of militated 
against a man because he was a member of a labor organization, 
there would be no tranquillity around his official roost at Wash- 
ington until some action was taken." 

Summary of Revenues and Expenses of Large Steam Roads 

The following figures were compiled by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission from monthly reports of operating revenues 
and expenses of large steam roads for April, 1915. No reports 

Accident Record — Correction 

An officer of the Baltimore & Ohio writes that the number 
of trespassers killed in the derailment at Belmont, Ohio, 
May 14, reported in the Railway Age Gazette, June 18, page 
1414, was two, not eight. 

Efficiency on the New Haven 

The efficiency bureau of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford, since June 1, 1914, has made improvements in the view for 
wayfarers on the highway at 250 grade crossings; and a large 
number of crossings had been improved before that date. 

At about 40 stations on the road, some near New York and 
some near Boston, red or white stripes have been painted on 
the platforms, on the side adjacent to the track to warn pas- 

FoR THE Month of April 


Average number of miles operated 


Freight $161,998,973 

Passenger 47,083,876 

Mail .■,..■,-. 


All other transportation 


Joint Facility — Cr 

Joint Facility — Dr 

Railway operating revenues $230,997,430 


Maint. of way and structures . . . 

Maintenance of equipment 



Miscellaneous operations 


Transportat'n for Investm't — Cr. 

Railway operating expenses $165,131,384 

Net revenue from railway opera- 
tions $65,866,040 

Railway tax accruals $1 1 ,106,959 

Uncollectible railway revenues .... 49,880 

Railway operating income $54,709,207 

Average number of miles operated 228,432.08 


Freight $1,654,171,380 

Passenger 524,174,515 

-- •• .. 47,572,112 





.. —1,044,373 

United Sute* 

Eaitern Llistrict 

Southern District 

Western District 

Per mile of 

Per mile of ' 

Per mile of 

Per mile of 


road operated 


road op 



road Derated 


road operated 




' 1915 




1915 1914^ 



• 58,823.22 













$471 $495 











155 170 




















18 \ 54 


29 J 


64 J 
















13 13 











1 ; 














$695 $733 











$108 $115 











115 121 











17 17 











240 264 











6 7 











20 21 









—3 — 1 


































$239 $206 $26,316,542 $446 $343 $8,877,558 $210 $185 $19,615,107 $154 $149 

For the Teh Months Ending with April 





1915 1914* 



.Ml other transportation. 


Joint Facility — Cr 

Joint Facility — Dr 

249 \ 
301 J 



$720,826,067 $12,264 $13,126 
229,837,106 3,910 4,197 


I 3 











f 6,269,348 

\ 8,549,844 

I 5,637,639 










1915 1914* 

196 J 






Railway operating revenues $2,401,516,694 $10,513 $11,349 $1,057,085,847 $17,985 $19,249 $354,247,517 $8,373 $9,429 $990,182,330 $7,776 $8,297 

"iSaTm-'of way and structures. . . $297,808,893 $1,304 $1,482 $125,645,129 $2,138 $2,497 $48,428,216 $1,145 $1,244 $123,735,548 $972 $1,087 

Maintenance of equipment 418,347,393 1.832 1,982 197,385,994 3,358 3,666 67,952,843 1,606 1,778 153,008,556 1,201 1,263 

Traffic 49,405,892 216 231 18,808,789 320 349 9,218,413 218 222 21,378,690 168 179 

Transportation 857,076,295 3,752 4,149 398,390,941 6,778 7,562 123,543,524 2,920 3,278 335,141,830 2,632 2,844 

Miscellaneous operations 19,008.489 83 108 8,905,629 152 210 1,840,001 43 49 8.262,859 65 79 

General 61,740.039 270 279 26,312,120 448 453 9,903.529 234 246 25,524,390 200 210 

Transportat'n for Investm't— Cr. -5,445,554 —24 —11 —632.140 —11 ... —1,106,858 —26 —3 —3,706,556 —29 —19 

Railway operating expenses $1,697,941,447 $7,433 $8,220 $774,816,462 $13,183 $14,737 $259,779,668 $6,140 $6,814 $663,345,317 $5,209 $5,543 

Net revenue from railway opera- 
tions $703,574,247 

Railway tax accruals $111 .305,078 

Uncollectible railway revenues.... 448,219 

$3,080 $3,129 $282,269,385 $4,802 $4,512 $94,467,849 $2,233 $2,615 $326,837,013 $2,567 $2,654 













Railway operating income $591,820,950 $2,591 $2,629 $236,124,391 $4,017 $3,712 $78,862,687 $1,864 $2,239 $276,833,872 $2,174 $2,253 

'Because of changes in accounting classifications, consolidations of companies, etc., comparative averages are approximate only 

are included for roads whose operating revenues for the year 
ended June 30, 1914, did not reach $1,000,000. The figures are 
compiled as rendered and should not be considered final, in- 
asmuch as scrutiny of the reports may lead to their modification 
before acceptance. 

sengers to keep back. The stripe is 3 in. wide and about 30 in. 
from the edge of the platform. 

The standard clearance diagram of the company, designed to 
prevent the erection of any structure or the placing of any ma- 
terial too near the tracks has been the subject of investigation 

Digitized by 


July 9. 1915 



throughout the company's territory and a strict enforcement of 
the regulations has been provided for. In this connection the 
proper care of baggage trucks and other things at stations has 
been attended to, and new rules have been prescribed for the safe 
operation of hand cars, velocipedes and motor cars. 

The division efficiency committees meet every month and by 
means of interlocking committees useful ideas brought out on 
any division are made available throughout the company's lines. 
The yards and the larger stations are to be supplied with first-aid 

The Mutual Magazine 

This is the title of a new monthly periodical which has been 
started by "The Mutual Beneficial Association of Pennsylvania 
Railroad Employees," an organization which has been organized 
for the purposes indicated in the title, and which has an insur- 
ance department. It has a large membership already. Its in- 
surance feature seems to be popular notwithstanding the exist- 
ence of the well-known relief association maintained by the rail- 
road company and the promise of pensions to all employees who 
are honorably retired at the age of 70. At Philadelphia and at 
Harrisburg the members of the association secure discounts at 
stores by co-operative buying. The editor of the magazine is 
N. F. Dougherty, 1841 Filbert street, Philadelphia, and the presi- 
dent of the association is George W. Brown. 

The Alaskan Government Railway 

Secretary Lane has received a report saying that construc- 
tion work has been begun on the government railway in 
Alaska, and that a headquarters has been established at Ship 
Creek, Cook's Inlet. About 2,000 men are engaged in making 
wagon roads, which will be necessary to facilitate railway 

President Wilson has ordered the reservation of a tract 
200 miles long and five to ten miles wide, along the proposed 
railroad line, to provide a supply of timber for use in the 
construction of the track, this land, however, being open to 
settlement, nevertheless. 

The General Land office at Seward announces that there 
will be an auction sale of town sites along the route of the 
railway on July 9. 

A Reiume of the Mail Pay Question 

The Committee on Railway Mail Pay, Ralph Peters, New 
York, chairman, has issued a booklet entitled "What the Rail- 
way Mail Pay Problem Means to the Railroads," summariz- 
ing the facts relating to this controversy, and copies of it 
have been sent to all members of Congress, state and federal 
regulative commissions, and many other persons in public 
life. The Moon bill, as here analyzed, is shown to amount to 
an almost complete delegation of the rate-making power, as 
far as the transportation of the mails is concerned, to the 
postmaster general, who would be vested, under its terms, 
with authority to make the rates anything he might choose, 
"not exceeding" certain specified sums. He could reduce the 
rates without restriction and could also dictate, in almost 
every respect, the character and extent of service the rail- 
roads would be required to render. The railroads would be 
compelled to perform such service as the postmaster general 
might demand, at such rates as he might choose to pay. under 
penalty of $5,000 a day for each refusal. 

The committee restates its position as follows: 

1. The mails should be weighed, and the pay be readjusted, 
at least once a year instead of once in four years. 

2. The railroads should be paid for the use and operation 
of apartment post office cars — for which the present law al- 
lows no pay. 

3. The railroads should be paid for, or relieved from, the 
duty of carrying the mails between railroad stations and post 

The railroad presidents at their recent meeting in New 
York City approved the suggestion of the committee that the 
ultimate solution of the problem would lie in reference of the 
matter to the Interstate Commerce Commission, with full 

Boston Terminal Commission 

The Massachusetts legislature has provided for the appoint- 
ment of a commission, to serve without pay, to investigate the 
subject of terminal facilities and the improvement of facilities 
for the transportation of freight in the Metropolitan district 
(Boston). The members are chosen partly by the legislature and 
partly by the governor of the state and the mayor of Boston. 
They are Charles M. Spofford, consulting engineer and head of 
the department of civil and sanitary engineering of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology; Luke D. Mullen; Senators 
James F. Cavanagh and Martin Hays; Representatives H. A. 
Wilson, F. P. Greenwood and Robert Robinson, and F. H. Prince 
and W. H. Coolidge appointed by the mayor. One specific fea- 
ture in the committee's work will be to determine what propor- 
tion of the cost of improvements or developments should be borne 
by the state, what the city of Boston and what by public service 


The following list gives the names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings, and places of meeting of those associations which wilt meet during 
the next three months. The full list of meetings and conventions is pu^ 
lished only in the first issue of the Railway Age Gasette for each month. 

Amuican Association of Demuuaci OrricEM. — F. A. Pontious, 455 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Next meeting, July 21, 1915, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 

AutKicAN Association or Railioao Supeiintendints. — E. H. Harman, 
Room 101, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. Next meeting, August 
19-20. 1915, San Francisco. Cal. 

Ahuican Raiuoad Master Tinnees, CorpBKSMiTBS and PirEFiTTEEf* 
Association.— W. E. Jones, C. & N. W., 3814 Fulton St., Chicago. 
Annual meeting, July 13-16, 1915, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

AuEEicAN Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Illi- 
nois Central, Chicago. Annual meeting, July 19-21, 1915, Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago. 

American Society roR Testing Materials. — Prof. E. Marburg, Universiw 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Annual meeting, June 22-26, 
1915, Hotel Traymore, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Society or Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. S7th 
St.. New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in month, 
except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., Mew York. 

Association or Railway Electrical Engineers. — Jos. A. Andreucetti, C. & 
K. W., Room 411, C. & N. W. Sta., Chicago. Semi-annual meeting 
with Master Car Builders' and Master Mechanics' Association. An- 
nual meeting, October, 1915. 

Canadian Railway Clue. — James Powell, Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 

Car Foremen's Association or Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave., 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Central Railway Clur. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York, Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual meeting, 2d Thursday in March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Engineers' Society or Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles, 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesday 
of each month, Pittsburgh. 

General SurERiNTENDENTS' Association or Chicago. — A. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular meetings, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month. Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 

International Railway Geneeal Foremen's Association. — Wm. Hall, 1126 
W. Broadway, Winona, Minn. Next convention, July 13-16, 1915. 
Sherman House, Chicago. 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, C. H. & D., Lima, Ohio. Annual meeting, August 17, 1915, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. N. Frankenberger, 623 Bris- 
bane Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings, 3d Wednesday in month. New 
York Telephone Bldg., BuSFalo, N. Y. 

Peoria Association or Railroad OrricERS. — M. W. Rotchford, 410 Masonic 
Temple Bldg., Peoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 
Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 

Railroad Club or Kansas City. — Claude Manlove^ 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 
City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas City. 

Railway Telegraph and Telephone .Appliance Association. — G. A. Nel- 
son, SO Church St., New York. Meetings with Association of Railway 
Telegraph Superintendents. 

Sait Lake Transportation Club. — R. E. Rowland, David Keith Bldg., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 1st Saturday of each month. 
Salt Lake City. 

Southern Association or Car Service OrricERS. — E. W. Sandwich, A. & 
W. P. R. R., Atlanta, Ga. Next meeting, July 15, 1915, Atlanta. 
Annual meeting, January, 1916. 

Southern & Southwestern Railway Clur. — A. J. Merrill, Grant Bldg., 
Atlanta. Ga. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday, January, March, May, 
July, September, November. 10 A. M., Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 

Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo, Ohio. Regular 
meetings. Ist Saturday in month, Boody House, Toledo. 

Trapfic Club or Chicago. — W. H. Wharton, La Salle Hotel, Chicago. 

TRArric Club of Pittsburgh.— D. L. Wells, Genl. Agt., Erie R. R., 1924 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings bi-monthly, Pittsburgh. 
Annual meeting, 2d Monday in June. 

Transportation Club of Detroit. — W. R. Hurley, Superintendent's office, 
N. Y. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. Meetings monthly, Normandie Hotel, 

Digitized by 





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Digitized by VJiOOQ 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

Traffic News 


At Jackson, Miss., June 30, the state court denied the right of 
the railroads to charge ten cents additional fare to passengers 
who fail to buy tickets before entering the train. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio recently issued what is believed to be 
the most valuable railroad ticket ever sold. It was for the "Rich- 
mond Blues," covering their journey to the Pacific coast, one 
ticket providing for the movement of 185 men, and the value 
being $17,800. 

The western roads are not requiring passengers to declare the 
value of their baggage, as had been planned, and have postponed 
consideration of the Cummins law and the question of what action 
should be taken under it in connection with baggage. Meanwhile 
the carriers are assuming unlimited liabilities on all passengers' 

The "Sandy Hook route" of the Central of New Jersey, from 
New York City to Long Branch and other New Jersey seacoast 
towns consists in part of a steamboat route, 20 miles long, the 
northern terminus of which is in Manhattan and the southern 
at Atlantic Highlands on the southern shore of New York Bay. 
This week a rival company has put on a ferryboat, bought from 
the City of New York, to run three times a day between these 
termini and to carry passengers at ten cents each, or one-sixth the 
fare charged on the railroad company's boats. The new line offers 
to make a specialty of automobiles, which will be carried at 25 
cents for each foot of wheel base. 

The United States Geological Survey has just issued a guide 
book (Bulletin 612) describing the Overland route from the Mis- 
souri river to the Pacific coast. This is the first of a series of 
four such books designed to afford the transcontinental traveler 
an intimate acquaintance with the country through which he 
passes. The next volume to be issued will describe the Northern 
Pacific route and will be published in a few days. The books de- 
scribing the Santa Fe route and the Shasta and coast routes will 
follow soon. In these books the route is followed from station 
to station and the country along the way described and explained 
from many points of view, historical, geological, agricultural and 
mining. In the preparation of the book on the Overland route 
much information already in the possession of the Geological 
Survey has been utilized, but to supplement this material three 
geologists last year made a field examination of the entire route, 
while special topographic surveys for the accompanying maps 
were made by engineers. The route is covered by a series of 29 
maps, and the book is also illustrated with half tone plates of 
some of the most striking views and objects to be seen on the 
journey. It includes 244 pages and may be obtained from the 
superintendent of documents at Washington. 

Courtesy Over the Telephone 

Don't fail to answer the 'phone just as soon as called. You 
cannot accomplish much work in another line while knowing 
that someone is calling you on the 'phone. 

Don't fail to give the name of your office when answering the 
''phone, as it saves the time of the party at other end. 

Don't fail to give exchange the number you want very plainly. 

Don't fail to have the number that you want, on the tip of 
your tongue when calling the exchange, as to delay her means 
that she is delayed in answering someone else. Possibly this 
someone else will sometimes be you. 

Don't fail to have a pad or a memo paper nearby when taking 
car number, etc., over the 'phone. To jot these down takes no 
more time and sometimes saves a "call back," or guess work. 

Don't fail to be courteous in answering the 'phone. Even 
though you might be a "Prince of a fellow" the party at the 
other end— may be a stranger— will not understand that your 
gruffness is a "habit" and not an intention. Courtesy costs noth- 
ing and pays big dividends. 

Don't get angry when you get the wrong number. If you think 
the average operator has much time to loaf or that it is impos- 
sible for her to make a mistake just go to one of the telephone 
exchanges. One look will convince you that you are wrong. 


Tran«continental Rate* to Willamette Valley Point* 

H. S. Gile & Company et al. v. Southern Pacific et al. Opinion 
by the commission: 

The commission finds that the through transcontinental car- 
load and less-than-carload commodity rates to the Willamette 
Valley and points south of Portland, Ore., made by adding to 
the rates to Portland the local class rates from Portland to 
destination, are not preferential to points between Portland and 
Tacoma, but that they are unreasonable to the extent that they 
exceed the class rates fixed in Railroad Commission of Oregon 
V. Southern Pacific (24 I. C. C, 273), and an order is entered 
to that effect. (34 I. C. C, 319.) 

Proportional Cla** Rate* to Iowa Point* 

Opinion by the commission: 

The commission grants authority to establish the same 
scale of proportional class rates as authorized by fourth sec- 
tion order No. 3,743, issued as a supplemental report to the 
Interior Iowa Cities case {29 I. C. C, 536), to apply west of the 
Mississippi river on traffic moving between certain additional 
interior Iowa cities on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and 
the Muscatine North and South, between Burlington and Musca- 
tine, Iowa, and points east of the Indiana-Illinois state line. (34 
I. C. C, 278.) 

Rate* on Lumber from South Pitt*burgh, Tenn. 

Haskew Lumber Company v. Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis et al. Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

The commission finds that the rates on lumber from South 
Pittsburgh, Tenn., to Ohio river crossings, of 17 cents a hun- 
dred pounds, and to Mississippi river crossings, of 22 cents, are 
not shown to be unreasonable or discriminatory against South 
Pittsburgh in favor of Chattanooga, Tenn. The tariff under 
which the shipments in question moved, however, named a rate 
of 13 cents. As the intention of the framers is not controlling 
with respect to the meaning of a tariff, and as the tariff is to be 
construed according to its language, it is found that the com- 
plainant was overcharged on shipments which were assessed 
charges in excess of 13 cents. (34 I. C. C, 333.) 

Ea*t Bound Tran*continental Cotton Rate* 

Opinion by Commissioner Clements: 

The commission finds that the carriers have not justified a 
proposed withdrawal of compression in transit arrangements 
on cotton from southern California and Arizona producing 
points to St. Louis, New Orleans, Galveston, Tex., and inter- 
mediate territory east of El Paso. Certain proposed increases 
in rates are held to be justified in part. (34 I. C. C, 248.) 

Deci*ion Under the Panama Canal Act 

Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

The commission in this case grants the joint application of the 
Ehiluth, South Shore & Atlantic, the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
and the Michigan Central to continue their joint interest in and 
operation of the Mackinac Transportation Company, owning 
ferryboats plying between St. Ignace, Mich., and Mackinaw City, 
Mich. (34 I. C. C, 229.) 

Storage in Tran*it on Apple* at Indianapoli* 

Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce v. Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago &• St. Louis et at. Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

The refusal of the lines serving Indianapolis to permit at 
that point storage in transit on apples is not found to result in 
undue preference in favor of Chicago, St. Louis, and other 
western points, at which points storage in transit is permitted 
by the western lines. (34 I. C. C, 267.) 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



Transit Rate* on Log* and Staves at Alexandria, La. 

Opinion by Commissioner Clark: 

The commission finds that Morgan's Louisiana & Texas and 
the Louisiana Western have not justified a proposed withdrawal 
of their net transit rates on logs, rough staves and stave bolts 
when manufactured at points in Louisiana and feshipped via re- 
spondents' lines beyond the state. The carriers did not show 
that the present rates were unremunerative or that the resulting 
increased rates would be reasonable. (34 I. C. C, 169.) 

Rate* on Plaster from Grand Rapids 

Grand Rapids Plaster Company v. Lake Shore 6- Michigan 
Southern et al. Opinion by Commissioner Hall: 

The present carload rates and minimum carload weights on 
plaster and other gypsum products from Grand Rapids, Mich., to 
points in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin are held to be 
discriminatory as compared with the rates and minimum weights 
on those commodities from Fort Dodge, la., and defendants are 
required to remove the discrimination. It is also held, however, 
that there is no discrimination against Grand Rapids and in favor 
of Fort Dodge in that defendants make deliveries of plaster and 
other gypsum products from both points to team and industrial 
tracks in the Chicago switching district. (34 I. C. C, 202.) 

Rates on Flour from Irnnan, Kan. 

Unns Milling Company v. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific et 
al. Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

The commission finds that the rates on flour, bran and shorts 
from Inman, Kan., to various destinations in southwestern 
Missouri are unreasonable, in that the difference between them 
and the rates prevailing under "higher Kansas City rate basis" 
is too great, this basis meaning in effect that the rates from 
Kansas grain fields to points in southwestern Missouri will be 
determined by the rates applicable to Kansas City, either from 
the Kansas grain fields or the southwestern Missouri desti- 
nations, whichever rates are higher. It is ordered that the rates 
be not in excess of 14j^ cents on flour and 13 cents on bran 
and shorts, these rates being V/i cents a 100 lb. higher than 
the rates prevailing under the "higher Kansas City rate basis." 
This case originally related also to a fourth section applica- 
tion, but the lower rates from Hutchinson and McPherson, 
Kan., having since been withdrawn, the Fourth Section appli- 
cation is denied. (34 I. C. C, 197.) 

Imported Wood Pulp Rates from Boston, Mass. 

Moore & Thompson Paper Company et al. v. Boston & Maine. 
Opinion by the commission: 

The commission finds that the rates on imported wood pulp 
from Boston, Mass., to various New England points are not 
unreasonable or discriminatory. The allegation of discrimina- 
tion was based on the fact that the rates on domestic pulp are 
less than the rates on the imported pulp. It was shown, how- 
ever, that the rates on the domestic pulp from Boston to these 
points of destination were but paper rates. It was also shown 
that the imported pulp had a higher value per car because of a 
larger percentage of water contained in domestic pulp; that the 
expense of loading imported pulp is borne by the carrier, whereas 
domestic pulp is loaded by the shipper, and that the carriers 
have an inbound haul of the pulp wood used to manufacture 
domestic pulp which they do not have in the case of imported 
pulp. (34 I. C. C. 323.) 

Furniture Rates from Grand Rapids 

Furniture Manufacturers' Association of Grand Rapids v. Ann 
Arbor et al. Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

The commission finds that the rates of $2.52 per 100 lb. on 
mixed carloads of furniture shipped from Grand Rapids, Mich., 
and of $2.45 from Rockford, 111., to Pacific coast terminals are 
not unreasonable or discriminatory. The industry at Grand 
Rapids has become specialized; and no manufacturer under- 
takes to produce a complete line of furniture. To take care of 
this trade condition a practice has grown up of shipping mixed 
carloads of furniture from a number of factories intended for 
one consignee. The car may be loaded and shipped by a manu- 
facturer at Grand Rapids, to whose warehouse the goods of 
other manufacturers are brought for that purpose, or the goods 

of several manufacturers may be sent for loading to the car- 
loading department of the furniture and manufacturers' associa- 
tion. This association, which maintains assembling and loading 
facilities, is operated without profit and for the benefit of the 
furniture manufacturers of Grand Rapids and their customers. 
Goods are handled also for some of the factories located out- 
side of Grand Rapids, such as Holland and Zeeland, and to these 
manufacturers a charge for the service of 10 cents per 100 lb. is 
made. In addition to mixed carloads, which, although billed to 
one consignee, may embrace goods for several consignees, many 
so-called pool cars, containing goods from several dealers in- 
tended for several consignees, are consigned to transfer compa- 
nies, warehouses and distributing agencies on the coast. (34 
I. C. C, 262.) 

Charges (or Disposal of Slag 

In re charges for transportation and disposal of waste mate- 
rials at Pittsburgh and other cities. Opinion by Commissioner 

Eleven carriers operating in Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia have filed with the commission a tariff establishing a charge 
of 20 cents per net ton for the disposal of slag, flue dust, clean 
ashes or refuse molding sand, and a charge of 35 cents .a net ton 
on ashes (mixed with other refuse), brickbats, dirt and other 
refuse material The carriers have for a long time taken free 
all the slag which the mills gave them, for the reason that it 
furnished a useful material for the making of fills and for bal- 
lasting and sub-ballasting tracks. They still use large quanti- 
ties of slag, but their construction work has so decreased, and 
the supply of slag given to them for disposal so increased, that 
the slag has become a burden to them, and they have even had 
to buy land on which to dump it. 

The commission sees no reason why this disposal service 
should be performed gratuitously by the carriers. It appears, 
however, that the tariffs under consideration do not meet the 
requirements of section 6 of the act in that they do not designate 
the specific points at which disposal is made of the slag in ques- 
tion. The tariff should indicate that — 

the carriers will receive carloads of refuse on any industrial 
or private side track connected therewith, or on any main tracl<. 
and will haul this refuse to some convenient point on its line 
or the line of a connecting carrier for wasting at a charge 
of . . cents per net ton — 

The tariffs might also indicate whether or not a definite con- 
signment and bill of lading should be made; in whom title of 
the slag vests; and when and where transfer of such title, if 
any, is effected. The tariffs as they stand at present do not con- 
form with section 6 of the act and must be ordered cancelled. 

Commissioner Hall dissents, noting that the carriage of the 
slag and other refuse lacks many of the attributes of transporta- 
tion by a common carrier. (34 I. C. C, 337.) 

New Mexico Class and Commodity Rate* 

State Corporation Commission of New Mexico v. Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe et al. Opinion by Commissioner Clements: 

Complaint is made against the reasonableness of the class and 
commodity rates into New Mexico from Kansas City, and all 
points on and east of the Missouri river, including St. Louis, 
Chicago and the great lakes region, to, but not including, 
eastern seaboard territory. The paramount issue arises under 
the fourth section, the principal violation being that rates from 
Kansas City, St. Louis and Chicago are lower to El Paso than to 
New Mexico points directly intermediate. 

The contention that the El Paso rates are depressed by the 
action of the carriers in equalizing the rates to El Paso to the 
basis applied to Laredo and Eagle Pass in order that all these 
Rio Grande crossings may be placed on a parity in their competi- 
tion with each other for traffic into Mexico, and the contention 
that low rates are demanded by the competition of the water-and- 
rail routes from the eastern seaboard and from Europe to con- 
suming markets in Mexico via Tampico and Vera Cruz are not 
held by the commission to constitute sufficient grounds for fourtli 
section relief at El Paso. It is held, however, that the competi- 
tion of the water-and-rail routes from the markets of production 
on the eastern seaboard to El Paso via Galveston and other gulf 
ports does constitute a suflScient basis for relief as to commodity 
rates from Kansas City, St. Louis and Chicago in those cases in 
which the El Paso rates are thereby actually affected and de- 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, Xo. 2 

pressed below a reasonable basis. In Commodity Rates to Pa- 
cific Coast Terminals (32 I. C. C. 611) the carriers operating west 
from the Missouri river, in those cases in which they were com- 
pelled by the competition of the water lines from the eastern 
seaboard, were allowed to maintain a rate to the Pacific coast of 
not less than 75 cents a 100 lb., and to continue higher rates to 
intermediate points, provided the intermediate rate in no case 
exceeded 75 cents. It is held in this case that the maximum 
rate, below which relief should be granted, and which Will in cases 
in which relief is granted be the maximum rate from Kansas 
City and St. Louis to intermediate points, should be 65 cents. 

On those commodities on which the lowest rates from the At- 
lantic seaboard to El Paso are 65 cents or more no relief will be 
granted to the carriers operating from Kansas City and St. Louis 
to El Paso. As to those commodities on which the lowest rates 
from the eastern seaboard are less than 65 cents the carriers 
from Kansas City and St. Louis may meet those rates provided 
the intermediate rates do not exceed 65 cents. In those instances 
in which the lowest rates from the eastern seaboard to El Paso 
are less than 65 cents and the petitioners desire to maintain even 
lower rates from Kansas City and St. Louis to El Paso than 
apply from the eastern seaboard they may do so provided the 
intermediate rates do not exceed the rates to El Paso by more 
than the difference betwen the rates from New York to El 
Paso and 65 cents; the net result of this last being that by 
whatever amount the carriers voluntarily reduce the El Paso 
rates below what is required by the water-and-rail competition 
they must likewise reduce the intermediate rates below 65 cents. 
In all cases where relief is denied under the fourth section the 
carriers may correct the discrimination existing against inter- 
mediate points by increasing the rate to the more distant point; 
by decreasing the rates to the intermediate points; or by simul- 
taneous increases and reductions. 

The case also relates to the reasonableness of rates to interme- 
diate points. It is found that the present class rates from 
Kansas City are in many cases unreasonable and a scale of 
maximum rates is prescribed, the first class rate being set at $1.55 
to Tucumcari and Qovis; $1.70 to Roswell, Carlsbad, Vaughn, 
Pastura, Alamogordo, Las Vegas, Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Belen 
and Rincon; $2.00 to Deming; $2.10 to Silver City, and $2.25 to 
Gallup and Lordsburg, and other classes in proportion. The class 
rates to Raton are not found unreasonable. Maximum differ- 
entials ranging from 30 cents on first class to 8 cents on class 
E are prescribed over these Kansas City rates for shipments 
from St. Louis, and differentials ranging from SO cents on first 
class and 13 cents on class E for shipments from Chicago. 

Findings are made also relative to the commodity rates on the 
principal commodities moving into New Mexico. The rates on 
these commodities to Raton are not found unreasonable. Maxi- 
mum rates are prescribed from Kansas City to Albuquerque as 
follows: Agricultural implements, 80 cents; beer, 65 cents; 
canned goods, 65 cents; emigrant movables, 55 cents; furniture, 
n. o. s., $1.19; packing-house products, 80 cents; building and 
roofing paper, 70 cents; cast-iron and wrought-iron pipe, 65 cents; 
stoves, 85 cents ; sugar and sirup, 60 cents ; wire and nails, 70 
cents. It is held that the rates to Las V^egas, Santa Fe, Belen, 
Ricon, Roswell, Carlsbad, Pastura and Alamogordo should not 
exceed these rates. To Deming, Silver City, Gallup, Lordsburg 
and other points to which class rates are prescribed the com- 
modity rates established shall bear the same relation to the 
commodity rates prescribed to Albuquerque as the class rates to 
those points bear to the class rates to Albuquerque. The com- 
modity rates from St. Louis and Chicago to all New Mexico 
points must not exceed those from Kansas City by more than 
10 cents and 20 cents a 100 lb. respectively. The commission 
does not attempt to deal with other commodity rates which may 
be established in the future nor does it attempt to prescribe 
reasonable commodity rates to points other than those to which 
rates are herein prescribed. The fourth section requirements 
will set the maximum rates to main-line points directly inter- 
mediate to those to which rates are herein fixed. To branch- 
line points the carriers will be expected to line up their rates 
in reasonable relation to the class and commodity rates. 

The rate on hay from the Pecos Valley to Fort Worth and 
other points to which at present a 30-cent rate is effective must 
not exceed 28 cents in the future. 

The present rates on lumber to Pecos Valley points are found 
unreasonable to the extent that they exceed 30 cents from 
Santa Fe mills in Texas and Louisiana, 33 cents from mills on 

connecting lines in Texas and 35 cents from mills on connecting 
lines in Louisiana and Arkansas. 

The commission does not believe that the rates on traffic from 
the Pacific coast regions, including those on lumber and sugar, 
should be reduced. (34 I. C. C. 292.) 


The West Virginia Public Service Commission, on application 
of the Baltimore & Ohio, has granted the road permission to 
accept coupons from mileage books which have been bought in 
other states on a basis of 2% cents a mile, provided the pas- 
senger proffers it in lieu of a ticket and is satisfied to pay the 
extra quarter cent. Persons living in other states coming into 
West Virginia frequently have tendered their mileage coupons 
instead of tickets, expressing the preference to pay the extra 
quarter cent rather than take the trouble to get a ticket at the 
West Virginia stations. 

The New York State Public Service Commission, Second 
district, holds that it has not the power to permit a raise in 
passenger rates above a maximum set by the legislature. The 
decision is in the case of the Ulster & Delaware, which desired 
to increase its mileage book rate from two to three cents a mile. 
Chairman Vansantvoord wrote the opinion, which was concurred 
in by Commissioners Hodson and Irvine. In an extended review 
of all the statutory sections involved the opinion fails to find 
that the commission, either expressly or impliedly, has been 
granted such power. Commissioners Emmet and Carr dissented. 
Mr. Emmet held that, as the power to lower rates irrespective 
of legislative enactment is expressly granted by the Public Service 
Commission law, the power to raise rates is implied beyond 
reasonable doubt. The decision will probably be carried to the 
court of last resort. 


Interstate Commerce in Intoxicating Liquors 

In Rossi v. Pennsylvania, a case which arose before the 
passing of the Webb-Kenyon act of 1913, the United States 
Supreme Court holds that the Wilson act does not authorize 
the punishment of a liquor dealer in Ohio for soliciting or- 
ders for liquor in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, where 
he had no liquor license, and delivering the goods there, 
since the Wilson act does not subject liquors transported in 
interstate commerce to state regulation until after their ar- 
rival at destination and delivery to consignee or purchaser. 

Kansas Mutual Demurrage Law Held Void 

The United States Supreme Court has declared invalid the 
Kansas "reciprocal" or "mutual" demurrage statute, providing 
that a railroad failing to furnish cars upon proper application 
shall pay to the party applying $5 a day damages, and all 
actual damages, with reasonable attorney fees, and that a 
shipper shall pay $5 a day for failure to load cars within 48 
hours, for the reason that the act allows attorney's fees in 
favor of one class of litigants but not of the other, thus deny- 
ing the latter the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by 
the Fourteenth Amendment. (Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
V. Vosburg.) 

State Statute Requiring Cars to Be Furnished Upheld 

The United States Supreme Court affirms a decision of the 
Illinois Supreme Court (257 III., 80) awarding damages for the 
failure of the Illinois Central to furnish coal cars at the Mul- 
berry Hill Coal Company's mine, located on the defendant's 
line, pursuant to the plaintiff's requirements and demands, as 
required by the Illinois act of 1874. The court approved the 
construction of the statute given by the state court, which was 
as follows : "The only requirement of the statute, as applied 
in this case or any other case, is, that the railroad corporation 
shall furnish cars, within a reasonable time after they are re- 
quired, to transport the property offered for transportation, and 
what would be a reasonable time in any case would depend 
upon all the circumstances and conditions existing, including the 
requirements of the interstate commerce carried on by the cor- 
poration." It holds that the statute is not, as contended, a di- 
rect burden upon intertsate commerce, and therefore repugnant 

Digitized by 


July 9, 19!S 



to the commerce clause, irrespective of congressional action. 
Decided June 14. 

Reduction of Coal Rate to Nashville— Discrimination in Switching 

In an action against the L. & N., the Nashville, Chat- 
tanooga & St. Louis, the Tennessee Central, the Illinois Cen- 
tral and the Nashville Terminal, the United States Supreme 
Court has reduced the $1 rate on coal from Kentucky mines 
to Nashville to 80 cents. It based its finding on a comparison 
of the coal rates from the Kentucky mines to Nashville, 
Memphis and St. Louis, and of the Nashville coal earnings 
with those on all other traffic over the other roads entering 
that city. It also took into consideration that the carrying 
capacity of the cars had been much increased, resulting in a 
doubling of the earning capacity of fully loaded trains. 

It also held that the practice of the companies to charge 
$3 a car for switching non-competitive business between in- 
dustries within the terminal limits and in conjunction with 
the Tennessee Central was discriminatory. The plaintiff 
contended that the practice was designed to prevent the 
switching of coal between the Tennessee Central and private 
industries, located on sidings and reached through the termi- 
nals. Its effect was td furnish switching service to each other 
on all business, and to the Tennessee Central on all except 
coal and competitive business. The order of the commission 
requiring the companies to cease the discrimination and to 
maintain "a practice which will permit the interswitching of 
such shipments from and to the lines of each and every de- 
fendant" (including Tennessee Central) was sustained. What 
would be a proper practice and the charge therefor were 
matters not decided. 

Government Loses Suit Against the Reading 

In the United States court at Philadelphia, July 3, a decision 
by Judge McPherson was handed down to the effect that the 
Reading group of corporations, the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey, the Lehigh Coal & Navigation and subsidiary and 
allied companies, are not leagued together in an unlawful 
combination and therefore do not unduly restrain commerce 
in the production, sale or transportation of anthracite coal. 
The court, however, suggests- that the Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre 
Coal Company be divorced from the Central of New Jersey. 
The Reading ownership of the Central is not disturbed. The 
court called attention to certain other objections of a minor 
nature, which, however, did not affect the general decision. 

The decision holds that there was no violation by the 
Reading companies of the commodities clause of the Inter- 
state Commerce law. 

The decision refused to declare that the Reading company, 
the Philadelphia & Reading Railway and the Philadelphia & 
Reading Coal and Iron Company were, either separately or 
individually, a combination in violation of the anti-trust law. 

The court expressed regret at the delay in the decision of 
the case, giving as a reason the necessity of awaiting the 
decision of the Supreme Court in the government's suit 
against the Lackawanna. The decision was concurred in by 
Judges Buffington and Hunt. 

The court finds that the evidence does not support the 
charge that the transportation of anthracite at the rates now 
and for a long time past in force has been enormously profit- 

As to the commodities clause, the court finds that under 
the facts presented in the Reading case the question is not 
decided by the recent decision in the Lackawanna case, which 
rests entirely on the construction of a certain agreement that 
was there attacked. After reviewing the evidence upon this 
subject the court decides that the commodities clause has not 
been violated by the Reading companies. 

It is expected that the government will appeal the case. 

Approval of Leases by Public Utility Commission 

In refusing a writ of mandamus to the West Jersey & Sea- 
shore to compel the New Jersey board of public utility commis- 
sioners to approve a lease proposed to be made by the company of 
its railroad and franchises to the Pennsylvania, the New Jer- 
sey Court of Errors and Appeals, affirming the decision of the 

Supreme Court, 85 N. J., Law 468, holds that the primary pur- 
pose of the requirement in the public utilities act, in regard 
to proposed leases is to provide a method for preventing 
the making of leases embracing provisions inimical to the in- 
terests of the state or omitting provisions which are requisite 
for the protection of those interests. The power of approval or 
refusal to approve conferred upon the board is discretionary 
in its character; and, this being so, the Supreme Court cannot 
substitute its own judgement for that of the board and compel 
it by mandamus to gTunt or withhold its approval. West Jer- 
sey & Seashore v. Board (N. J.), S>4 Atl. 57. 

Injuries to Animals on Track 

In an action for the killing of a mule struck by a train, it is 
held by the Mississippi Supreme Court that the failure of the 
company to equip the locomotive with an electric headlight, as 
required by law, did not make the company liable, it not being 
shown that the presence of such a headlight would have pre- 
vented the mule from running in front of the fast moving train 
30 or 40 ft. ahead of the engine, as appeared to have been the 
case. Illinois Central v. Calhoun (Miss.), 68 So., 442. 

Damages for Blocking View by Embankment Not Recoverable 

Damages were sought, under the Massachusetts statute pro- 
viding that all damages caused by laying out, making and main- 
taining a railroad, or by taking land or materials therefor, may 
be recovered, for injury resulting from the cutting off of the 
plaintiff's view from his property by the location of a railroad 
embankment in front of it. The embankment was beyond a 
public way and intervening property of other owners, about 150 
ft. away, and about the same height as the plaintiff's door, and 
did not in any way interfere with his light or air or access to 
the highway. It was held that the interference with the view 
from the plaintiff's house and estate, which was the sole ground 
on which damages were sought, related to matters too remote 
and speculative, and was not sufficiently special and peculiar to 
the plaintiff to warrant a recovery. No decision, so far as the 
court was aware, has ever gone so far as to hold that damages 
might be recovered for invasion of purely aesthetic elements of 
value. Howell v. New Haven (Mass.), 108 N. E., 934. 

Adequate Return — Intrastate Commerce — "Unreasonable" and 
"Confiscatory" Rates 

In deciding that a rate on slack, nut, and pea coal from 
Pittsburg, Kan., to Concordia, Kan., composed by adding 
the Kansas local distance rate of 20 c.ents a ton from Abilene 
to Concordia to the carrier's voluntary rate of $1 from Pitts- 
burg to Abilene, and involving only intrastate commerce, is 
not unreasonable, unjust, or oppressive, the Kansas Supreme 
Court cited the three recent cases of Northern Pacific v. 
North Dakota and Minneapolis, St. P. & S. S. M. v. North 
Dakota, 236 U. S. 585; and Norfolk & Western v. West Vir- 
ginia, 236 U. S. 605. all decided, March 8, 1915, on the subject 
of adequate rates. In the first of these, Mr. Justice Hughes 
says: "Frequently, attacks upon state rates have raised the 
question as to the profit'kbleness of the entire intrastate busi- 
ness under the state's business requirements. But the de- 
cisions in this class of cases furnish no ground for saying 
that the state may set apart a commodity or a special class 
of traflSc and impose upon it any rate it pleases, provided 
only that the return from the entire intrastate business is 
adequate." The Kansas court >says that it is too soon to 
say how far-reaching these decisions may be, but that the 
new doctrine is no doubt controlling; and whatever has been 
said in decisions and textbooks to the effect that a state or 
a state commission could establish a rate not in itself com- 
pensatory, provided the mass of state rates was profitable, 
may as well be discarded. i 

The court also sustained the railroads' contention that the 
word "unreasonble" in the statute is not synonymous with 
"confiscatory." A rate may not be confiscatory, and yet be 
inequitable in that it does not yield a fair compensation, 
which would include cost of moving the traffic, wear and 
tear of tracks and equipment, and a fair profit for the service 
rendered. This is also the view of the Texas courts on a 
statute much like the Kansas one. Union Pacific v. Public 
Utilities Commission (Kan.), 148 Pac. 667.^^ ^ ^ 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 2 

Railway Officers 

Executive, Financial, Legal and Accounting 

A. C. Hamilton, vice-president and general counsel of the 
Texas-Mexican at Laredo, Tex., has resigned. 

F. S. VVynn. secretary of the Southern Railway at New York 
has been elected secretary also of the Mobile & Ohio, succeeding 
A. W. Mackintosh, resigned. 

S. S. Russell, special agent of the auditing department of the 
Central Vermont at St. Albans, Vt., has been appointed claim 
agent, with office at St. Albans, and the office of special agent has 
been abolished. 

F. W. Kirtland, freight traffic manager of the Florida East 
Coast at St. Augustine, Fla., has been appointed assistant to vice- 
president, with headquarters at St. Augustine, and the position of 
freight traffic manager has been abolished. 

The following officers of the Morris & Essex were elected 
recently : .Adrian H. Larkin, chairman of the board ; J. O. H. 
Pitney, of Newark, N. J., president; E. E. Loomis, vice-president; 
Henry V. Poor, secretary; E. C. Stanley, Jr., assistant secre- 
tary; R. B. Schofield, treasurer, and W. D. Dunley, assistant 

The officers of the Monongaheta Railway recently formed by 
the consolidation of the Monogahela Railroad and the Buck- 
hannon & Northern are as follows: J. M. Schoonmaker, presi- 
dent, Pittsburgh, Pa.; J. J. Turner, vice-president, Pittsburgh; 
Lewis Neilson, secretary, Philadelphia; T. H. B. McKnight, 
treasurer, Pittsburgh; C. K. Elder, auditor, Brownsville; G. B. 
Obey, general superintendent, Brownsville ; D. K. Orr, chief en- 
gineer, Brownsville, and J. C. Grooms, real estate agent, Pitts- 


F. N. Hibbits, superintendent of motive power of the Lehigh 
Valley at South Bethlehem, Pa., has resigned to go to the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works. 

J. H. Owen, transportation clerk of the Florida East Coast at 
St. Augustine, Fla., has been appointed superintendent of trans- 
portation, with headquarters at St. Augustine. 

G. B. Obey, superintendent of the Monongahela Railroad has 
been appointed general superintendent of the Monongahela Rail- 
way which was formed recently by the consolidation of the 

Monongahela Railroad 

and the Buckhannon & 
Northern. Mr. Obey 
entered the service of the 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie 
as a train despatcher in 
1889, and in 1899 was 
promoted to chief train 
despatcher. Two years 
later he was appointed 
superintendent of the 
Voughiogheny and Mo- 
nongahela divisions of 
the same road, with head- 
quarters at Pittsburgh, 
Pa. In 1905. he left the 
service of the Pittsburgh 
& Lake Erie to become 
superintendent of the 
Monongahela Railroad, 
with office at Browns- 
ville, Pa., which position 
he held at the time of his 
recent appointment as G. B. Obey 

general superintendent of 

the Monongahela Railway, with headquarters at Brownsville, 

as above noted. 

E. T. Whiter 

D. S. Farley, superintendent of the Kansas City division of 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Kansas City, Mo., has been 
transferred to Amarillo, Tex. C. L. Mason, trainmaster of the 
eastern division at Emporia, Kan., has been appointed super- 
intendent at Kansas City, Mo., succeeding Mr. Farley. H. R. 
Lake has been appointed trainmaster at Emporia, Kan., suc- 
ceeding Mr. Mason. 

Edward T. Whiter, whose appointment as assistant general 
manager of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, with 
headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pa., has already been announced in 
these columns, was bom 
at Steubenville, Ohio, on 
March 26, 1864. He 
was educated in the 
public schools of that 
place and entered rail- 
way service on March 
1, 1881, with the Penn- 
sylvania, as telegraph 
operator, and served 
consecutively as train 
despatcher, assistant 
trainmaster and train- 
master until January 1, 
1903, on which date he 
was appointed superin- 
tendent of the Eastern 
division. On January 1, 
1913, he was appointed 
general superintendent 
of the Northwest sys- 
tem, from which posi- 
tion he is now promoted 
to assistant general man- 
ager of the Pennsylvania 
Lines West of Pittsburgh. Mr. Whiter's entire career has been 
with the Pennsylvania. 

Isaac Wheeler Geer, whose appointment as general superin- 
tendent of the Central system of the Pennsylvania Lines W'est of 
Pittsburgh, with headquarters at Toledo, Ohio, has been an- 
nounced, was born at 
Plainfield, Conn., on Feb- 
ruary 1, 1873. He was 
graduated from Yale 
university in June, 1895, 
and entered railway serv- 
ice as rodman with the 
Pennsylvania in Septem- 
ber of the same year. In 
November, 1897, he was 
transferred to the main- 
tenance of way depart- 
ment of the Erie and 
Ashtabula division as as- 
sistant on the engineer 
corps. In February, 
1898, he was promoted 
to assistant engineer, and 
in March, 1900, was 
made engineer of main- 
tenance of way on the 
same division. He was 
then transferred to the 
Pittsburgh division in 
the same capacity in De- 
cember, 1902, in which position he remained until January, 1S04, 
when he was appointed superintendent of the Terre Haute & 
Logansport and the Logansport & Toledo railways, which were 
at that time affiliated with the Pennsylvania Lines. In Novem- 
ber, 1506, he was transferred to the Logansport division, and in 
January, 1913, he was transferred to the Cleveland & Pittsburgh 
division from which position he is now promoted. 

Samuel B. Robertson, superintendent of the Erie and Ashta- 
bula division of the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh, at 
Newcastle, Pa., has been transferred in the same capacity to the 
Cleveland and Pittsburgh division, with headquarters at Qeve- 

I. W. Geer 

Digitized by 


July 9. 1915 



land, Ohio, succeeding I. W. Geer, promoted. W. M. Wardrop,. 
superintendent of the Western division, at Ft. Wayne, Ind., suc- 
ceeds Mr. Robertson. Otto Schroll, superintendent of the Toledo 
division, with headquarters at Toledo, Ohio, succeeds Mr. 
Wardrop. Paul Jones, superintendent of the Zanesville division, 
with headquarters at Zanesville, Ohio, succeeds Mr. Schroll. 
F. J. Stimson, division engineer of the Grand Rapids & Indiana, 
has been appointed superintendent at Zanesville, Ohio, succeed- 
ing Mr. Jones. 


Thomas E. Bond has been appointed chief of the tariff bureau 
of the Elgin, Joliet & Eatsern, with headquarters at Chicago. 

Charles E. Brown has been appointed commercial agent of the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, at Los Angeles, Cal, 
and J. X. Kimberger has been appointed commercial agent at 
Seattle, Wash. 

F. B. Humston, district passenger agent of the Chicago, In- 
dianapolis & Louisville, at Indianapolis, Ind., has been appointed 
division freight agent, with headquarters at Indianapolis. Frank 
V. Martin, city passenger agent at Indianapolis, succeeds Mr. 
Humston. A. J. O'Reilly, general agent at Indianapolis has re- 
tired from active service because of ill health, but will be re- 
tained by the company in an advisory capacity. 

R. A. Ebe, assistant general livestock agent of the Baltimore & 
Ohio at Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed general livestock 
agent, succeeding the late Ben Wilson, and the position of as- 
sistant general livestock agent has been abolished. W. J. O'Toole, 
secretary to the general livestock agent has been appointed as- 
sistant to general livestock agent; F. Fowler, division freight 
agent at Parkersburg, W. Va., has been appointed assistant to 
general freight agent, both with headquarters at Baltimore, Md., 
and H. H. Marsh, commercial freight agent at Wheeling, W. Va., 
has been appointed division freight agent, with office at Parkers- 

Engineering and Rolling Stock 

W. H. Oliver, division engineer of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, at Needles, Cal., has been transferred in the same ca- 
pacity to San Bernardino, Cal. 

C. E. Brooks, acting superintendent of motive power of the 
Grand Trunk Pacific at Transcona, Man., advises that J. F. Mof- 
fatt has not been appointed locomotive foreman as had been an- 
nounced in circular No. 50, which was noticed in this bolumn on 
July 2. 


Frank H. Chamberlain, claims adjuster for the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, with headquarters at Guthrie, Okla., died at 
Battle Creek, Mich., on June 21. 

Samuel Thome, a director of the Great Northern, the Colorado 
& Southern and other Hill roads, died on July 5, of heart disease, 
on board the yacht of James J. Hill of the Great Northern, on 
the St. John's river, Quebec, Canada. 

Charles L. Haydock, assistant engineer of the Missouri Pacific, 
at St. Louis, Mo., was drowned recently at Leavenworth Junction, 
Kan., while superintending the making of willow mattresses to 
prevent the river from undermining the tracks. He was 31 years 

German Ra:lwaymen Join the Colors.— A report from Hol- 
land says that 400,000 German railwaymen will shortly be called 
to the colors. In order to replace the men a great number of 
women are now being instructed in railway work. 

Railway Extension in Chile.— The directors of the govern- 
ment railways have decided to build a branch connecting the 
Longitudinal Railway with the port of Iquique; the estimated 
expenditure is $110,000. It will be necessary for this money 
to be secured from the profits of one of the railways or 
included in the budget for the coming year. The only rail- 
way actually producing net earnings at the present time is 
the Arica-La Paz. The government railways are preparing 
plans for the repair of roads that lead to the railway stations 
along the Central Railway at an estimated expenditure of 

Equipment and Supplies 



The MissotTRi, Oklahoma & Gulf is figuring on 6 Mikado 
type locomotives. 

The Eureka Nevada has ordered one Prairie type locomotive 
from the H. K. Porter Company. 

Russian Government. — The H. K. Porter Co. is said to be 
working on 22 72-ton and 11 67-ton locomotives for the Russian 
government. This item has not been confirmed. 

The Texas & Pacific, reported in the Railway Age Gazette of 
May 28 as being in the market for 10 switching and 6 freight 
locomotives, is also reported to be in the market for 6 passenger 

The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac has issued in- 
quiries for 6 superheater Pacific type locomotives, to have 26 by 
28 in. cylinders, a tractive effort of 47,000 lb. and a total weight 
of 285,000 lb. 

The Detroit, Toledo & Ironton has ordered 2 Consolidation 
type locomotives from the American Locomotive Company. 
These locomotives will have 21 by 28 in. cylinders, S6-in. driving 
wheels and a total weight of 106,000 lb. 

The Montour Railroad has ordered 3 superheater Mikado 
type locomotives from the American Locomotive Company. 
These locomotives will have 27 by 32 in. cylinders, 57-in. driving 
wheels, and a total weight of 325,000 lb. 


The Lehigh Valley has ordered 20 milk cars from the Stand- 
ard Steel Car Company. 

The Chicago Great Western is reported to be in the market 
for 1,500 steel underframes. 

The Detroit, Toledo & Ironton has ordered 200 box cars from 
the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Baltimore & Ohio is reported to be in the market for 
2,000 hopper cars. This item has not been confirmed. 

The Texas & Pacific, which was reported in an unconfirmed 
item in the Railway Age Gazette, June 4, as inquiring for 500 
coal cars, is in the market for 400 50-ton gondola cars. 

The Havana Central, which was reported in the Railway Age 
Gazette of May 28, as inquiring for 660 freight cars, is reported 
to have ordered these cars from the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany. This item has not been confirmed. 

The British Government was reported in the Railway Age 
Gazette of June 25 as having given the Canadian Car & Foun- 
dry Company a large order for box cars. It is now said that 
this order includes 1,200 Belgian type steel frame box cars, 24 ft. 
in length and of 26 ton capacity. 

The Russian Government was reported in the Railway Age 
Gazette of May 21 as having placed orders for 22,000 cars as fol- 
lows : Pressed Steel Car Company, 7,000 ; Seattle Car & Foundry 
Company, 7,000; Eastern Car Company, New Glasgow, N. S., 
2,000; Nova Scotia Car Company, Halifax, N. S., 2,000; American 
Car & Foundry Company, 2,000, and Canadian Car & Foundry 
Company, 2,000. On some of these orders the car builders and 
the Russian government were at first unable to agree as to the 
terms of payment. Contracts have now been definitely closed, 
however, for the following orders: Pressed Steel Car Company, 
4,800 50-ton coal cars (the Russian government having the option 
of increasing this to 5,000 if desired) and 2,000 40-ton box cars ; 
Eastern Car Company, 2,000 40-ton box cars, and the American 
Car & Foundry Company, 4,100 box cars, a total with these three 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59. No. 2 

companies of 12,900 cars. The Seattle Car & Foundry Company 
has an order, or is negotiating for 8,500 four-wheel freight cars. 
Orders for 2,000 cars remain to be placed, the Nova Scotia Car 
Company having rejected its order. 



The Great Nosthehn has ordered 125 tons of steel for seven 
track scales from the American Bridge Company. 

The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake has ordered 
8,000 tons of rails from the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has ordered 375 tons 
of steel from the American Bridge Company for an elevator at 
Argentine, Kan. 

The American Car & Foundry Company has ordered 322 
tons of steel from the American Bridge Company for a yard 
crane runway and a car shop addition at Chicago. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific has ordered 17,000 tons 
of rails from the Illinois Steel Company, and 3,000 tons from the 
Algoma Steel Corporation. The rails will all be 100 lb. 

The New York Public Service Commission, First district, 
has awarded a general contract to the Newman & Carey Com- 
pany, for 6,400 tons of steel for Section No. 1 of the Nostrand 
avenue subway, Brooklyn. 


The Yazoo Southwestern, Walter C. Murphy, president, 
Yazoo City, Miss., is reported in the market for repair and ma- 
chine shop equipment. 


The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio has ordered the in- 
stallation of interlocking signals in Lima, at the crossing of the 
Pennsylvania Lines, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton and the 
Lake Erie & Western. The work is to be done by the Penn- 
sylvania and shares of the cost charged to the other companies 
in proportion to the functions installed on the tracks of each 
company. The commission orders that the cost of operation shall 
be allotted, fifty per cent to the Pennsylvania and fifty to the 
other two roads; but when the two roads last named shall have 
separated their interests then each of the three roads is to pay 
one-third of the whole. The installation must be finished by 
October 1. 

German South-West Africa Railways. — The damaged rail- 
way lines in German South-West Africa occupied by the Union 
forces are so far restored that through communications has been 
established between Liideritzbucht and Karibib. An extension of 
the Upington line to Kalkfontein, north of Warmbad, is expected 
at an early date, thus linking up the German lines with the Union 

Railway in Yunnan Province of China. — Renewed activity 
is reported in regard to a railway from Mengtze, Yunnan Prov- 
ince, China, to the Ko-chiu tin mintes. The Chinese capitalists 
concerned in the tin mines and in the railway undertaking have 
recently employed two French engineers in connection with the 
enterprise. The original plans and the actual location of the line 
were made by American engineers, who resigned several months 
ago because of the prospect at that time that nothing definite was 
likely to be accomplished because of unrest and uncertainty in 
China and later because of war conditions in Europe. The plans 
call for 60-centimeter (23.6 in.) gage track, and the rolling stock 
needed is estimated at 8 locomotives, 100 freight cars and 15 pas- 
senger cars. French interests are said to have an immense ad- 
vantage in obtaining this business, not only because of the 
dominance of French interests in the district and the influence of 
French engineers, but also because of the discriminating duties 
on goods coming into China from Indo-China and into the latter 
from France and because of favors extended French interests by 
the railway from Indo-China to Yunnan fu. 

Supply Trade News 

The Schroeder Headlight Company, Evansville, Ind., is reported 
to have an order from the Russian government for 400 headlights. 

The Scullin-Gallagher Iron & Steel Company, St. Louis, Mo., 
by a vote of its stockholders has changed its name to the Scullin 
Steel Company. 

The American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company has secured an 
order for 52,000 brake shoes for the cars which the Pressed Steel 
Car Company is now building for the Russian government. 

The American Steel Export Company was incorporated in 
Delaware on June 29, with a capital of $200,000, to promote the 
sale abroad of products of the Cambria Steel Company. 

Thomas R. Cook, formerly assistant engineer of motive power 
of the Pennsylvania Lines West, has been appointed chief en- 
gineer of the Willard Storage Battery Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

D. P. Lamoreux has been appointed to take charge of the rail- 
way and car material department of the Johnson Lumber Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis., with headquarters in the McCormick 
building, Chicago. 

W. L. Jefferies, Jr., has been appointed representative of the 
Union Spring & Manufacturing Company, New Kensington, Pa., 
with office in the Mutual building, Richmond, Va., succeeding 
W. F. La Bonta, deceased. 

The Condit Electrical Manufacturing Company, Boston, Mass., 
and the Luminous Unit Company, St. Louis, Mo., will hereafter, 
by arrangement with the Thomas G. Grier Co., Chicago, be rep- 
resented exclusively by the Electrical Sales Engineers, Inc., Chi- 
cago. This is a new company with the following officers: Paul 
W. Koch, president and general manager; Fred B. Duncan, vice- 
president, and Alfred O. Dicker, secretary and treasurer. Mr. 
Koch was formerly manager of the Thomas G. Grier Co; Mr. 
Duncan, formerly sales engineer of the George Cutter Co., South 
Bend, Ind., and Mr. Dicker was formerly illuminating engineer 
of the Commonwealth Edison Company, Chicago. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Company, New York, have acquired the 
business of the Neil Machinery Company, and will take over the 
following agencies heretofore controlled by the latter: Lees Brad- 
ner Company, Cleveland, Ohio; Kern Machine Tool Company, 
Hamilton, Ohio; Springfield Machine Tool Company, Spring- 
field, Ohio; Colburn Machine Tool Company, Franklin, Pa., and 
Bridgeford Machine Tool Company, Rochester, N. Y. George E. 
Neil, formerly manager of the Neil Machinery Company, has been 
appointed manager of the machine tool department of the New 
York office of Fairbanks, Morse & Company, and W. V. Gould, 
for many years with the Jones & Lamson Machine Company, 
Springfield, Vt, has also become associated with that department. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company plan 
has been declared operative. Stockholders of record July 17 
will have the privilege of subscribing for new convertible 5 per 
cent bonds at 105 in a ratio of 45 per cent of the holdings of 
stock. The first payment on the new bonds will be $250 for 
$1,000 bond on August 13, the other payment being $820.83 on 
December 1. The second payment includes an adjustment of 
interest. The new issue of bonds will be convertible into com- 
mon stock at par up to December 31, 1916. If all the new issue 
of bonds is subscribed for by stockholders, the proceeds will 
be used to retire the existing issue of bonds at 105. If only a 
portion of the bonds are subscribed for by stockholders, the old 
issue will be paid off to the extent of the new money received 
and the new convertibles exchanged for the balance. If none 
of the new bonds are subscribed for, they will be exchanged for 
the old issue recently deposited with the Guaranty Trust Com- 

The American Car & Foundry Company 

The earnings of the American Car & Foundry Company in the 
fiscal year ending April 30. 1915, were $3,615,054. From this 
there was deducted $1,284,118 for renewals, replacements, re- 

Digitized by 


July 9, 1915 



pairs, new patterns, etc., leaving net earnings of $2,330,936. Divi- 
dends of $2,100,000 (7 per cent) were paid on preferred stock, 
and of $600,000 (2 per cent) on common stock, making a total 
of $2,700,000. The total surplus on April 30 was $25,694,076. 
The general balance sheet of the company on April 30 was as 
follows : 


Property and plant account: 

Cost to April 30, 1914 $66,108,223 

Additions to plants during year 57,424 

Reservation for steel car plants 616,886 

Materials on band 4,974,004 

Current assets: 

Accounts and notes receivable 11,587,622 

Stocks and bonds of other companies 847,711 

Bank certificates of deposit 3,500,000 

Cash 3,659,855 


Preferred stock $30,000,000 

Common stock 30,000,000 

Current liabilities: 

Audited vouchers and payrolls 2,569,948 

Dividends (payable July 1) 675,000 

Reserve accounts 2,412,701 

Surplus 25,694,076 


Railway Construction 


Wells, Fargo & Company. — This company has issued a book- 
let of 44 pages, giving a large amount of information as to how 
to reach the various points of interest in San Francisco in con- 
nection with the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

Headlights. — The Esterline Company, Indianapolis, Ind., has 
recently issued catalog 364, descriptive of Golden Glow in- 
candescent headlights. These headlights are very largely used 
on street car and interurban railway lines, and in steam and 
electric locomotive service. 

Steel Poles. — The Carbo Steel Post Company, Chicago, has is- 
sued a 20-page booklet describing Carbo steel poles for telephone, 
telegraph and signal lines. The booklet is illustrated with sev- 
eral typical designs of these poles, and contains considerable data 
regarding their construction and capacity. 

Coal Storage System. — Bulletin No. 221 recently issued by 
the Link-Belt Company, Chicago, is a four-page leaflet descrip- 
tive of the Link-Belt patented circular storage system. The 
leaflet describes the system in detail, names its several advan- 
tages and contains illustrations of typical installations. 

Wood Block Floors. — The Ayer & Lord Tie Company, Chi- 
cago, has recently issued a booklet on that company's interior 
creosoted wood block floors. The booklet discusses the several 
advantages of this type of flooring material and contains several 
illustrations of wood block floors laid in different kinds of shops. 

Gas Engines.— Bulletin No. 34-X, issued by the Chicago 
Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, is devoted to the Class 
A-G "Giant" gas and gasoline engines made by that company. 
Bulletin No. 34-U contains instructions for installing and oper- 
ating "Chicago Pneumatic" Class N-SO fuel oil driven com- 

Ant Compressors. — Form No. 3,031, recently issued by the 
Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, is devoted to the Ingersoll- 
Rogler Qass FR-1 steam driven single stage straight line air 
compressors sold by that company. The company has also 
recently issued Form No. 4,034, relative to the Leyner-Ingersoll 
water drill. 

Oxygen. — In a pamphlet entitled "Production of Pure Oxygen 
and Hydrogen," the International Oxygen Company, Newark, 
N. J., gives a description of its system of producing oxygen by 
water electrolysis. Several installations of this system are illus- 
trated. The purity of the gases produced by this method is 
shown to be especially high. 

Specifications for Telegraph Poles. — The W. F. Goltra Tie 
Company, Cleveland, has issued a booklet containing general 
information and specifications for chestnut and cedar poles for 
telegraph, telephone and electric light lines. This book also con- 
tains a considerable amount of information regarding the weights, 
original costs and costs of setting poles of various timbers and 

Alabama Great Southern.— New second main track between 
York, Ala., and Cuba, 6.5 miles, was placed in service July 
1, on the Alabama Great Southern, providing with the exception 
of a single track gauntlet between Toomsuba and Russell, Miss., 
of seven miles, continuous double track from York to Meridian, 
Miss., all of recent construction. This track is used jointly by 
trains of the Alabama Great Southern and the Southern Rail- 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester.— See Rochester Connecting. 

Cherry River & Southern.— An officer writes that this com- 
pany already has considerable of the right-of-way bought, and 
in about 90 days expects to secure through condemnation pro- 
ceedings the right-of-way through the Gauley Coal Land Com- 
pany on about 23.5 miles. The projected route is from a point 
on the Baltimore & Ohio at the mouth of Cherry river, where 
it flows into Gauley river at Curtin, Nicholas county, W. Va., 
thence down the south side of Gauley river, via Brooks Bridge 
to the mouth of Hominy creek, thence up Hominy creek to the 
mouth of Mouse creek, and up Mouse creek to its head waters, 
passing through Shawver's Gap to Eleven Mile branch of 
Angling creek and down Eleven Mile branch and Angling creek 
to Meadow river, thence up the east or north side of Meadow 
river to the Nicholas, Greenbrier and Fayette county lines, 
about 42.5 miles. Construction work will be started as soon as 
the right-of-way is secured. The maximum grades will be 3 
per cent compensated down to 1J4 per cent, and the maximum 
curvature will be 30 deg. There will be three steel bridges on the 
line; two of 400 ft each, and one of 125 ft. The company 
expects to develop a traffic in lumber, timber products, coal 
and other general commodities. H. L. Kirtley, president; E. H. 
Venable, chief engineer, Charleston, W. Va. 

East Georgia (Electric). — A charter has been granted this 
company in Georgia with $212,000 capital and headquarters 
at Savannah. The plans call for building an interurban electric 
or steam railway from Glenville, Ga., north via Hagan to Ada- 
belle, about 30 miles, with a short branch from Hagan to Claxton. 
H. P. Talmage, G. J. Baldwin and E. Leflfler are incorporators. 
(April 1, p. 811.) 

LiNviLLE River. — A contract has been given to W. S. Whiting, 
Elizabethton, Tenn., to build a branch from Montezuma, N. C, 
northeast to Fascoe, 12 miles. The company now operates a 
line from Pineola northwest via Montezuma to Cranberry, 14 

Radford-Willis Southern. — A contract is reported let to the 
Williams Brothers Construction Company, Roanoke, Va., for 
building from Radford, Va., southeast along Little river and In- 
dian creek to Willis, about 25 miles. J. L. Vaughan, president; 
W. L. Castle, secretary and assistant treasurer. (February 26, 
p. 390.) 

Rochester Connecting. — Application has been made to the 
New York Public Service Commission, Second district, for a 
certificate of public convenience and necessity to build 2.5 miles 
of line in the outskirts of Rochester, N. Y. The Rochester 
Connecting recites in its petition its connection with the Buffalo, 
Lockport & Rochester, which now operates an electric line, 
and is also interested in the proposal to build a new inter- 
national bridge across the Niagara river and to connect it with 
the B. L. & R. by a new line from Niagara Falls to Lockport 
The eastern end of the B. L. & R., through the proposed Roches- 
ter Connecting is to be connected with the Pennsylvania and Erie 
systems at Rochester. The project is backed by electrical trac- 
tion men of western New York, including E. G. Connette, presi- 
dent of the International Railway, Buffalo. 

Tennessee Railway. — A contract is reported let to J. C. Rodes 
& Company, Franklin, Tenn., for work on an extension of 11 
miles towards Petros. On the completion of this contract there 
will remain about five miles yet to be built to complete the line 
from Oneida to Petros. 

Digitized by 





Vou 59. No. 2 

BucKHANNON & Northern. — See Monongahela Railway. 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. — N. L. Amster has filed a 
supplementary or amended petition for intervention covering 
all of Federal Judge Carpenter's recent orders in the Chicago, 
Rock Island Pacific receivership. 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. — An independent board of 
directors has been elected by the stockholders of the Morris & 
Essex, which is leased to the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
and which heretofore had a board of directors composed of offi- 
cers or directors of the Lackawanna. J. O. H. Pitney, of New- 
ark, has been made president; Adrian H. Larkin, chairman of 
the board; E. E. Loomis remains vice-president, and Henry V. 
Poor has been made secretary. The executive committee con- 
sists of Mr. Larkin, John R. Hardin, George C. Van Tuyl, Jr., 
Dunlevey Milbank and J. O. H. Pitney. 

The following announcement has been made in regard to the 
steps that have been taken to comply with the Supreme Court's 
decision in the commodities clause case, commented on edi- 
torially in the Railtvay Age Gazette last week. 

"Steps were taken to comply promptly with the recent rulings 
of the United States Supreme Court.' 

"The board authorized the officers of the company to execute 
a new contract which should conform to all matters questioned 
by the Supreme Court as either illegal or objectionable. 

"The only directors of the coal company who are directors of 
the railroad, namely: W. H. Truesdale and George F. Baker, 
Jr., resigned from the board, and C. D. Norton and T. J. Mum- 
ford were elected in their places. 

"E. E. Loomis, president of the coal company, tendered to the 
board his resignation to be accepted as soon as his successor 
can be selected, and arrangements were made to procure sepa- 
rate office accommodations without delay." 

An extra dividend of 50 per cent has been declared by the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Coal Company. 

El Paso & Southwestern. — The Arizona Corporation Com- 
mission has approved the issue of $16,000,000 bonds, the pro- 
ceeds to be used to buy new equipment and make additions and 
betterments and to provide for refunding. All the lines be- 
longing to the company in Arizona, some of which now are 
not operated directly, will be merged and brought under one 
operating organization. 

Kansas City, Mexico & Orient. — The three receivers who were 
appointed in 1912 have been formally discharged. The opera- 
tion of the property was taken over about a year ago by a 
new company. 

Missouri Pacific. — The plan of readjustment without re- 
ceivership which three committees, representing the 5 per 
cent first and refunding mortgage bonds, the 40-year 4 per 
cent gold loan bonds and the Missouri Pacific stock respectively, 
have been working on, was announced on Wednesday after- 
noon. Kuhn, Loeb & Co., New York, are made readjustment 
managers. The plan calls for the raising of $41,419,792 cash 
through the subscription by stockholders of $50 cash for each 
share of Missouri Pacific stock held. This $41,419,792 cash 
is to be used to pay the $24,845,000 notes which were due June 
1 and were extended for one year, to pay $3,861,000 maturing 
equipment trust obligations of the Missouri Pacific and of the 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, and to pay floating 
indebtedness, interest, some immediately needed improvements, 
and to provide working capital. Common stockholders are to 
receive in exchange for each $50 cash and the share of stock 
given up $50 in new general mortgage 4 per cent bonds and 
$100 in new common stock. Underlying mortgages with bonds 
outstanding aggregating $128,460,620 are to remain undis- 
turbed. There are to be issued the $82,839,585 new common 
stock — just sufficient to make the payment to old stockholders 
mentioned above: $46,923,150 new first and refunding mortgage 
5 per cent bonds; $44,399,292 new general mortgage 4 per 
cent bonds, of which, as mentioned above, $41,419,792 will go 

to stockholders in exchange for the cash and the remainder 
will be used, as noted below, in exchange for outstanding 
bonds; $76,751,635 new convertible 5 per cent preferred stock, 
cumulative after June 30, 1918, and convertible into common 
stock at par. The holders of the $14,904,000 consolidated first 
mortgage 6 per cent bonds will be asked to accept in exchange 
$16,394,400 (110 per cent) new first and refunding mortgage 
5 per cent bonds; holders of the $14,375,000 collateral trust 

5 per cent bonds, due 1917, will be asked to accept $14,375,000 
new first and refunding 5's in exchange, and holders of the 
outstanding $9,636,000 collateral trust 5 per cent bonds, due 
1920, will be asked to accept $9,636,000 new first and refunding 
mortgage 5 per cent bonds in exchange. Holders of the 
$37,255,000 gold loan 4 per cent bonds will be asked to accept 
a like amount of new 5 per cent preferred stock, as will also 
the holders of $29,806,000 first and refunding S's and $650,000 
outstanding Lexington division 5's in exchange. Holders oi 
the $3,459,000 Central branch 4 per cent bonds and of the 
$2,500,000 Central branch Union Pacific 4 per cent bonds will 
be asked to accept half of the face value of their bonds in 
new general mortgage 4 per cent bonds and the other half in 
new 5 per cent preferred stock. Holders of the $520,000 
Leroy & Caney Valley first 5's, of the $1,024,000 Kansas City 
Northwestern 5's and of the $500,000 Boonville, St Louis 

6 Southern 5 per cent bonds are asked to take a like amount 
of new preferred stock in exchange. Holders of the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern $4,175,000 first and refunding 
mortgage 6 per cent bonds are asked to take $4,383,750 (105 
per cent) in new first and refunding mortgage 5 per cent 
bonds, and the holders of $393,000 Little Rock Junction first 
consolidated 6's guaranteed by the Iron Mountain, and of the 
$1,741,000 Texas & Pacific notes endorsed by the Iron Moun- 
tain, are asked to take a like amount of new first and refunding 
5's. Holders of the few thousand dollars ($45,135) outstanding 
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern stock are asked to take 
a like amount of new preferred. This plan reduces the interest 
bearing securities outstanding by $60,552,558, or from $39,996 
per mile to $31,357. On the basis of the earnings and expenses 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915 (last two months es- 
timated) there should be a balance of $2,373,514. After the 
payment of all fixed charges this would amount to 3 per cent 
on the new preferred stock. 

Monongahela Railroad. — See Monongahela Railway. 

Monongahela Railway. — ^The Monongahela Railroad and the 
Buckhannon & Northern have been consolidated and taken 
over by a new company, the Monongahela Railway. Both 
roads were previously controlled by the New York Central and 
the Pennsylvania, and the new company is likewise controlled 
jointly by these companies. 

Morris & Essex. — See Delaware, Lackawanna & Western. 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis. — Brown Brothers & Co., 
New York, are oflfering $1,500,000 Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis first consodilated 5 per cent bonds at 105, yielding 
about 4^2 per cent on the investment. These bonds are part 
of a total authorized issue of $20,000,000 bonds of 1888-1928. 
Out of this authorized issue there is outstanding, including 
the present issue. $9,108,000. The mortgage securing these 
bonds is a first lien on the main line from Chattanooga. Tenn., 
to Hickman, Ky., 322 miles, and on 276 miles of branch lines 
and is a second mortgage on 142 miles additional main line. 

British Women Railway Employees. — Press despatches from 
London report that the women now being employed in fairly 
large numbers on the various railroads of England will hence- 
forth be eligible to membership in the National Union of 

Campaign Notes from German South West Africa. — On the 
entry of the British forces at Windhoek, the capital of Ger- 
man South West Africa, great quantities of railway material 
were found to have been buried and this was subsequently 
recovered. The troops found 10 engines with their essential 
parts removed. The Provost-Marshal issued a notice calling 
on the inhabitants to restore any government property in 
their possession, and as a consequence civilians are now 
returning large quantities of railway stores, which they allegcr 
were sold or given to them. 

Digitized by 


July IC, 1915 



Cottly Service 

Passenger Rates 

In the hearing regarding advances in western passenger fares 
at Chicago this week, those opposing the advances raised a 
question as to whether the railways are 
not wasting money by furnishing a much- 
duplicated and too luxurious passenger 
service. The implication was that if this 
is the case the roads should increase 
their net earnings by eliminating the wastes rather than by 
advancing their rates. This is a good theory, but it is not an 
appropriate one to emanate, as it did, from persons connected 
with the various regulating commissions. The main reason 
why the service is so much duplicated is that there is too much 
competition between railways; and the reason for this, as has 
been pointed out hundreds of times, is that the laws prohibit 
the roads from making agreements or arrangements to limit 
competition. If the regulators want competition reduced let 
them direct their lectures toward those who make fool laws 
to compel fool competition, not to the victims of these forms 
of folly. As to the lavish expenditures on passenger terminals — 
and some of them are lavish — can the wise men who are now 
deprecating them suggest any means of getting public opinion 
and city councils to quit demanding them? The worst example 
of such lavish expenditure in the United States today is the 
new union terminal at Kansas City. The railways spent so 
much on it principally because the people and city council of 
Kansas City held them up in every way that they could. The 
passenger service of the railways of the United States is too 
luxurious and expensive; but if the railways of the west should 
make a concerted effort to reduce its luxury and costliness, the 
outcry that would be promptly raised against them would be 
led by the same stentorian friends of the people and members 
of the state railroad commissions who are now opposing ad- 
vances in passenger rates. 




CHIC.\<;(): Transportation ISldg. CLEVEL.WD: Citizens' BIdg. 

LONDON: Qu«i;n .\nne's Chambers, Westminster. 

E. A. Simmons, Prciident. 

L. B. Sherman, Vue-President. Henry Lee, Scc'y &■ Trt-as. 

The address of the company is the address of the oflicer*. 

Samiel O. Dt'NN, Editor 
Roy \, Wright, Managing Editor 

W. E. Hoorn H. F. Lane W. S. Lacher 

B. B. Adams R. E. Thayer C. W. Foss 

E. T. HowsoN .^. C. Loudon F. W. Kraecer 

H. H. Simmons C. B. Peck J. M. Rctiierford 

Subscriptions, including 52 regular weekly issues and special daily editions 
published from time to time in New York, or in places other than New 
York, payable in advance and postage free: 

C'nitrd Sutes and Mexico $8.00 

Canada J-M 

Foreign Countries (excepting daily editions) «.00 

Single Copies 1» "»»• "ch 

Engineering and Maintenance of Way Edition and four Maintenance of 
Way Convention daily issues, North ,\merica, $1 ; foreign. $2. 

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., as mail matter of the 
second class. 

WE OtTASANTEE. that of this issue (the monthly Engineering & Main- 
ten&oce Edition) 10.700 copies were printed: that of these 10. TOO copies T.S49 
were mailed to regular paid sUbioribers to the weekly edition. 1.858 to sub- 
scribers who get the Engineerinr tc Xaiatenanoe Edition only. 1&8 were pro. 
vided for counter and news oompanies' sales, 985 were mailed to advertisert. 
exoluuiges and correspondents, and 855 were provided for new aubscriptioiu. 
aamplea. copies lost in the mall and office use: that the total copies printed 
this year to date were 868.800. an average of 8,268 copies a week. 

Tha RAILWAY AOE GAZETTE and all other Simmons-Boardman publica- 
tions are members »{ the Audit Bureau of Circulations. 

Pri)icssor Moulton, of the University of Chicagu, estimates in 

VoLVME 59 July 16. 1915 X umber 3 an article in the Journal of Political Economy, an abstract of 

which is published elsewhere in this is- 

y-i . . Waste of 5j]g^ (j,3t when completed the Erie barge 

, V./Oniems Public Money canal and connected waterways will have 

Editorial Notes s.= On Waterways cost the state of New York for the 

Second duality Station .Ngtnis s-i through route from buffalo to New 

The Car Siwttiiig L>ecision.s ^4 . , ,, ^t4r\^^M-^ *i rw^t - , 

The Trend of Railway .\flairs in Two EightYcnr Periods S5 iipfk (_ itv $340,000 a mile. The purpose OI the public in de- 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: , , , ,. o^ vcloping this waterway was to "reduce the cost of transportation." 

Reducing Losses Due to Pilfering: by J. L. C OSS ««„,'.., . .• r i • j 

MISCELI \NE()l'S' ' "^' "riginal appropriation tor the improvements now under 

' 'Seaboard Air Line Mountain Ty|)eroconiotivts .-i; „ av was $101,000,000. The state engineer estimates that to 

Cooperation in \ ard Operation: by H. H. Larson... >• > ' «.tt /wi /vv\ -ii t • j .i « n »i- 

•Classification of Freight Loss and Damage Claims 90 complete them $27,000,000 more will be required. All things 

He'arfng'on' .I'dlances irfvesten ,' Pa^iseige';- fI?"'*"" i i ! 1 ! ! 1 1 1 ! 1 1 ! ! Vs considered." says Professor Moulton. "if the history of this and 

The Railroads as a Factor in (Jvir National Life; by Howard Elliott. 96 nther projects may serve as a guide, we need not be at all 

Twi*^m^rta"t ■c'oSii«rcrc^n«nis5ion Decis'i^^^ 99 surprised if the total cost actually reaches $135,000,000." This. 

General Foremen's Convention. M2 however, makes no allowance fof "the indispensable terminal 

•Plant for Sand Blasting Meel Cars '04 , . , . 

•.\ Substantial Crossing Barrier 113 facilities, such as docks, wharves, freight depots and trans- 

•Mkln^Reservi^rPipJToiine'cVion'.'.^ 106 shipping machinery," the provision of which will add enormously 

to the cost. The four railways directly competing with the 
MAINTENANCE OF WAY SECTION £^1^ ^^^^i ^^^ j^e Erie, the New York Central, the Lehigh 

^'Ediwr'ui^ Notes 107 Valley and the Lackawanna. Their outstanding capitalizations 

Rail .Sections and Wheel Loads los p^.^ operated mile are as follows: Erie. $208,843; New York 

'"YcomparTson™^Pum''p'™Cost^: by C. F, Herington lo,<. Central. $164,222 ; Lehigh Valley, $108,363 ; Lackawanna. $44,424. 

Canting Ralls 109 jj^e Erie is one of the highest capitalized roads in the United 

Classifving Scrap Rail; by L. C. Fontaine '" e. ^ j j- ^ t. r >. i ■ .• ^ .■ 

Training Section Laborers; by J, L. Coss 109 States; and. according to Professor Moulton s estimate, the 

MISCELLANEOUS: , cost of developing this waterwav from Buffalo to New Y'ork 

•Uses of the Locomotive Crane in Railway Service 110 . , ,- ^ ^ ', ^, .^ ,. ^. 

•A Tunnel Destroyed by Fire on the Southern Pacific 115 City will be 63 per cent greater than the average capitalization 

The Economical Operation of a ciravel Ballast Pit..,.. ^ 117 r mile of the Erie. This is one way to "reduce the cost of 

Repairing Manganese t ros^ing Frogs by tlectric Welding iiv f J 

Points for Slip Switch Installation; by W. F. Rench i-'o transportation! If the part of the bill which the public pays 

•.\n Experimental Determination of Stresses in Track; by C. C. ,, , ^ i_- i ^i. i_* l • i i j ^i. 

Williams ... . ' - ' ^* ^^'^'1 ^* *"^ P^"^' which the shippers pay, be included the cost 

■.i*""''?* °f Engineering -Articles .................... 1.'-' ^,f transportation on the Erie canal will be verv much greater 

The Relative Efficiency of Various Ballast Materials: by I.. W. '^ ... „, .-• ,.** 

Vaughan '-•' than on anv of the competing railways. The expenditure of 

'4l':%"'X^S^.k^M.^ lit ui'e hnlJ"':'::: ;::::;:::::;:;::: l i'> on waterway development with such n^sults is not eco- 

•New Illinois Central Standard Toini — ........................ 1J6 nomics or business. It is simply indefensible waste of the 

Making a Physical \ aluation of Large Terminals: b\ Claude I.. r ., i r^ r , ,-^- ■ > .i 

Van Auken ■ -' public s money for the benefit of the politicians who pass the 

c.ENERAL NEW? SECTION 131 legislation and the shippers who are expected to use the water- 

•IM^strated. ^^ayS- 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, \o. 3 


/AN a certain prominent railway a circular recently mailed to 
^^ all station agents brought the following results : 

Number sent out 345 

Blanks returned properly filled out 168 

Blanks returned improperly filled out 65 

Blanks returned with station name lacking 71 

Stations failing to reply 41 


The officer who issued the circular says that as a rule ten to 
twenty per cent of replies to such circulars fail to show the name 
of the station, and in many cases the agent's name is also omit- 
ted ; and he asks what would happen if there were a similar 
percentage of inefficiency in the train service, the track main- 
tenance work or in the motive power and car department. 
"Why," says the officer, "should the station service be lacking 
in the essential element of correctness?" 

As to why the service "should" be so lacking the answer is 
quite simple, though it is not often put in words. It is that 
this service is made secondary and subordinate to the other 
three departments mentioned. Judging by acts and facts, not 
by theories or book-regulations, it is a fair conclusion that 
railway managers are tolerably well satisfied that this is a 
reasonable situation : train operation, track maintenance, etc.. 
first class ; station work, especially at small stations, second 
class. The situation is looked upon as reasonable, on the ground 
that nothing better can be afforded. Those other matters affect 
safety and cannot be neglected; station work is less important 
than safety and cannot be allotted so much money or so much 
care. The public does not want to have its money spent that 
way. Other elements, including competition, come in. The 
passenger conductor should be a better man than the agent at 
the small station, because he has to deal with many more people. 
The small waiting room can be neglected, when the passenger 
cars cannot, because passengers spend much more lime in the cars. 

If our friend were to change his question and make it "Why 
is the station agent slipshod in his habits," he could get a ready 
answer from his nearest division superintendent ; who, very 
likely, would say, "Because we do not make him cultivate better 
habits. With every dollar needed in several different directions 
it is not deemed wise to allot any larger proportion to the sta- 
tion service." 

But the lesson of this circular is a serious one. nevertheless. 
A lack in "the essential element of correctness"' indicates, not a 
mere detail, but a fundamental fault. Three far-reaching diffi- 
culties trouble the superintendent on the majority of roads, and 
their most troublesome manifestation is in the station service: 
(1) the man is too remote from his boss; (2) the better class 
of men are promoted (or resign) too frequently; (3) the pay 
(except for members of labor unions) is too low. These three 
reasons for weakness, more fully stated, include ( 1 ) the need 
of more thorough supervision and instruction (often a better 
quality of supervision) ; (2) men are too frequently changed, 
not only because the best ones are needed elsewhere, but because 
so many of poor quality have to be dismissed — this because 
of lack of care in selecting and the failure to provide under- 
studies; (3) with under-pay must be included overwork. 

The foregoing outline of what, to the superintendent, should 
he an important subject is not presented in this place with a 
view of entering upon its general discussion. To most of the 
readers of the Railway Age Gazette who have duties in this di- 
rection, a discussion would, no doubt, seem superfluous. They 
know the situation very well, already. It not only should be, 
but is, an important subject. They have studied it many times. 
Still, the paragraph with which we began, as well as the criticisms 
of the service by public, serve as a reminder that the problem 
is unsettled. 

.A word may be permitted concerning the last one of the three 
points. Better pay would, as a rule, be a good lever with which 
to raise the quality of station service. But increasing the pay 
docs not always improve the man. A horizontal advance is de- 
pended on sometimes for an improvement which docs not material- 
ize. The true and rational procedure is to have station super- 

visors who will elevate the standards of service and requirements. 
Where the pay is too low a lirm, intelligent and continued policy 
in this direction will force the salaries upward. Many station 
supervisors should be much bigger men than they are— or more 


I F we understand correctly, the decision of this week in th«.t 
* car "spotting" case, the Interstate Commerce Commission 
has reversed . itself regarding this matter and, incidentally, ex- 
tinguished the main theory advanced by its special counsel, Louis 
D. Brandeis, in the Five Per Cent case. 

While the application of the eastern lines for a general ad- 
vance in freight rates was pending last year the commission, in 
an opinion rendered by Commissioner Harlan in the Industrial 
Railways case, said: "Under the common law . . . the de- 
livery of carload freight to a shipper having a private siding is 
made by shunting the car upon the switch clear of the main 
tracks. All services upon the siding beyond that point, in plac- 
ing a car for loading or unloading at a particular spot con- 
venient to the shipper, are what may be called volunteered serv- 
ices in the sense that they are in addition to the main line 
haul, and in excess of any obligation of service by the carrier 
at common law.'' The implication that the carrier ought to 
make a special charge when in addition to shunting a car upon 
a switch, it placed it for loading or unloading, seemed clear. 
Mr. Brandeis so understood the commission, and based his argu- 
ment against a general advance in rates largely on the ground 
that the carriers could and ought to derive large additional 
revenues from the general imposition of charges for "spotting" 

The references to this subject by the commission and its coun- 
cil, led the press and public to believe that the railways were 
dissipating their revenues, and drew down upon them a large 
amount of denunciation. In its original decision last July in the 
Five Per Cent case, the commission referred to its opinion in 
the industrial railways case in such a way as to give the im- 
!>ression that it still regarded a general charge for the "spotting" 
of cars as a means by which the carriers could secure a large 
part of the additional revenues they needed. 

In conformity to what they understood to be the commis- 
sion's views and wishes, the railways filed tariffs fixing charges 
for the "spotting" of cars. They were not especially enthusiastic 
about these tariffs. They doubted the fairness or expediency of 
making a special charge for placing a car at a convenient place 
on a shipper's siding when no extra charge was made for put- 
ting a car on a team track. They were unwilling, however, to 
incur the odium of apparently refusing to carry out a policy 
which they understood to be favored by the commission. 

Now, after all the denunciation of the railways for profuse 
dissipation of their revenues, and ^fter the intimation by the 
commission that "all services upon the siding beyond . . . 
placing the car for loading or unloading" are ... in excess 
of any obligation of services by the carrier," the commission 
rules that the placing of cars on industry sidings for loading or 
unloading is part of the line haul, and that no extra charge can 
be made for it. In consequence, the "spotting"' tariffs are set 
aside. Of course, the commission holds that the railways should 
make an extra charge for switching cars within a shipper's 
plant. There never was any real difference of opinion on that 

That the commission has been inconsistent is clear. But thi.> 
is not entirely to its discredit. It went too far in its expression* 
regarding car "spotting"" in the industrial railways case, and 
Mr. Brandeis subsequently went further still. Having found 
that it went too far, it shows gfmd sense and courage in now 
backing up. 

However, the incident holds a lesson which should not be lo.>t 
upon those, whether on the commission or off it, who set out 
to reform the transportation industry. This lesson is that it i.^ 
not safe to formulate and promulgate a theory regarding what 

Digitized by 


JcLY 16, 1915 



ii being or ought to be done, with the expectation of subse- 
quently finding facts which will support the theory. This is 
what was done concerning the matter in question. In practical 
affairs it is far safer to get your facts first, and formulate your 
theory afterward. If this were done more frequently in con- 
nection with the regulation of railways, many things that arc 
now left undone would be done, and many things that are now 
(lone would be left undone. 


'T'HE Raihvay Age Gazette in recent issues (June 4 and June 
■* 11) has called attention to the fact tiiat there are now 
in the hands of receivers in this country about 30,500 miles of 
railways, having a total capitalization of approximately $1,816,- 
000.000. Many persons, conceding that the carriers are not as 
prosperous as could be wished, attribute their unsatisfactory 
condition largely to the effects of the war in Europe, and argue 
that they should not be given special consideration and relief 
Iiecause, as is argued, they are merely suffering along with other 
business concerns. 

In our issue for November 27. 1914, we published an editorial 
entitled '"What Is the Matter with the Railways and Regula- 
tion?" showing that the troubles of the railways originated 
long before the war began, and were in the main due to funda- 
mental economic tendencies. In the editorial referred to, sta- 
tistics for the two seven-year periods, 1899-1906 and 1906-1913, 
were presented, which demonstrated that the entire trend of 
affairs in the transportation business was different in the latter 

creased 58 per cent, freight traffic per milt 59 per cent, and 
gross operating revenue per mite almost 55 per cent. The aver- 
age annual wage per employee increased less than 8 per cent. 
Operating expenses per mile increased 56 per cent, and net 
operating revenue per mile almost 53 per cent. Taxes per mile 
incrased less than 42 per cent, and in consequence net operating 
income per mile increased almost 54 per cent. The investment 
in road and equipment per mile increased only 3.88 per cent, 
and the percentage of net operating income on property invest- 
ment advanced from 3.64 per cent to 5.39 per cent. The increase 
in the percentage of operating income on property investment 
was 48 per cent. 

All these figures contrast very sharply with the corresponding 
rigures for the period, 1906-1914. In this second period pas- 
senger traffic per mile increased less than 26 per cent. Freigin 
traflic per mile increased less than 19 per cent. There were de- 
clines in both llie average passenger and the average freight 
rates, and the increase in operating revenues per mile was only 
21 per cent. The average annual wage per employee advanced 
almost a per cent, and in consequence the increase in oper- 
ating expenses per mile was almost 33^ per cent, being far 
greater in proportion than the increase in either the passenger 
or the freight traffic handled. Net operating revenue per mile 
actually decreased three per cent, while taxes per mile increased 
69 per cent. The increase in investment in road and equipment 
per mile was 20 per cent, while there was a decrease of over 
10'.^ per cent in net operating income per mile of road. In con- 
sequence there was a decrease of almost 26 per cent in the 
t'crcentage of operating income on property investment, the de- 
cline being from 5.39 in 1906 to 3.99 in 1914. 

Trend ok Raiuvav .Xtfaiks i\ the Last Tw.. Eight-Year Periods 

.Vnimini Amount of increase Per cent of increase 

Item 1906 1914 1906 1914 

1898 1906 191 4 over 1898 over 1906 over 1898 over 1906 

I'asstnger-miles per mile of line ;.'.46J 114,529 144,278 42,067 29,749 58.05 25.98 

.Average rate per passenger mile (cents) 1.973 2.003 1.982 .030 J. 021 1.52 d 1.05 

Ton-miles per mile of line 617,810 982,401 1,176,923 364.591 194,522 59.01 19.80 

Average rate per ton-mile (cents) 753 .748 .733 d .005 rf.015 d 0.66 d 2.01 

Investment in road and equipment per mile of line 57,395 59,624 71,551 2,229 11,927 3.88 20.00 

Gross operating revenue per mile operated 6,755 10,460 12.667 3.705 2,207 54.85 21.10 

Average annual wage per employee 566 a 61 1 810 45 199 7.95 32.57 

Operating expenses per mile operated 4.430 6.912 9,226 2.482 2,314 56.03 33.48 

Net operating revenue per mile operated 2,325 3.548 3,441 1,223 d 107 52.60 d 3.02 

.\verage taxes per mile operated 237 336 568 99 232 41.77 69.05 

.\verage operating income per mile operated 2.088 3.212 2,873 1.124 d 339 53.83 d 10.55 

Per cent operating income on property investment 3.64 5.39 3.99 1.75 d 1.40 48.08 d 25.97 

(T Rased on compensation adjusted to include the returns of the Southern Pacilic Company, records were destroyed by fire, d Decrease. 

period from what it was in the former. Both were periods of 
increasing gross earnings, but in the former the various in- 
rtucnces at work caused total earnings to increase much faster 
than expenses and fixed charges, while in the latter the in- 
fluences operating combined to make expenses and fixed 
charges increase much faster than earnings. The resultant was 
that in the period 1899-1906 the net return on investment sub- 
stantially increased, while in the period 1906-1913, in spite of 
the fact that in 1913 the gross earnings were the largest in 
history, there was a decline in net return on investment. 

The Bureau of Railway Economics at our request recently has 
compiled for us exactly similar statistics for the eight-year 
periods, 1898-1906 and 1906-1914. These statistics, while no more 
signilicant than those for the two last seven-year periods, are 
much more striking. In the fiscal year ended on June 30, 1914, 
contrary to the experience in the fiscal year 1913, there was a 
substantial decline in railway earnings and traffic. Therefore, 
while the figures for 1913 show how under present conditions 
the railways fare when their business is increasing, those for 
1914 show how, under present conditions, they fare when it 
falls off. The fiscal year 1914 ended a month before the war in 
Europe began. Therefore, the results in that year, striking as 
are the figures for them, were not affected by the war. 

The statistics for the two eight-year periods are presented 
in the accompanying table, and the attention of every thoughtful 
and public spirited student and business man is invited (o them. 
It will be seen that in 1898-1906 passenger traffic per mile in- 

lo sum up. there was an increase in investment per mile in 
the first eight-year period of less than 4 per cent, and an in- 
crease of almost 54 per cent in net operating income with which 
to pay a return on it. In the second eight-year period there was 
an increase in investment per mile of 20 per cent, and a de- 
crease in net operating income per mile with which to pay a 
return on it of lOVi per cent. Perhaps the figures regarding 
the actual increase and decrease in net operating income per 
milo in the two periods will convey the idea even more forcibly 
tlian the percentages of increase and decrease. The actual in- 
crease in net operating income per mile between 1898 and 1906 
was $1,124, while the actual decrease in net operating income per 
mile between 1906 and 1914 was $339. 

There is no difficulty in locating the principal causes of the 
decline in net operating income in the second period. They 
were the increase in the average annual wage per employee of 
almost 33 per cent, and in taxes per mile of 69 per cent. These 
advances in wages and taxes, together with the decrease of 
over one per cent in the average passenger rate, and of over 
two per cent in the average freight rate, were quite sufficient to 
have caused the railway companies much trouble. When, in 
addition to suffering such a loss in net operating income, it 
was necessary for the roads, in order to provide the improved 
service which the public demanded to make an increase in 
property investment per mile of 20 per cent, or five times as 
great as the investment per mile made in the preceding eight 
years, their embarrassment was bound to b^ereat. The most 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Vol. 59, No. 3 

efficient mangement conceivable could not save any class of 
business concerns from being embarrassed by the operation of 
such a combination of adverse influences. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission already has frankly 
recognized the unfavorable situation to which this conspiracy 
of causes, all operating to the same end, has reduced the eastern 
railways. It is only reasonable to expect that it will do likewise 
as respects the middle western railways in their rate cases. But 
the roads need more than relatively small increases in rates. 
They also need help in stopping the increases of expenses, and 
especially those which are entirely unnecessary. 

A great many unnecessary increases of expenses have been 
forced on them by regulating bodies. If the legislative com- 
mittees of the labor unions had got their way there would have 
been much more of this sort of thing at the recent sessions of 
the state legislatures. There will be a continuance of efforts 
by short-sighted people to put additional burdens on the carriers. 
The only way the success of these can be prevented is to create 
a strong and lasting public sentiment against them. The man- 
agements of the railways should go on doing all they can to 
create such a public sentiment, but in this work they need and 
should have the vigorous co-operation of business interests of 
all kinds. They should also have the co-operation of all classes 
of workingmen, for in the long run whatever unnecessarily 
increases railway expenses will be felt adversely by every class 
in the community. 


Ext>eriettcfs itt EtHcictwy. By Benjamin A. Franklin. Size 5 in. by * '- 
in.; 167 pages. Bound in cloth. Published by the Engineering Magazine 
Company, New York. Price $1. 

It is stated in the introduction to this book that it "is offered 
in answer to a many-voiced inquiry for specific examples of 
efficiency methods." Most of the chapters originally appeared 
in the Engineering Magazine, but they have been adapted and 
rearranged in a logical sequence. "Experiences in Efficiency" 
is not a book on scientific management, for it treats of the intro- 
duction of individual efficiency methods in various plants rather 
than of the introduction of an entire efficiency system in 
one plant. In each case considered the underlying conditions 
are briefly described and the success of the efficiency method 
carefully discussed. Naturally several of the chapters treat of 
the labor problem, very careful attention being given to the 
necessity for fair play to the employees, for careful inspection 
and for a proper incentive. Chapters also deal with clerical 
labor, proper routing methods and an efficient system of c<:'St 

Hitman \atiirc aiiJ tlw Railroads, By Ivy L. Lee. E. S. Nash ic (,"o.. 
Philadelphia. 129 pages. Price $1. 

Under this title Ivy Lee, who up to a few months ago was special 
assistant to the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad in charge 
of publicity, has brought together ten lectures delivered before 
various associations, chambers of commerce, etc. All of the lec- 
tures deal with the relations between the public and the rail- 
roads, and all deal with this question in a frank, clear, "human" 
way. Mr. Lee has had unusual opportunities to get an inside 
view of how (itie of the greatest railroad corporations in the 
I'nited States is run. and also, through his relations with the 
press, an opportunity to hear the other side of the story. In 
some ways he was able to view broad questions in a broader way 
even than could the executive officers of a railroad who might 
be, of course, engaged in the attempt to solve one particular 
phase of these questions. The titles of the various lectures give 
a good idea of the scope of the book: Human Nature and the 
Railroads. The Railroad Man's Burden, Training the Railroad 
Man, Telling the Railroad Story. Why Should We Make the 
Railroads Safe. Publicity— .\ Cure for Railroad Evils. Regu- 
lation Hampering Good Manners. Do We Want Government 
Ownership. The Need for Faith in Men, The People's Part in 
Solving the Railroad Problem, 

Letters to the Editor 



Haileyville, Okla. 
To THE Editor of the R.mlw.w .-Kce Gazette: 

If a man has made up his mind to break into a car of mer- 
chandise or flour he will first ascertain the location of the car 
and then the best time to enter it to avoid being caught. Observ- 
ing the cards and chalk marks on the outside of the cars will 
show him the exact commodities they contain in almost every 
case, and their destination as well. .After securing this infor- 
mation he only waits an opportune time to do the job; he may 
get on the train that takes out the car he is after and do his 
pilfering on the way. or he may telephone his confederates at 
other places that certain cars will go out in certain trains and 
they will be on the lookout for them. 

Merchandise, as well as other cars, are generally carded and 
chalk-marked thus — "Merchandise (or whatever the load may 
be) for 1071 Train 103" and so on. What better guide for his 
work does the thief want than this advertisement? Why is 
it necessary to mark cars in this manner? They can be 
just as well handled by the conductors, yardmasters, fore- 
men and yard clerks by the switch lists and way bills and the 
public will not know what the cars contain. Of course, where 
cars contain explosives they will have to be so marked. 

Again, the seals now being used are of very little protection, 
none at all if a man wants to pilfer a car. By the use of a pocket 
knife some seals can be pulled apart and replaced and the average 
man will not know that they have been disturbed. To protect the 
merchandise and other commodities which are being daily stolen 
it would seem that substantial locks could be used for the 
through cars, the combination of the locks to be only given by 
wire to the agents at destination ; or. locks of different design 
coujd be used, and the keys shipped by express to the agents at 
destination. The local cars could be handled under locks, the 
keys of which would be kept by the conductor. When cars are 
set out. the agent would have locks to protect them while stand- 
ing loaded at his station. The method to be adopted in case of 
an accident would be the same as now — chop the car open if the 
occasion demands ; if it has to be repaired by access to the in- 
side have the key sent to the repair point by express, or if a 
combination lock, wire the agent at destination for the com- 
bination. The delay would not amount to much. It would re- 
quire a large number of locks, and the first cost would be some- 
thing. However, the seals now employed are only used once 
and thrown away. The locks could be used until they were lost 
or worn out. Thousands of dollars worth of property is stolen 
on the railroads every week, and it appears that some practic- 
able nietlifid of protecting the freight in transit could be put in 
effect. If the practice of advertising the contents of the cars 
were discontinued this would reduce pilfering, 

J. L. Coss, 

Dt^I'.'itcIier. CliicaK'"'. Ro-.k Island & Pacific. 

R.MLW.W ExTEXsio.v IX Chix.x, — The Chinese government pro- 
poses to construct railway lines outside the Great Wall. The 
termini of the proposed lines are the several places whici' 
will be opened as trade port-, such as Chifeng, Taonanfu. 
EJolonor. etc. The first line is from Peking to Jehol, a dis- 
tance of 140 miles, with a line from Jehol to Chifeng of 130 
miles, and another one of 170 miles from Chingchow to 
Chifeng. The other lines are from Kalgan to Dolonor of 
150 miles, and from Dolonor to Chifeng of 200 miles. These 
lines will be connected with the Peking-Mukden and the 
I'eking-Kalgan railways. The scheme is under the considera- 
tion of the .Ministrv of Communications. 

Digitized by 


Seaboard Air Line Mountain Type Locomotives 

Replace Pacific Type in Through Passenger Service on 
Heavy Grades; Compturison with Others of Same Type 

The Seaboaril Air Line has recently received 10 Mountain 
type locomotives from the American Locomotive Company. 
I hey arc in service between Richmond. Va., and Columbia, S. C, 
replacinji an equal number of Pacific type superheater loco- 
motives having 23-in. by 28-in. cylinders. 72-in. drivers, 19S-lb. 
teiler pressure, a total engine weight of 223.000 lb., and exert- 
ing 34J0O lb. tractive effort. 

The Mountain type locomotives have a total weight, including 
the tender, of 499.000 lb., and develop a tractive effort of 47,800 
lb.; the Pacific type engines have a total weight, engine and 
tender, of 397.300 lb. With an increase in weight of 25.8 per 
cent, an increase of 39.8 per cent in tractive effort was obtained, 
combined with a higher boiler capacity. According to the Amer- 
ican Locomotive Company's method of determining boiler ca- 
pacity, the engines of the Pacilic type have 86 per cent boilers, 
while tho«e of the Mountain type have 98 per cent boilers. 

Through passenger trains consisting of from 10 to 13 steel 

the Mountain type engines. The new locomotives have also 
given a very satisfactory performance in starting trains at sta- 
tions where the grades are heavy. At certain stations, with the 
Pacilic type engines it was necessary with 10 or more cars to 
take the slack a number of times, and occasionally to back the 
train off the hard pull. With the Mountain type the latter ex- 
pedient has never been resorted to. and it is exceptional to have 
to take the slack in starting. 

This locomotive design was developed as a part of the pro- 
gram of the Seaboard .\ir Line in reducing operating costs. 
The successful operation of the engines is of special interest be- 
cause of the fact that it adds another road to those which are 
using this type of locomotive for heavy passenger service. 

The accompanying table shows the principal data for a num- 
ber of Mountain type locomotives in comparison with the Sea- 
board engines. 

In working out the design there were included a 34-unit super- 

Compakison of Five Tvpe Locomotives 







Weight on 







diam. and 







Heating surface 


and flue«. 

sq. ft. 

sq. ft. 

sq. ft. 

sq. ft. 

sq. ft. 

sq. ft. 

R.<k IsUnJ 

( hfsaptike & Ohio 
I'.rtjt Sorthern .. . 
vaboanl .\ir Line 
Mi<*ourJ Pacific . . 





28 by 28 

29 by 28 
28 by 32 

27 by 28 

28 by 28 


83 « 











cars, are lieing hauled by the new locomotives, the regular trains 
lifing made up of 10 cars. Tiie engines are assigned to runs from 
kichmoiid to Raleigh. 160 miles, on which there are several 
grades of 1.2 per cent. 2;<j miles long; and from Raleigh to 
Columbia. 207 miles, on which there are grades of 1.25 per cent, 
}': miles long. The introduction of the Mountain type engines 
•tas because of the inability of the locomotives of the Pacific 
ivpe to maintain a sufficient speed up the grades with 10 or more 
sieel cars to avoid the necessity of exceeding the maximum 

heater, a 44^-in. combustion chamber. Security firebrick arch, 
long main driving box. Cole outside bearing trailing truck, 
Woodard engine truck, and radial buffer. The table which fol- 
lows gives the principal dimensions and data : 

Ocitcral Data 

Gage 4 ft. S'/i in. 

Service Passenger 

I'ucl Bit. coal 

Tractive effort 47,800 lb. 

Weight in working order 316,000 lb. 

Weight on drivers 210,500 lb. 

Mountain Type Locomotive Used in Heavy Passenger Service on the Seaboard Air Line 

<,*c,l hmit ot 50 miles per hour on other parts of the run. The Weight on leading ;;«};;;;;::;;;;:;: ::;;;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:;: j^;«»» jg; 

Pacilic tvjie locomotives, when hauling 11 cars, would drop back Weight of engine and tender in working order 499.000 lb. 

t., >tieeds as low as !S or 20 miles an hour before reaching the wheel base,' totaV"*..'.' .'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'..'..'......'.•'..•• .^ '■■••■ ..^ in! 

t.p i.i the heaviest grades, while those of the Mountain type Wheel base, engine and ten.ler 76 ft. »•/, in. 

will maintain a much higher speed with the same train. On '^'""" 

, , ,1,10 • .. • ■ I r V\ elRht on drivers -:- tractive effort 4.40 

«orae occasicns they have hauled 12 cars, maintamnig a speed ot y^^^^ weight -=- tractive effort 6.60 

i; mil...; ^n liniir nil thi> arades Tractive effort X diam. drivers 4- equivalent heating surface* 658.10 

.V mile> an hour up tnc graaes. _, „ c Equivalent heating surface' h- grate area 75.10 

Kfcords of the fuel consumption of the Mountain and Pacific Firebox heating surface H- equivalent heating surface,* per cent 6.37 

, ^. ... .. • .. I . :., „!,„... f^.. tU^ Weight on drivers -i- equivalent heating surface* 42.10 

npe locomotives, with the same weight of tram, show tor the .^^,^», ^.^jgh, ^ equivalent heating surface* 63.20 

Mountain tvpe. 12 lb. per car mile, and for the Pacific type. 13.5 Volume lx)th cylinders....^................. 18.55 cu ft 

•^ * • r f K(|uivalent heating surface -f- vol. cylinders 2/0.20 

lb. per car mile. This is a saving of 11 per cent in favor ot Craie ana -h voH cylinders 3.59 

Digitized by 



Vol. 59, No. 3 






































Digitized by 


July 16, 1915 




Kind Simple 

Diameter and stroke 27 in. by 28 in. 


Kind Piston 

Greatest travel 7 in. 

< Hit?iide lap 1 Ti in. 

Iii-idc clearance 3/16 in. 

Lead in full gear H in- 


I (riving, diameter over tires 69 in. 

Driving, thickness of tires 7 in. 

I >riving journaU, main, diameter and length 1 1 ^^ in. by 21 in. 

Driving journals, others, diameter and length 10 in. by 12 in. 

Engine truck wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Engine truck, journals *. 7 in. by 12 in. 

Trailing truck wheels, diameier 42 in. 

Trailing truck, journals 9 in. by 14 in. 


Style E. W. T. 

Working pressure 190 lb. per sq. in. 

<Jutside diameter of first ring 76'/i in. 

Firebox, length and width 11 4! 8 in. by 84^4 in. 

Firebox plates, thickness i^ in. and H in. 

Firebox, water space 5 in. and 5 '4 in. 

Tubes, number and outfiile diam?:er 193 -2'4 in. 

Flues, number and outside diameter 34 —5 !4 in. 

Tubes and flues, length 20 ft. 

Heating surface, tubes aid flues 3,396 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 319 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,715 sq. ft. 

Superheater heating surface 865 sq. ft. 

Erjuivalcnt heating surface-* 5,012 sq. ft. 

< irate area 56.5 sq. ft. 

Smokestack, diameter 19 in. 

Smokestack, height above rail 180 in. 

Ten tier 

Tank Vanderbilt 

Weight 183.000 lb. 

Wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Tournals, diameter aivl length 6 in. by 11 in. 

\Vater capacity 9,000 gal. 

Coal capacity > 17 tons 

'Equivalent heating surface = total evapi'raiivt Iieating surface + 1.5 
time- the superheating surface. 


By H. H. Larson 

Vardmaster, Union Pacific, Council J"iirt'> Transfer, la. 

The successful operation of a terminal yard depends on the 
\ardinaster, and to get results he must fit himself to conditions 
that are peculiar to the problems that surround him. He must 
first learn to enjoy his work, get into the real game of it and 
subordinate everything to it. Co-operation with all departments 
is the essential feature, and if the yardmaster is in perfect har- 
mony with all the different department heads, his work will be 
less arduous. 

The yardmaster is comparable to the merchant and should 
treat all whom he serves as his customers, dealing with them 
honestly and faithfully. To have and to hub! tlie re.spcct of his 
co-workers and patrons he must be a man of his word. The 
freight house is usually the biggest customer and should be 
served promptly and regularly, as a few moments" delay in ' 
switching will run up into hours and dollars to a large force 
of men. Where the drop truck system is used, the loss in time 
to the platform force can be reduced to a minimum if the switch- 
ing is handled promptly. Dilatory switching service performed 
for the car department will result in delay to cars, but the prompt 
handling of material will save delay to equipment and dollars 
in labor. To get full value from each crew, the motive power 
must be in good shape and out in time ; and to expect such 
service the round house, in return, must have its coal promptly 
and supplies handled quickly. By keeping in close touch with 
this department, many serious delays can be averted. 

The industrial feature of terminal operation is frequently a 
trying proposition. The public expects prompt service. Some 
patrons are unreasonable and the ready excuse for presenting 
claims requires no little diplomacy to forestall. The man in 
charge should make himself personally acquainted with as many 
of his patrons as possible, interesting himself in their welfare, 
and finding out what they expect and want. 

A regular and set schedule can, no doubt, be arranged with 
patrons which will be satisfactory to all concerned and if the 

arrangement is maintained, trouble from this source will be 
eliminated. Conditions may arise that will disarrange this sched- 
ule, but by reaching the complainer before he gets to you. the 
complaint can possibly be forestalled and delay and expense to 
him saved. 

The irregular patron and team track man should be treated 
with utmost courtesy and with liberal information and due con- 
sideration, as one may secure a regular customer for his road. 
Irregular runs and special service should be discouraged as the 
practice is expensive and may disturb other patrons, but if nec- 
essary to save a patron from loss or damage the service shouUi 
be performed. 

Economical operation can only be attained by having an ef- 
ficient organization. Learn to handle men and make them work 
for you. Win their confidence, encourage suggestions and make 
them feel that they are a part of the machinery and not merel> 
tools. The most humble employee is worthy of your considera- 
tion and many differences can be adjusted by showing your in- 
terest in the case. Each employee should be encouraged to learn 
every detail in his own department and then, if occasion demands 
he may fill in, where needed. 

The system of interchange in all large terminals is similar, the 
main object of all is to get rid of the cars, and to save per diem 
and responsibility for delay and claims. To create a free inter- 
change, the important question is keeping the transfer tracks 
open. Switch engines, being the most expensive item, must not 
be delayed waiting for cars. Bills or proper data for handling 
should in all cases accompany the cars. The mechanical inspec- 
tion and seal records should be made promptly and meanwhile 
the bills should be checked up, tags made out and cars carded 
without delay. If a car is found without proper data, the deliver- 
ing road should be immediately called and disposition requested, 
thereby saving delay and rehandling. 

The most important function in terminal yard operation is 
for the map in charge to know exactly what is going on daily. 
In our terminal a complete yard check is made each morning, 
showing the number and initial of every car, loaded or empty, 
good or bad order and destination ; if any cars are found with- 
out disposition, immediate action is taken to secure the data for 
moving them. 

The universal interchange bureau in vogue here, eliminates the 
delay in mailing and makes complete up-to-date records possible. 
The bureau consists of an interchange clerk representing each 
road who assemble daily at one of the freight offices, check up 
each other's interchange, make proper corrections and complete 
each day's work. 

The common practice in furnishing cars for shippers is to call 
on the routing road for empties, which often consumes several 
days. Delay to shippers and unnecessary rehandling of cars to 
and from connections can frequently be avoided by picking up a 
car and having it inspected for purpose required and applied on 
the order. 

Some terminals are distributing points for grain, lumber and 
fruit, and have facilities such as storage and inspection yards 
for this purpose. Terminals that have no separate storage yards 
should have assigned tracks for the storage of hold grain, and 
this information conveyed to the grain exchange inspectors. The 
inspectors are then in a position to make prompt inspections, 
which means quick release of cars. Certain tracks should be 
assigned for the fruit distributors and located where they will 
be convenient for vehicles and ice men, in case cars have to be 
iced on track. A fixed hour should be maintained for receiving 
diversions or disposition and the track pulled regularly after this 
hour to facilitate the movement of the cars, to connecting lines 
or destination. 

Co-operation with the other fellow will help any situation and 
a movement in this direction has been accomplished here by the 
formation of an organization known as the General Yardmasters' 
Terminal Association. The association meets once each month 
to discuss the problems of handling terminal traffic and cultivate 
good fellowship and much good has resulted therefrom. TJje 

Digitized by 




Vol, 59, No. 3 

policy outlined has resulted in reducing delay to a minimum, sav- 
ing in per diem and satisfied patrons, 

A daily comparison of business handled, fair and impartial 
treatment toward co-workers and employees has enabled us to 
increase the cars handled per engine, 65 per cent in seven years. 


The very great increase in the amounts paid by the railroads 
of America for freight losses during the past ten years, has now 
become familiar knowledge. The report of the committees of 
the .American Railway Association, recommending measures for 
improving the efficiency of the work of the transportation de- 
partment in this respect was noticed in the Railway Age Gazette 
May 21. page 1088, and again May 28, page 1127, in connection 
with the proceedings of the spring meeting of the association, 
where mention was made of the fact that during the fiscal year 
enrling June 30. 1914. the total payments on this account were 

ending December 31. 1914. The total here shown is $32,375,618. 
The figures do not include the payments of roads having annual 
revenues of less than $1,000,000. In the reprint here given the 
table is divided into two parts, ten of the sixteen classes being in 
the upper part and the other six in the lower. The seventeenth 
column (letter q), as shown, represents a sum to be deducted 
from the aggregate of the preceding columns. 

This statement presents the aggregate of the losses and dam- 
ages on 180 roads operating 227,884 miles of road; .the total 
represents 1.117 per cent of the total operating revenues of 
the.=e roads; 1.551 per cent of the total operating expenses, and 
1.625 per cent of the total freight revenues. 

The committee in its report presents an analysis of the 
statistics which appear in the table, giving therewith reasons 
for the different recommendations embodied in the resolutions 
offered for the approval of the association (printed May 28). 
Some 18 per cent of the total loss is of entire packages. Un- 
located losses amount to nearly 24 per cent of the whole. Rough 
handling of cars, representing carelessness outdoors, accounts 
















1. BooUudSboM 

2. Clotliiiig.DiTOoaiUudNotiau 

8. Buttwuid ClMCM 













48,924 88 






















1,418 04 





















































28,284 .08 

42,481 .53 

96,698 80 











































































8,838 04 













4. Bo* 


6 LiT« Stock 


7. Mr«tauidPackiiicHoUMPn)dacU .. 


• Gnin 


10. Floor asd Other Mm PTodtiou 


14. TobMOoandTobunoFrodooU 


17. HouMholdOood* 

16. Prodoott of CenMoi.CUrui4 Stone.. 


21. Iron and Steel Cutingt ud Bare 


21 All Other CommodiUM 











lUtioof amount paid aocooilt o( Hch OUM 
to total iwTiiMata 











Hom h HsiKUIsf 
of Can 



Rpfriserstlpn sod 



HsDdllnjT. Losd- 
ns or Mowing SDd 
improper P«clt- 
of Frelgtil 






Under Peoaltr 



Retw.ered From 
Sale of Rerawd 
sod t'Dolslmed 



Ratio of Amoaat 
Commodllr to 



2.961 73 


41..«15 35 




49.190 30 
10.701 .00 




















6.063., 52 


3.171 .63 



3.137. .57 


107.317. S3 
91.010. .53 








10-3.5O5 .55 


36.933 63 


r3,90l .96 




8.771. .54 








■.■9.0.37. .59 

13.912 39 


9.39.907 ll'J 















1. 0-30.330. 7q 



608.011 60 



492.37;. 18 



•i. Clothing, Dry Goods and Notions 


4 EegD 


a. Fresh Fruits and Veget«ble« 


7. MfRt^ and PackinK Hou6e Products .. 

H. Poultrv, Qame ana Fish 

9. Gniin.' 

10. Flour and Other Mill Products 

11. Sugar 

Vt. Orwerij's 


11. Tobacco and Tobaooo ProducU 



17. Household Goods 

18. Product-ii of Omeiit. Clay and Stone. . 


20. Stoves ... 


31. Iron anil Steel Castings and Bars 

22. Velili-le« 

33. Agricultural Implements 

31. All Other Commcjities 





14.343.191 76 




$0.767 .6.'!1. 9,5 





K.itioor amount paid account of each cause 
to total pavment-i 


:l n«H 

1 1.-.;* 



■ llo* 

•i ftftn 

10. 1< 

J36,M1.2X5, wliidi sum is t<iu;il to 1.597 per cent of the freight- 
rt-Vfnue. This sum ri-prcscnts all of the reports made to the 
association, which include some Caiiatliaii roads. For the United 
States alone the total was $33,671,219. The total in 1904 was 
S17.0O2,«)2: in IWS, $19,7X2,692: in 1910. $21,941,232; in 1912, 
S25.a).9.705 ; in 19:3 $30.S><.=;.454. 

In connection witli this rei)ort the committee presented a 
statement, reproduced herewith, .niving. in considerable detail, 
as shfiwii liy the records of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, payments iiiaile liy cla*s 1 roads during the twelve months 

for over 13 per cent : and improper handling, etc., neglect or 
recklessness, mostly indoors, aiiiounted to 4 per cent. In short, 
every one of the sixteen item-, against each one of the 24 
classes of commodities, lias a very detinite interest for some 
particular class of emi)loyee> : and many of them, of course, for 
two or more clas>e>. 

Resides the matter- de.ilt «itli in the resolutions printed last 
week, the committee on packing, marking and handling of freight 
has a number of other recoiiimeiiilatioiis in hand and probably 
will take measure- to ha\e them put into effect at an early date. 

Digitized by 


July 16, 1915 



It is proposed that where fibre board boxes do not come up to 
the standard of strength and security, the freight rate shall be 
made SO per cent higher than the regular tariff. It will be pro- 
posed that liquids in glass or earthenware be not received, except 
in very small containers, say those of one quart capacity. Some 
articles ought not to be received in fibre containers, and a list 
of these will be presented to the classification committee. Boxes 
containing wine, liquor, shoes, bats and clothing ought to be com- 
pletely strapped with wood or iron or wire and a recommenda- 
tion to this effect is likely to be adopted. 

This committee has under consideration regulations for the 
proper loading of cement, plaster, sewer pipe, newsprint paper 
in rolls, and drain tile ; also rules for the removal and disposition 
of refuse ; for fixing a closing hour for the receipt of freight : 
and for loading and handling carload freight. 


By H. G. Moultox 

Assistant Professor of Political Economy, University of Chicago 

The latest report of the state engineer and surveyor of New 
York' contains an account of the progress that has been made on 
the New York barge-canal system to date, and some revised 
estimates of the probable eventual cost of the undertaking. 
Canals have notoriously cost far more in the building than the 
original hopeful estimates. Such has been the almost universal 
experience, except in Germany, where faulty preliminary esti- 
mates have been comparatively rare. The experience in Xew 
York has followed the general rule. By act of the legislature 
and a referendum vote in 1903 the State of New York appro- 
priated $101,000,000 for the rehabilitation of the state canal sys- 
tem. The law provided that the new Erie canal should be 12 
instead of 7 feet deep and that the locks should be 28 feet wide 
and 328 feet long. 

.According to this [state engineer's! estimate the canal construction work 
involved would cost approximately $84,000,000. The balance of the appro* 
oriation was designed to cover damages, engineering, incidental expenses, 
and contingencies. It was also estimated that $2,000,000 would be realized 
by the sale of abandoned canal lands. . . . where the line of the pres- 
ent canal was deviated from in the course of the new construction. This 
amount it was estimated would be turned back into the canal fund for th'' 
general uses of the appropriation, thus making the estimated total co«t of 
the canal $103,000,000, of which $2,000,000 would be recovered.- 

Let us see how these expectations have been fulfilled. 

A series of wholly unexpected events have occurred which 
have rendered the foregoing estimates quite inadequate. The 
first of these came in 1S06 when the legislature amended the 
original law so as to increase the width of the locks from 28 
feet to 45 feet.- This has added $2,500,000 to the cost of con- 
struction without increasing the appropriation. Several smaller 
amendments passed by the legislature have added $250,000 to 
this amount. 

A second unanticipated e.\pense has been due to delays in 
settlement with railroads whose lines have been crossed by new 
canal lines. This has required changes in railroad grades and 
alinements and the construction of new bridges. The advent 
of the Democratic state administration in 1911 resulted in throw- 
ing the question of the legality of the already consummated 
agreements with the railroads into the courts, ".\fter three 
years of litigation the court of appeals has upheld the settlements 
made prior to 1911. This litigation, however, made it necessary 
to cancel several of the existing contracts for the reason that it 
was not possible to provide the contractors with the entire site of 
their contracts." Other contracts, also, became involved : and. 
to make a long story short, the state engineer now believes that 
the litigation damage claims and added expenses due to "re- 
surveJ^ng, readvertising, and the movement of heavy machinery" 
have increased the total outlays on this account by $5,000,000. 

A third cause of additional expense has been two unexpected 

•Abstract of an article published in the Journal of Pulitical Economy. 
May, 1915. Reprinted by permission. 
'Barge Canal Bulletin, January, 1913 (p>ibli>hefl nionihlv at -Vlhanv. X. Y.i. 
Mbid., p. 3. 

breaks in the line of the canal east of Rochester, one in 1911 
and one in 1912. On these $400,000 has already been expended, 
and the engineer estimates that permanent repairs will entail an 
additional outlay of $250,000. 

Fourthly, the rebuilding of public highways destroyed by con- 
struction operations on the canal has cost the state to date over 

Fifthly, services rendered by the state departments of con- 
troller and claims and by the appraiser have added $710,000 to 
the total. The original estimate made no allowance for these 

Sixthly, "no provision was made in the 1903 estimate which at 
all adequately provided for the enormous damage claims" filed by 
private property holders. There have been filed up to the present 
time land damage claims to the amount of $19,000,000; water- 
power damage claims to the amount of $38,000,000; railroad- 
crossing claims to the amount of $8,700,000; and damage claims 
by contractors to the amount of $7,000,000; making a total in 
round numbers of $72,700,000. The state engineer adds, however, 
that "many of these claims are very excessive and it is reasonable 
to assume that no just awards will reach much over one-third 
of the total sum claimed." This is a grudging admission of at 
least $25,000,000 for claims thus far presented. The court 
awards, delayed as they have been^ have already amounted to 
over $10,000,000. 

Finally, the incidental expense were grossly underestimated. 
"The necessity of maintaining navigation on the old canal while 
building the enlarged channel on the same site, as is the case 
in many sections, presented a number of unexpected and ex- 
pensive difficulties. Injunctions on the part of property-owners 
which delayed work or made necessary the readjustment of 
plans have also added to the expense." The total charge for 
engineering, including the charges for consulting engineers, 
has amounted to $9,100,000 — much in excess of the anticipations. 
The straight construction costs have also been substantially in- 
creased, owing to "the increased cost of materials, particularly 
with reference to concrete, the eight-hour labor law, and the 
workmen's compensation law, both pieces of legislation passed 
subsequently to the making of the estimate in 1903." 

The net result is that with only 85 per cent of the construction 
work on the canal completed, the appropriation of $101,000,000 is 
overdrawn. "The state is at this moment obligated to an ex- 
penditure of $1,500,000 more than is available in the appropria- 
tion." Unless an additional appropriation is made no section 
of the canal will be available for through traffic by large barge< 
as the work remaining to be done is so located that the com- 
pleted sections could be utilized for local traffic only. 

The state engineer now estimates that to complete the project 
an additional sum of $27,000,000 will be required. Perhaps this 
estimate is proportionately as wide of the ultimate mark as the 
previous ones. In particular the damage claims may much ex- 
ceed the estimate of the engineer. All things considered, if the 
history of this and other projects mey serve as a guide we need 
not be at all surprised if the total cost eventually reaches 

Parenthetically, it is worth noting that engineers originally 
hoped that the project would be completed and ready for use with 
the opening of navigation in the spring of 1915. It is now the 
hope of the department that, if the additional appropriation re- 
quired is granted at once, two sections of the canal, from Troy 
to Whitehall and from Waterford to Otsego — roughly half the 
distance — will be ready for local traffic by the opening of navi- 
gation in 1916. It would appear, therefore, that it will be at 
least three years yet before the undertaking as a whole is com- 

To return to the question of cost, it will be of interest to reduce 
the foregoing figures to a mileage basis. The project in New- 
York is a system of canals rather than a single line, and is com- 
posed of the Erie, Champlain, Oswego, and Cayuga and Seneca 
branches. The appropriation of $101,000,000 was for the first 
three branches ; while a separate appropriation of $7,000,000 was 
made in 1909 for the Cayuga and Seneca branch, which is 27.5 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 3 

miles in length. The lengths of the Erie, Champlain, and 
Oswego branches are 323, 61.S, and 22.8 miles, respectively, giving 
a total of 407.3 miles for the main system. The average cost 
per mile has therefore been approximately $330,000 ($135,000,- 
OOO-T-407.3). Since the canal connects with the Hudson river, 
however, it makes possible a continuous water route from Buf- 
falo to New York City. Spreading the same cost over this 
longer distance reduces the average to approximately $260,000 
per mile. This is exclusive of the cost of necessary improve- 
ments on the Hudson, particularly the construction of a large 
dam and locks near Troy. 

All of the foregoing costs, it should be observed, are merely 
for the acquisition of canal sites, and for the construction of the 
channel, locks, etc. They make no allowance for the indispen- 
sable terminal facilities, such as docks, wharves, freight depots, 
and trans-shipping machinery. This failure to provide (origi- 
nally) for these terminal facilities affords an excellent illustra- 
tion of the utterly haphazard fashion in which public works are 
undertaken in this country. Campaign orators, chambers of 
commerce, specially interested shipping associations, waterway 
conventions, and state and national commissions had for many 
years portrayed the wonderful possibilities of water transpor- 
tation and fanned the enthusiasm of the public to a white heat, 
before there was even so much as a reference to the terminal 
question. Indeed, it was not until 1909 that it made its be- 
lated appearance, in a government report, six years after the 
decision to rehabilitate the old Erie Canal. 

The United States Bureau of Corporations was delegated to 
make an exhaustive report on the subject and in 1909 the state 
of New York appointed a Barge Canal Terminal Commission 
for the purpose of investigating the terminal situation in New 
York with a view to making an appropriation. After an exten- 
sive investigation costing $10,000, the commission came to the 
important, though obvious, conclusion that "it is just as neces- 
sary that there shall be frequent, convenient, well-established, 
thoroughly equipped, and wisely managed depots all along the 
canals and waterways, where canal-borne freight may be re- 
ceived, cared for, and shipped away, as it is necessary that the 
railroads shall have their freight depots. It was found that a 
good waterway terminal has four prime factors : adequate 
wharves ; warehouse space ; transshipping machinery ; and belt- 
line railway connections between the water routes and adjacent 
railways and local industries. Henceforth, the development of 
these necessary terminal facilities had to be included in estimat- 
ing the total cost of the undertaking. 

In 1911 the legislature, acting upon the commission's report, 
appropriated $19,800,000 for the purpose of constructing termi- 
nals for the barge-canal system. This was approved by a refer- 
endum vote of the people in November of that year. Provision 
was made in this appropriation for New York and Buffalo at 
the terminal of the route, and for about fifty intermediate 
towns. Whether the sum appropriated is the usual underesti- 
mate remains to be seen, of course, but there is little reason for 
believing that the amount is at all adequate. Study of the report 
inclines one to believe that while the provision of the necessary 
docks and wharves has received pretty careful consideration, 
the matter of transshipping machinery, storage depots, and belt- 
railway connections has been slighted not a little. Even in the 
case of the docks and wharves these preliminary cost estimates 
may well prove far from adequate. There will doubtless be the 
"unanticipated" claims-department charges, appraiser's expenses, 
controller's fees, "incidental outlays" of many kinds, and, par- 
ticularly, the customary heavy damage claims with the litigation 
expenses connected therewith. 

Indeed, it is a certainty that further appropriations will be 
required for terminals, since the 1911 appropriation did not take 
into consideration or definitely provide for terminals along the 
Hudson river between Albany and New York. The state engi- 
neer has already called attention to the early need of an addi- 
tional appropriation for this section of the route. 

Finally, the appropriation that has already been made for ter- 
minals in New York City is clearly inadequate for the needs 

there. The city itself in 1911 outlined a project, independent of 
the state, which calls for an initial expenditure of $12,000,000 on 
terminal facilities. Whether this plan has been give>i up the 
writer is unable to ascertain ; but at any rate it is a clear indication 
of the probable needs in the metropolis. 

It would obviously be a mere guess on the part of the writer 
to state the probable ultimate cost of providing the terminal 
facilities that will be required. Not being averse to prophecy, 
however, I may hazard an estimate of $40,000,000 on this Recount. 
Something like a grand total of $175,000,000 may, therefore, 
prove to be the ultimate expenditure of New York in re- 
habiliating her canal system.' This estimate would raise the 
figures of average cost per mile that were given above from 
$260,000 to more than $340,000, for the through distance from 
Buffalo to New York City. For purposes of comparison it may 
be added that the capitalization of the railroads of the bnited 
States averages approximately $60,000 per mile.* 

It has been seen that the question of terminals did not appear 
until several years after the barge-canal system in New York was 
approved. In a similar way the state has gone ahead building 
the canal without knowing what depth of channel is either de- 
sirable or necessary. It now appears that quite as serviceable a 
canal might have been provided at perhaps only a fraction of the 
present cost. 

The depth of the new Erie canal at the locks is to be 12 feet. 
No good reason has ever been given for this particular depth. 
Perhaps the most common statement has been that the failure 
of the old canal to retain its former tonnage was due to the in- 
adequate depth of the 7-foot channel. Another and perhaps 
more important argument has been that if the canal were made 
of ample depth boats could pass through the canal to and from 
the various lake ports without breaking bulk. But in this con- 
nection there was no investigation as to the practicability of 
lake and canal transportation by the same boats. As usual, 
investigation could be left until afterward. 

At last, in 1911, the Barge Canal Terminal Commission recom- 
mended that it was important that a study be made of the best 
type of boat for use on the canal, but the advice passed unheeded. 
Just recently, again, the state engineer has urged that "one of the 
r.-iatters that should receive the earl\- attention of the state is that 
relating to the size of boats for navigation upon the opening of 
the barge canal." It is apparent, therefore, that even yet there 
is no definite knowledge as to what is the most feasible boat for 
the canal or what its draft should be. 

.■\ great depth of channel is not required for economical barge 
transportation. For instance, the fleets of coal barges on the 
Ohio and lower Mississippi rivers, of which so much has been 
written, have to be content with a depth of 6 feet and even less 
for the greater part of each year. On the Rhine in Germany, 
barges of 2.000 tons capacity regularly ascend the river as far 
as Mannheim, where the low mean channel depth is only 6.52 
feet. Between Mannheim and Strasburg, the head of navigation 
on the Rhine, the low mean depth is but 3.91 feet, but barges of 
800 tons burden reach the latter port. In fact, the greater part 
of the vast canal traffic of Europe is carried on canals with a 
depth of less than 7 feet. 

Evidently, the failure of the old Erie canal was not primarily 
due to its inadequate depth. Evidently, also (even ass.uming 
canal transportation is economical), a great part of the present 
outlays in New York is but a needless sinking of state funds. 
While the greater width may have been required, the extra depth 
appears to have been almost, if not quite, superfluous. It will be 
interesting to see, however, if other localities do not cheerfully 
go and do likewise. 

^Therc is to be added to thi^ estimate the $7,000,000 appropriated for the 
Cayuga and Seneca branches. 

•It has elsewhere been shown by the writer that the low transportation 
rates on the barge canal that are promised will be possible only {because the 
state will charge no tolls on its waterways. ^ The entire interest on the 
bonded indebtedness nnd even the cost of maintenance and upkeep of the 
canal arc to be paid out of annual taxes. The canal rates, therefore, will 
merely cover direct haulage charges. But this shifting of a great part of 
the expense to the taxpayers does not lessen the cost as a whole. And if 
the inclusiTe cost is considered, it is easily shown that the entire under- 
taking will prove an enormous economic loss to the state. (See Waterways 
versus Railways.) 

Digitized by 


Hearing on Advances in Western Passenger Fares 

Railway Officers Show Reduction of State Passenger 
Fares Has Not Brought Compensating Increase in Travel 

Testimony on behalf of the western railroads at the hearing 
before Examiner H. E. Thurtell, of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, at Chicago, in support of their application for ad- 
vances in interstate passenger fares in the territory between 
Chicago and the Rocky mountains was concluded on Monday, 
July 12, and the hearing during the rest of this week has been 
devoted to testimony on behalf of the protesting state railway 
commissions. It was expected that the hearing would be com- 
pleted by the end of the week. 

L. E. Wettling, who presented most of the statistical tes- 
timony for the carriers, completed his direct testimony on July 8. 
Cliflford Thome, chairman of the Iowa Railroad Commission, 
asked a number of questions in an effort to get the witness to 
admit that the standard of maintenance had been higher during 
the period 1908-1914 than during the period 1901-1907, and that 
during the second period permanent improvements had been 
charged to operating expenses, as allowed in some cases by the 
accounting rules of the Interstate Commerce Commission, to 
such an extent that the net operating income was considerably 
less than it would have been without such expenditures. Mr. 
Thome asserted that if the same standard of maintenance had 
been continued during the last seven years, as during the pre- 
ceding seven years the roads would have shown a net operating 
income $300,000,000 greater. Mr. Wettling said that some of the 
expenditures of this character represented deferred maintenance. 
Mr. Thome also insisted that the commission give a ruling on 
his request for a statement of the amount of increased revenue 
which each of the roads involved would receive from the ad- 
vance if allowed. The carriers had presented a rough estimate 
of the total advance, and C. C. Wright, chairman of the lawyers' 
committee representing the roads, said they would rest on that 
estimate, that it would be impossible to get an exact statement 
for each road. 

A. E. Helm, counsel for the Kansas Public Utilities Commis- 
sion, started a controversy by insisting that the carriers submit a 
division of their expenses between state and interstate business. 
Attorneys for the railroads attempted to put Mr. Helm on record 
as to whether he claimed that the state business cost more or 
less than the interstate business, but he declined to commit him- 
self, saying the roads had usually contended in state cases that 
the cost of intrastate business was higher. Mr. Wright said 
that while in certain cases the roads had presented evidence to 
overcome the presumption that the cost of state and interstate 
business is the same, in this case they would rest on that pre- 
sumption. Mr. Helm insisted that his request be submitted to 
the commission for a ruling. He then cross-examined Mr. 
Wettling on his exhibits to show that for all of the roads in 
the case, and for a number of the groups of roads, the increase 
in taxes in the second period over the first period was greater 
than the decrease in net operating income, and said that, there- 
fore, the roads ought to "get after" the tax commissions rather 
than ask for an advance in rates. 


H. H. Butler, assistant general passenger agent of the Mis- 
souri Pacific, testified on behalf of the railways in the south- 
west, that have filed tariffs publishing interstate rates on the 
basis of 3 cents a mile in the territory west of the Missouri 
river and south of the Union Pacific line in Kansas. His tes- 
timony was largely devoted to showing the losses caused by the 
reductions of passenger fares to 2 cents a mile in 1907, and the 
failure of anything like a compensating growth in traffic to re- 

"Comparing 1907, the last year under 3-cent fares, with 1914, 
the last under the 2-cent fares." he said, "the Missouri Pacific 
suffered a decrease in passenger revenue of 2.8 per cent. In 

the same time the number of passengers increased 9.1 per cent. 
The average increase in revenues to the railways, in other words, 
has not kept up, although expenses due to wage increases, etc., 
have more than kept up with the growth of business. The argu- 
ment for reduction was that travel would be increased, but this 
was not well founded. Comparing the Missouri Pacific figures 
from 1901 to 1907, seven years under 3-cent fares, its passenger 
revenue increased 57.7 per cent. Comparing 1908 with 1914, 
seven years under 2-cent fares in Kansas and Nebraska, and part 
of the time in Missouri, the increase in passenger revenue was 
only 10.9 per cent. Comparing 1907, the last 3-cent year, with 
1908. the first 2-cent year, there was a loss in passengers carried 
one mile of 1.6 per cent, but a drop in passenger revenue of 10.4 
per cent. 

"This appears to prove," he said, "that a general reduction in 
base rates per mile in passenger fares in any territory will not 
cause a corresponding increase in the number of passengers 
handled and the revenue received. It has been the experience 
in this territory that people travel only when they have good 
reasons to travel, and this is substantiated by the fact that the 
public, after 2-cent fares were established, was as insistent that 
excursion rates be granted at reductions from 2-cent fares, as 
they had been previously that special reductions be granted from 
the 3-cent fare. Since these 2-cent fares Were enforced, repeated 
efforts have been made by the southwestern lines to secure relief, 
in most instances thus far without avail. Before 1907, fares in 
.Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma were 3 cents per 
mile, but during 1907 the rates were changed to 2 cents by state 
action. The roads in Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma ap- 
pealed to the United States courts on the basis of confiscation; 
injunctions were granted and the fares were restored to the 
old basis. The cases of .Arkansas and Missouri went to the 
United States Supreme Court, and by a decision in 1913 were 
dismissed. The Oklahoma case was postponed awaiting de- 
cision in the other two cases. The intrastate fares in all three 
states were restored to 2 cents in 1913. 

"When the 2-cent fares were restored, the interstate fares re- 
mained at 3 cents. Complaint was entered with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission against this by the Missouri, Oklahoma 
and Arkansas Commii-sions, but after a hearing the Interstate 
Commission decided that 3 cents through these states was not 

"Since the Supreme Court decision dismissing the Arkansas 
and Missouri cases the roads have sought to increase the state 
fares. In Arkansas they have succeeded. After refusal of relief 
by the legislature in 1914, two roads secured perpetual injunc- 
tions against the Arkansas 2-cent fare from the United States 
courts, and the other three have secured a temporary injunction. 
In Missouri and Kansas all lines are now before the railroad 
commissions asking restoration of 3 cents. In Oklahoma the 
lines are now in the United States court asking an injunction 
againts the Oklahoma 2-cent law. 

"How little western roads can expect from 2-cent fares may 
be seen by comparison with the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford, one of the lines of heaviest passenger traffic in the 
country. The New Haven, operating in densely settled New 
England, earns $15,957 per mile in passenger revenue and $1.91 
per train mile. Western roads earn only $2,941 per mile pas- 
senger revenue and only $1.31 per train mile. Yet, in the re- 
cent eastem rate case, the Interstate Commerce Commission 
found that passenger earnings of the New Haven did not con- 
tribute to taxes and interest, but that expenses of the passenger 
service consumed approximately 100 per cent of the passenger 
train revenue. 

"It is proposed to advance the rates to 2^ cents interstate east 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 3 

of the Missouri river and west of the Missouri on. and north 
of the Union Pacific in Kansas. South of that line the proposed 
rate is 3 cents per mile. 

"Comparisons of traffic conditions justify the higher rate in 
the southwest. Taking the 1910 census, the population north of 
this line was 40.8 per square mile against 28.2 south of the 
line. Population density south, therefore, was only 69 per cent 
of that north. Taking the revenues of four representative roads 
north against four south of the line, the southern roads earn 
only 78.6 per cent as much per mile of road as those north and 
handled only 74.4 per cent of the number of revenue passengers 
per mile of road. Furthermore, it should not be overlooked that 
the railways in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, south of the 
line mentioned, have successfully defended their 3-cent fares for 
interstate purposes before the Interstate Commerce Commission.'' 

F. A. Jones, chairman of the Corporation Commission of 
Arizona, cross-examined Mr. Butler at length on what he con- 
sidered the discrim illation against Arizona and New Mexico, to 
which points rates are advanced by the amount of the increase 
up to El Paso, whereas no advances are made in the rates to 
California nor to points in the intermountain states, with a few 
exceptions. Mr. Butler said that the California rates were not 
advanced because they had not been reduced at the time other 
rates were reduced which are now being restored to their former 
basis. The purpose of the present tariffs is to restore rates 
which were reduced on account of the eflFect of the reductions 
of intrastate fares in a number of states to 2 cents a mile. Mr. 
Jones also asked a number of questions to show what he con- 
sidered the discrimination in lower rates from Kansas City to 
Utah than from Kansas City to points in New Mexico and Ari- 
zona, where the mileages were about the same. For example, 
he said the suspended tariffs provide a rate of $44.40 from 
Kansas City to Williams, .Ariz., 1.268 miles, or 3^ cents a mile 
and at the same time carry a rate from Kansas City to Salt Lake 
City, 1,268 miles, of $31.95, or 2Yi cents a mile. He thought that 
the roads ought to make lower rates through Arizona and .\ew 
Mexico than through the mountains, because of the more favor- 
able transportation conditions. Mr. Butler pointed out that the 
density of traffic was greater to Salt Lake City, but said that the 
real reason for the difference was that the lowest factor west of 
El would be the local rate of four cents a mile in .\riziina 
and New Mexico. Mr. Jones thought that this was penalizing 
the states that have not made low intrastate rates. Mr. Butler 
also explained that it was the intention to advance rates to 
Montana. Utah and Idaho points, but that the tariffs had not 
been completed when the suspension order was issued, and so 
their preparation had been postponed. 

Mr. Helm made a point of the fact that in many instances the 
tariffs provide for a discontinuance of the practice of meeting 
the short line rates in the rates via longer routes. Mr. Butler 
.■>aid that to some extent the roads were going out of the business 
of meeting short line rates at points where it has been dis- 
covered that the longer lines could not get the business even by 
meeting the rates by the shorter line, but not where there is 
any chance to get business by meeting the lower rates. Ex- 
aminer W. V. King, who sat with Examiner Thurtell, said he 
noticed that all of the roads reported a loss in the dining car 
service, and asked whether it is proposed to make up for the 
loss in the passenger fares. Mr. Butler said dining car service 
is a necessary part of the passenger service. 


Mr. Butler was followed by W. J. Cannon, assistant general 
passenger agent of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, who tes- 
tified on behalf of the lines east of the Missouri river and north 
of the Union Pacific line in Kansas, that are proposing an ad- 
vance from 2 to IVi cents a mile. Mr. Cannon gave compari- 
sons between western railways and eastern railways, which 
have already been allowed an advance to IVi cents a mile, to 
show the disadvantages under which the western lines operate, 
saying that although the west taken as a whole, with the high 
fares of the states beyond the Rookies, shows a slightly hijiher 

revenue for carrying a passenger one mile, the states covered 
by the present application for advances have the lowest maxi- 
mum fares in the country. 

He presented the following figures comparing the territory 
west of Chicago with New England; the trunk line territory, 
between Buffalo. Pittsburgh and the Atlantic; and the central 
territory, between Chicago, St. Louis, Buffalo and Pittsburgh. 

Xew Trunk 

England Line Central Western 

Population per square mile 105.7 136.7 89.8 24.9 

Population per mile of railroad.... 827 750 444 244 
.\verage passenger train revenue per 

mile of line $8,913 $7,676 $4,110 $2,849 

.\verage number passenger miles per 

mile of line 431,387 357,779 169,743 112,782 

.\vcrage receipts per passenger mile 1.777c 1. 755c 1.917c 2.037c 
.Average receipts per passenger train 

mile $1.71160 $1.46420 $1.32070 $1.39034 

"Western railroads thus enjoy only from about one-half to one- 
quarter the population per mile of railroad enjoyed by eastern 
roads," he said. "Their average receipts per passenger mile are 
higher than in the other territories, it is true, but this is because 
the western territory includes roads having mileage in Montana, 
Idaho, Colorado, Wyoming, Washington, Oregon, British Colum- 
bia and Manitoba, all on the basis of 3 cents per mile where 
the traffic is exceedingly sparse and in North and Southa 
Dakota, where it is ZVi cents per mile. If we take New Eng- 
land as 100 per cent, the ratios in other territories are a;; fol- 
lows : 

Xew Trunk 

Kngland Line Central Western 

Passenger train revenue per mile... 100 86 46 32 

.\verage number pa^^enger mile* per 

mile of line 100 83 39 26 

"In Spite of tliis more favorable situation for eastern roads, 
interstate fares in central territory are on a 2J4 cent per mile 
basis. Fares in the trunk line territory vary from 2 to 3 cents 
per mile, and in Xew England from lYi to 4^4 cents, while in 
Illinois. Wisconsin. Minnesota. Iowa. Nebraska, Missouri and 
Kansas niaxinuim fares are 2 cents per mile, both state and inter- 

"Experience has proved that the institution of reductions for 
tourist fares, etc., has generally stimulated travel and, as a large 
percentage of the traffic is carried in regular trains, the railways 
can afford to make such reductions. Tourist fares of all kinds 
are open to the public and necessarily reduce the average rate 
per passenger mile. Honicseekers" fares which apply to round 
trip tickets have been made for many years. Experience shows 
that the "bargain principle' of granting such concessions on cer- 
tain days is a factor of consequence in accomplishing the desired 

"Mileage tickets with 2.000 coupons, each good for a mile, 
arc sold for $40. The proportion of travel upon these mileage 
tickets, mostly used by commercial travelers, is much smaller 
than is usually supposed. The proportion that such mileage 
honored bears to tlie total passenger traffic ranges, in fact, only 
from 1 ■<> to 3'i per cent, showing that this form of transpor- 
tation is a very small proportion of the total." 

Reduction in passenger train schedules and the elimination of 
some of the luxuries of travel, which railway officials at the 
hearing claimed were universally demanded by the American 
public, were suijKcstcd by Examiner King in questioning Mr. 
Cannon. Mr. King produced a mass of newspaper articles and 
excerpts from the technical press, which described the present 
elaborateness df .American passenger travel in schedules and 

"Do you know tlu- cost of hauling an observation car?" asked 
Mr. King. 

"I do not," replied Mr. Cannon, "as that is an operating ques- 
tion, but the figure would be such a minute fraction of a cent 
per passenger mile that you would have to run your finger a 
long w.iy to find the decimal point," 

"Do you know the cost of Iiauling club cars?" 

Mr. Caimon said lie did not know. 

The examiner then went through a long list of the special 
iVatiires in cars ami acconimo<l,iti<ins afforded travelers, em- 

Digitized by 


Jiav 16. 1915 



phasizing the cost and seeking to draw an admission from the 
witness that the unprofitableness of passenger service was due to 

"How many railroads operate between Chicago and St. Paul," 
asked the examiner. 

"Seven,"' replied Mr. Cannon. The witness stated that these 
roads probably had an average of two through trains a day each 
between these points. 

"Could not half of these trains be taken off?" asked the ex- 

"These trains do not only serve the terminals," said Mr. Can- 
non; "there are many prosperous towns local to each road and 
intermediate to the terminals which must have the passenger 
service. These trains also serve territory beyond the terminals, 
both to the West all the way to the coast, and east of Chicago. 
We have tried to reduce the passenger service, and when we 
did, it was not very popular with the public." 

"These articles," said the examiner, "also call attention to the 
^Ided stairs and marble hallways of the new passenger stations. 
Is not this wasteful?"- 

"Well, we might allow the old Union station to stand in Chi- 
cago." interjected one of the railway attorneys. 

"Do you think," the examiner asked the witness, "that the 
commission should allow an increase in passenger fares while 
this costly service is being maintained?" 

Mr. Cannon stated that question was impossible to answei 
categorically, but that he considered the passenger service was 
only what was demanded by the public. 


Eben E. MacLeod, chairman fit the Western Passenger .Asso- 
ciation, testified that there are but 11 states in the United States 
that have as low a maximum passenger rate as 2 cents per mile 
and nine of these are the states covered by the advances now 
lieing considered, Illinois, the northern peninsula of Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa. Nebraska. Missouri, Oklahoma and 
Kansas. Arkansas and West \'irginia have just gone up from a 
2-cent fare. 

"It must be conceded." he said, "that population per railroad 
mile, gross passenger earnings per railroad mile and comparative 
expense per mile are the leading comparative factors, the first 
two representing traffic density and the other the concrete results. 
Comparison of these factors will show the railroads in these 9 
states have less advantages, less opportunities and a lower maxi- 
mum fare per mile than in any other equal section of the United 
States. Comparing them with eight eastern states shows they 
have a density of population per railroad mile only one-third as 
great and much less than one-third the passenger earnings per 
mile, yet the property investment is more nearly equal per mile 
and the maximum rate per mile averages fully 25 per cent 
greater in the more densely settled eastern states. .Ml other 
states in the United States have a population density per mile 
of 280. The nine states in this territory have 323, but the eight 
eastern states have 1,036, yet these other states have an aver- 
age maximum fare per mile of from 2l'i cents to 6 cents per 

"These nine states are, comparatively, the most prosperous 
subdivision of agricultural territory in the United States, ac- 
cording to government reports. Yet they enforce lower pas- 
senger fares than prevail anywhere else in the union, except in 
Ohio and Indiana, which also have 2-cent fare laws. In March, 
1906, the Ohio legislature enacted its maximum 2 cent per mile 
law. At the first following sessions of their legislatures, these 
nine states adopted similar rates, in some by commission orders, 
but in nearly all cases carrying such heavy penalties as to make 
it almost mandatory to comply with the enactments and orders. 
In no state was such compliance voluntary. 

"The argument by advocates of reduced fares, aside from po- 
litical reasons, was that reduced fares would stimulate travel 
and that the practical effect would be not to reduce but to in- 
crease gross and net passenger revenue. The result is a dis- 
appointment after an honest and fair trial. It has been proved 

conclusively that the increase in tra\el has been only the natural 
growth increase; that it has been less than the increase in pas- 
senger expenses; that the passenger fare per mile is less than 
the progressive value of the service; that the present service 
is not in e.xcoss of present public requirements and that tlie net 
result of the fare reduction is less revenue for more service. 

"It is common knowledge that the reduction in passenger fares 
resulted from the allegations that the cut would not reduce net 
revenue, that it was good politics to enact anti-railroad legisla- 
tion, and that other states had passed such laws. The reduced 
rates have had a fair and enforced trial since 1907. and con- 
sidering all conditions the conclusion is necessary that it tends 
to produce a burden on other traffic." 

Mr. Helm objected to the exhibits bearing on the prosperity 
of the territory, but Examiner Thurtell said the commission had 
usually admitted such evidence. Mr. Helm said it was neces- 
sary for each road to justify its own rates. Mr. Thome also ob- 
jected that the figures did not show that the farmers were actu- 
ally making money and said that the advances in many instances 
would be paid by the people in other states. 

E. L. Bevington, secretary of the Transcontinental Pas- 
senger Association, presented figures showing that even if the 
advance asked is granted, 2^/1 cents per mile in the West and 3 
cents in the Southwest, the actual average earnings per pas- 
senger mile would be less, because of the necessity of roads 
with longer mileage meeting the rate of the shortest line. 

"Between Chicago and Kansas City," said Mr. Bevington, "the 
short line is 451 miles, but the average mileage of all lines com- 
peting for traffic between those cities is 508 miles, making the 
average rate per mile 2.46 cents on the proposed fare, $12.50. 
Thus, while the short line, whose mileage is used in the con- 
struction of the fare, receives approximately 2^2 cents per mile, 
all other more or less indirect lines receive materially less than 
lYz cents for their service between the same points. Between 
Chicago and St. Paul the average earnings under the proposed 
fares would be only 2.23 cents per mile: between Chicago and 
Denver, 2.39 cents, and between St. Paul and Council Bluffs 
2.10 cents. 

"Roads in the western district carried 39.6 per cent of all pas- 
sengers carried one mile in the country in 1913 against 47.4 
per cent in the eastern district, but the miles of track operated 
in the West exceeded those in the East by 17 per cent, showing 
the greater sparseness of travel per mile. Under 3-cent fares 
travel in this western district increased between 1903 and 1907 
about 40 per cent, while between 1908 and 1913. under 2-cent 
fares, the increase was only 9 per cent, proving the total failure 
of predictions that lower rates would mean stimulated travel." 

Mr. Bevington also presented statistics showing the great in- 
crease in expenses brought about by increases in wages and by 
state legislation, and the large investment in block signals for the 
purpose of increasing the safety of travel. 


At the hearing on Monday morning Mr. Wettling was re- 
called for further cross-examination, after which Clifford 
Thome, chairman of the Iowa Railroad Commission, made 
an opening statement on behalf of the protesting state railway 
commissions. He said that the net operating income during 
the past seven-year period of the northwestern group of rail- 
roads amounted to $1,000,000,000 in round numbers, or $170.- 
000,000 greater than during any other seven-year period in 
their history, and that these roads during the past five years 
have increased their property by over $750,000,000. a sum 
which exceeds that of any preceding five-year period by more 
than $300,000,000. In the southwestern group the net operat- 
ing income during the past seven-year period aggregated 
$550,000,000. which was more than $100,000,000 greater than 
during any other preceding seven-year period in their history. 
Mr. Thome also criticized the use by the railroads of the 
property investment account as a basis for calculating the net 
returns, saying the commission has unanimously repudiated 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 3 

it. He also criticized the inclusion in this account of the 
value of improvements built out of surplus earnings since 
1907, saying the commission has unanimously held that rail- 
roads cannot rely upon betterments and improvements built 
out of surplus earnings as a justification for an advance in 
freight rates. "If it is seriously proposed at this time," he 
said, ''that our federal commission shall reverse itself on this 
principle, then the carriers must content themselves without 
a surplus for the purpose of building such improvements in 
the future. For, so long as private ownership continues, the 
public will not long consent to be forced by any public 
tribunal to build railroads for private companies, and then pay 
those companies a return on what they build." Mr. Thome 
also criticized as unsound the comparison of net earnings over 
a period of years, without allowances for substantial changes 
in the basic methods of accounting, or substantial changes in 
the policies of the carriers during the same period. ''The 
most important changes in the rules of accounting prescribed 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission that have been made 
<luring the past 25 years became effective on June 30, 1907," 
he said. "The said changes affect both the operating expense 
account and the property investment account. These com- 
panies, having the burden of proof, have made no attempt 
whatever to show the effect of the changes, they have made 
no attempt to place the two periods compared upon the same 
basis. We have undertaken to perform that task with some 
of our exhibits after making proper allowances for any 
changes in practices and cost of material." 

The first witness for the protestants was C. \V. Hillman, 
president of the Mutual .\udit Company, who had also been 
employed as statistician for the western commissioners in the 
freight rate case. For the purpose of separating freight and 
pa.ssenger expenses, Mr. Hillman presented an analysis of the 
accounts of the Chicago & North Western, the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the 
.•\tchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas, which, he said, "cover both the strong and weak lines 
and may be considered typical of the results of operation in 
the territory affected by the proposed advance." He had set 
up the expenses assignable to passenger business upon six 
different methods, only one of which, the gross weight basis, 
did he advocate as being the proper method for the division 
of the track maintenance accounts as between freight and 
passenger service. The other methods, he said, were intro- 
duced for comparative purposes or by direction of the com- 
mittee representing the western states. On the gross weight 
basis, passengers, baggage, express and mail were reduced to 
a ton-mile basis, and his exhibit showed an operating ratio 
on passenger business of 68 per cent. The other bases used 
were the locomotive ton mile basis, the locomotive tractive 
power basis, the passenger car mile basis, the gross weight 
and car mile basis, the gross weight and net ton mile basis. 
Most of the differences \)etween the various methods occur 
in the maintenance of equipment account, he said. 

.\MFJiic.\N Shipbuilding for the Year. — During the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1915, there were built in the United States 
and officially numbered 1,236-T«99el9, of 215,711 gross tons, com- 
pared with 1,291 vessels of 311,578 gross tons, for the same pe- 
riod of 1914. The principal vessels are two colliers built for 
Panama canal trade, the .\chilles and the Ulysses, of 11,081 and 
10.910 gross tons, respectively. Other vessels over 5,000 gross 
tons, are the John D. Rockefeller, a tanker of 8,374 gross tons; 
the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific of 8,255 gross tons 
each, built for passenger service on the Pacific coast. The J. A. 
Moffett, 6,395 gross tons and the Lyman Stewart, 6,054 gross 
tons, both tankers, were built on the Pacific coast. Only one 
large sailing vessel was built during the year, the Georgia, a 
schooner of 1,318 gros; tons. In all, 23 vessels of over 1,000 
tons each were built. agtircKating 123,242 tons. 


By Howard Elliott 

Chairman >>i the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
.An interesting and important statement of how the rail- 
roads of the country enter into the lives of millions of our 
citizens is made by computations just completed by the 
Bureau of Railway Economics. The momentous fact is 
brought out in these computations that from June 30, 1905, 
to June 30. 1914. inclusive. $11,218,686,516 were paid for wages 
to an average of 1.611.105 n.en employed during each year of 
the ten years as follows: 

Number oi 

Year employees Wages 

1914 1,695,483 $1,373,422,472 

1913 1,815.239 1,373,830,589 

1912 1,716,380 1,252,347,697 

1911 I,669,8i9 1,208,466.470 

1910 1,699,420 1.143,725,306 

1909 1,502,823 988,323,694 

1908 1,436.275 1,035,437.528 

1907 1.672.074 1.072,386,427 

1906 1.521,355 930,801,653 

1905 1,382,196 839.944.680 

Per cent of 

Gross wages to 

revenue gross revenue 

$3,047,019,908 45.07 

3,125,135,798 43.96 

2,842,695,382 44.05 

2.789,761,669 43.32 

2,752,634,153 41.55 

2,419,299,638 40.85 

2,394,780,410 43.24 

2,589,105,578 41.42 

2.325,765,167 40.02 

2,082,482,406 40.33 

The large proportion of gross earnings paid directly to 
these millions of our citizens is worthy of special attention. 

Those who man the railroads received 40.33 per cent out of 
every dollar of gross earnings in 1905 and 45.07 in 1914. They 
perform arduous and responsible duties and should be well 
paid, but with increases in pay to the men and improved 
facilities to the public, should come increased pay to the rail- 
roads, and this has not been the case until the last year, when 
some increases in rates have been permitted. 

There are possibly 1.500,000 individuals holding the securi- 
ties, in one form or another, of the .American railroads. They 
and the employees and their families represent at least 12.- 
000,000 people whose daily bread and butter is involved in the 
success or failure of this great American transportation ma- 
chine, or about one-eighth of the population. The par of the 
outstanding capital is $20,247,301,257 or between one-ninth 
and one-tenth of the estimated national wealth. In New Eng- 
land the owners and employees of its transportation lines 
with their families represent at least 700,000 people, or more 
than one-tenth of the total population. These people are your 
neighbors and friends and their rights, comforts and feelings 
must be carefully considered in any discussion as to the best 
method of solving the New England transportation problem. 

.\ very grave question today is whether under present con- 
ditions the railroads can be ready to serve the people when 
the next great uplift in business comes. It is not only a ma- 
terial question but a social and moral one. Speaking recently 
of the railroad problem of today, Professor Seligman, of 
Columbia University, said: "To combine the maintenance of 
reasonable private profits with the legitimate demands of 
social progress is the railway problem of today." 

Today from one cause or another more than 30,000 miles of 
railroads with securities of $1,815,900,000 are in the hands of 
receivers and several other great railroads are on the ragged 
edge. In 1896, when times were so very bad, there were about 
the same number of miles and the same amount of capitaliza- 
tion in the hands of receivers. This, it is needless to say, is 
not a healthy condition for the country. 

Notwithstanding all the complaints made against our rail- 
roads the fact remains that they pay the highest wages and 
sell their transportation at the lowest prices and furnish 
more per dollar invested than any railroads of any country 
in the world. We should compliment the railroads for this 
and be proud of them. Instead, of late years, we have at- 
tacked them and have criticised this wonderful transportation 
machinery while those in other lands have realized that the 
work of the .American railroad builder, owner and employee 

•From a recent adHre^« at Peterlxtro. New Hampshire. 

Digitized by 


July 16. 1915 



has been marvelous; and this in spite of the mistakes incident 
to the great task of building and rebuilding 250,000 miles of 
railroad since the Civil War. 

The Comptroller of the Currency said in his recent annual 
report that there were 11,000,000 depositors in savings banks 
with $5,000,000,000 to their credit. Much of this large sum is 
invested by these banks in railroad securities so that those 
11,000,000 people have a very vital interest in having the rail- 
road industry sound and profitable. The conservation of this 
industry is vital to the country, and owners and managers 
should be helped rather than hindered in their honest efforts 
to make it more useful and efficient. 

Why is it that this piece of machinery which all admit is so 
necessary to the welfare of the country — which impartial 
critics think is such a wonderful work — which represents so 
large a part of the wealth and population of the country and is 
so closely interwoven with all of our activities, has been 
looked upon with suspicion and disfavor? Whenever a new 
railroad has been projected the people have welcomed the 
promoters and offered all kinds of inducements — but when the 
road is built they forget that it must be nourished in order 
to live. 

One reason for this suspicion and disfavor, perhaps, is a 
lack of understanding on the part of the public as to the magni- 
tude of the enterprise and the difficulties of successful ad- 
ministration. Much has been written and said by many to 
try and explain it. In the last ten years I have sent out over 
1,000,000 pamphlets pointing out the facts and others have 
done similar work. 

Another reason for the suspicion and disfavor is that in the 
struggle to build railroads and to make fortunes in the pro- 
cess, a few men — and only a very few of the thousands of high 
minded men in the business did things that are not now con- 
sidered right and proper — and were not right and proper then 
— but were in accord with the accepted spirit of the times. 
Similar practices were in vogue in other fields of human 
endeavor. Railroad men are not more perfect than other 
business men. They are drawn from all ranks of society and 
are influenced by the trend of public opinion. In spite of all, 
however, a great work was done and the railroads, as a whole, 
are worth today to themselves and to the public, all their 
capitalization. I believe a fair valuation of the properties, 
following the principles laid down in various decisions of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, will show this to be the 
case. This wonderful machine that serves the country should 
not be condemned, crippled and rendered unable to prepare 
for the future because of a limited amount of unwise financing 
and unsuccessful management in the past. 

Let me quote from a writer of the present day. He says: 

Let's get down to common sense. The railways have done more toward 
making America than any other one thing. It is time they had their due 
and instead of baiting them and talking foolish talk about taking them away 
from their owners the Government should grant them any request within 

-Another of our problems is that of the proper treatment 
of capital organizations, or corporations. The great railroads 
that are such efficient servants of the nation could not have 
been constructed without them. In 1800 the total number of 
corporations in this country was 225, and today there are 
350,000. They are necessary to carry on the great business 
of the United States. Because they were a new and untried 
method of doing the business of the country some errors were 
made. Men obtained great power, and in their intense desire 
to be successful some of the owners and managers demanded 
efficiency without enough consideration of the human unit and 
profits regardless of the public weal. 

This policy created trouble, but owners and managers are 
awake to the situation today and realize that they must pay 
close attention to their duty to the public. 

Large and strong corporations, wisely managed, are abso- 
lutely necessary, and bad ones are gradually being eliminated. 

A few strong and ambitious men used the great powers of 
corporations unwisely, and as a result the country was 
aroused against them and all sorts of laws were passed in an 
effort to correct evils, and, as is often the case, some of the 
remedies were worse than the disease. 

There are signs now that we are approaching the time when 
the country will obtain the full benefit of the corporate form 
of doing business, without the evils. 

Another present-day problem is that of legislation. Because 
of some mistakes by railroad owners and managers, and by 
those engaged in other forms of corporate business, the sus- 
picion and disfavor, of which I have spoken, developed, and a 
class of critics has grown up in this country who have made 
a living by agitation and by advocating unnecessary legis- 

Probably a large ntimber of the alleged evils would have 
gradually corrected themselves and the country would be far 
better oflf with less instead of more laws. For example, in 
1913, 1,395 bills were introduced into the legislatures of the 
various states and 230 became laws, all relating to the details 
of practical railroad operation, most of which would be better 
left to the men trained in the business. 

There are about 4,000 legislators, national and state, and 
during the last sessions of the national and state legislatures 
43,403 pages of laws were enacted, covering 20,510 chapters 
and 151,083 heads or sub-heads. 

During this same period there were 28,000 decisions by 
courts of appeal, and these decisions have the force of statu- 
tory law. 

With this deluge of legislation affecting all kinds of business 
it is not surprising that the country staggers and cannot go 
ahead with constructive work. 

A well-known Western lawyer, in a recent address at 
Peoria, 111., spoke on this subject, and said: 

We need less investigations. I-ess law. 

Everything and everybody is being investigated. This espionage creates 
great unrest and business disturbance and disorder. It produces equal 
dissatisfaction among the masses. Every industry is on the grill. These 
conditions have not lowered the price of commodities nor benefited the 
people, but they have hurt commerce and industry. 

AH this is a great waste — waste of time, waste of energy — and what is 
worse, destruction of confidence: The confidence of the masses is easily 
shattered, and it is difficult to be restored. 

Another great problem before the country is that of the 
labor organizations. They are a part of our complex social ma- 
chinery, but they have not yet found their place. In the 
struggle to create the great railroads and the great corpora- 
tions the relation of labor to them was not, at times, carefully 
enough considered. As a result, laboring men united, and 
little by little the great labor organizations were developed 
and they now have very large powers. But just as the people 
took notice of the errors of the capital organizations, or so- 
called trusts, when they believed that they were ignoring the 
public welfare and passed the various regulatory measures in 
an effort to eliminate the bad and retain the good, so will the 
country in time consider the problem of the labor organiza- 
tions and correct any errors in them. 

The great leaders of capital, as I say, obtained tremendous 
power which has been curtailed and regulated by law. The 
time will come when the great unregulated powers now ex- 
ercised by the leaders of the great labor organizations will 
be regulated in the same way. I believe the majority pf our 
people feel that when a man earns his living by working for 
a public service corporation, he enters into a moral contract 
to do that work upon which the whole people depend until he is 
mustered out of his place in some orderly manner; that he 
owes that duty to society just as much as a soldier owes a 
duty to remain in the army until he is released in a lawful 
manner. I further believe that sooner or later some plan will 
be evolved by public opinion that will bring about a satisfac- 
tory adjustment of this great and complicated labor problem. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59. No. 3 


The twenty-fourth annual meeting of the Freight Claim .-Ksso- 
ciation was held at Hotel La Salle, Chicago, June 16, 17 and 18, 
President J. W. Newell (C. B. & Q.) in the chair and nearly 
200 members present. 

The president, in his opening address, reviewed the history of 
the association from its small beginnings in 1892. Looking to the 
future he said : "Is it possible for this association, covering the 
territory that it does and made up of members whose actions are 
in so many cases controlled by different laws of liability, to under- 
take to make rules for the settlement of claims between claimants 
and carriers, unless the association itself undertakes and does 
make those settlements? The transportation business of this 
country has so grown that it is no uncommon thing, with long dis- 
tance shipments, for the laws governing the liability of carriers at 
point of origin and destination to be diametrically opposite to 
each other. . . . This association must either confine itself to 
the apportionment of joint liabilities, and its members must trust 
each other to make proper adjustments with claimants or must 
undertake to make all adjustments as between claimants and car- 
riers, as well as apportion between carriers the amounts paid. It 
is generally recognized that society must protect its weaker mem- 
bers, and I believe that this association should do no less. An ap- 
portionment rule based upon the law of averages is not always a 
fair one. We have in our membership small roads and switching 
carriers, whose problems must be carefully considered and who 
must l)e made to assume their burdens the same as the larger 
lines; but neither must be persecuted because of its size or 
geographical location. 

"A year ago this association undertook to point out the causes 
of freight claims and prescribe a course of treatment that would 
cure the ills. Whether that plan is to be effective depends en- 
tirely upon the individual memliers of this association, though 
we are attempting to correct conditions largely under control of 
others. . . . The whole general scheme of receiving, trans- 
porting and delivering of freight must be changed. The amount 
that can be saved must be carefully considered in connection with 
the amount expended. . . . The association must itself set a 
good example of efficient and economical operation ; and must ar- 
range so that the membership can attend to the association work 
with a minimum of time and expense. . . ." 

The report of the secretary showed an enrollment on May 31 
of 450 assessable members, representing over 263.000 miles of 
rail carriers, in addition to the steamer lines and other transpor- 
tation companies. Over 40 new members were received. During the 
year 969 claims were passed to the three arbitration committees 
and 229 notices of appeal were filed. Majority awards were not 
reached on 10 claims, which were, accordingly, passed to the ap- 
peal committee for decision, and 11 notices of appeal were with- 

The conference committee during the year has done much 
work of importance. Investigation of claims for concealed loss 
of and damage to freight, was gone into most minutely and it is 
hoped that by the next annual meeting rules may be pre- 
sented. Special Report Series Circular \o. 17 and other matters 
have been the subject of conferences with representatives of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. Statistics gathered show 
that a large majority of claims are settled very promptly, indi- 
cating that the complaints from certain quarters of delays in the 
settlement of freight claims were evidently based on isolated 
cases. Understandings have been reached concerning United 
States postoffice department claims: retention of claim papers 
when claims arc declined : duplicating lost claims and presentation 
of claims to intermediate carrier. 

An amendment to the constitution was adopted, providing that, 
instead of the nominating committee reporting the names of ex- 
actly the numl)er of members necessary to fill the membership 
of the committees, double the necessary number should be named, 
the privilege heretofore enjoyed of additional nominations from 
the floor to still be operative. The committee on methods and 

topics and the committee on accounts were abolished and a new 
committee created to be known as "the committee on methods, 
accounts and forms." The membership of the committee on cause 
and prevention was increased from five to nine members. 

The rules were amended so as to provide that when a claim 
is in the course of preparation for arbitration, and additional 
investigation has been made which would affect the liability of 
carriers whose arbitration statements have already been sub- 
mitted each carrier shall have the right of further investit^ation 
and one rebuttal brief only ; and the right to see all rebuttal 
statements before the claim is submitted to the stcretarj-. 

The provision of the constitution relating to charging out 
under decisions of the arbitration committee was modified so 
that the paying carrier may relieve its account under a decision 
of the arbitration committee by charging arbitrarily only where 
Rule 255 applies; and from those who do not operate that rule 
authority must be obtained within thirty days. 

-A new sub-section was added to Section 20, Article \'I f, to 
provide for the relief of accounts of carriers outstanding, after 
decisions by the appeal committee, in the same manner as relief 
is provided after decision by an arbitration committee, except 
that authorities must be issued within ten (instead of thirty) 
days after receipt of papers. 

.Additional paragraphs were added to Sections 14 and 20, Ar- 
ticle VII, providing that, when papers are lost after a decision 
has been rendered by the arbitration or appeal committee, carrier 
or carriers decided against may be debited with their proportion 
without duplication of papers other than a copy of the award ; 
except that when an interested carrier desires to appeal from 
the decision of the arbitration committee a duplicate set of pa- 
pers must be furnished by the carrier losing the originals. 

The committee on cause and prevention made its first report. 
On recommendation of the committee, there was referred to the 
.American Railway .Association the subject of establishment of 
joint inspection bureaus at junction points, it being the expressed 
view of the association that the principle of joint inspection bu- 
reaus and joint records meets with its approval. 

In connection with the subject of prevention of loss and dam- 
age to perishable freight, the secretary was instructed to ask 
the traffic associations to consider the advisability of providing 
in their tariffs more nearly uniform rules under which shippers 
of fruits and other perishable freight are required to give defi- 
nite instructions as to icing, ventilating, etc. 

In the matter of the alleged growing tendency on the part of 
some carriers to deliver astray freight without adequate proof 
of ownership, the association concurred in the opinion of the 
committee that the present rules of the -carriers fully cover and 
that it is simply a question of enforcing them. 

The association took action concurring in the resolution of the 
.A. R. .A. committee on packing, marking and handling freight 
that over and short reports at all common points should be 
checked at least twice a month. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing eleven 
months : 

President, E. .Arnold (Grand Trunk); first vice-president. 
W. O. Bunger (C. R. 1. & P.); second vice-president. F. E. 
W'inburg (.A. & W. P.) ; secretary and treasurer. VN'arren P. 
Taylor ( R. F. & P.), Richmond, Va. 

The chairmen of the arbitration committees arc : Committee 
•A"— H. R. Grochau (C. St. P. M. & O.). Committee "B"— 
G. C. .Arnold ( L. V.). Committee "C" — E. .A. Jack (Terminal 
R. R. .Ass"n of St. Louis). The chairman of the appeal com- 
mittee is J. J. Hooper (Southern). 

The next annual meeting is to be held at Washington. D. C. 
Mav 17. 1916. 

Light K.mlwavs in France for the Woinded. — To facilitate 
tlie transport of English wounded in France handy light 
railways have been laid down in certain districts, along which 
improvised trolleys can be quickly run to and fro with a 
inininuim of shaking. 

Digitized by 


Two Important Commerce Commission Decisions 

One Relates to Dealings with Industrial Railways. The 
Other Orders Proposed Spotting Charges Cancelled 

The Interstate Commerce Commission on July 12 gave out with its own motive power. General Electric Companv t- V V 

its findings in the so-called Second Industrial Railways and C. <'r H. K. (14 I. C. C, 237), Solvay Process Company v D L 

the Car Spotting Charges cases. The former deals with al- & W. (14 1. C. C. 246), etc. 

lowances to and joint arrangements with short lines of rail- If the question here presented were new. if the power were 

way owned by industries and in the latter the carriers are given the commission under the act to fix the rates in the first 

ordered to cancel the tariffs proposing car spotting charges instance, or if it had the power to compel carriers to extend their 

which were filed m accordance with a suggestion made in the rails to the plants and industries of shippers, the problem would 

original Industrial Railways case. The opinions in both cases be stripped of many of its present difficulties; but the commission 

were written by Commissioner Meyer. has before it a rate structure made by the carriers under which 

THE SECOND i.N'DUSTRiAL c.\SE '''^J' ^^^'^ extended their rates to the plants of some shippers and 

The following is an abstract of the decision in the so-called "°' to others. It is the contention of the industrial line shippers 

Second Industrial Railways Case (34 I. C. C, 596). The opinion '. ""^'^ structure as made for many years has extended the 

establishes a set of findings relative to the dealings of the trunk ''"^"'i'''"' ^^^^^ 'o P°'nts of placement on spur tracks and that 

lines with small lines of railway owned or controlled by indus- T""^ ''*?*'' mclude the operation over such spurs. They say that 

tries. '"^ carriers have by custom changed the rule of the common law 

Following the original report in the Industrial Railways Case ^^^ *'*'^ accepted the burden of making deliveries off their rights 
(29 I. C. C, 212). the trunk line carriers in official classification '.'* ^^^'- L'"f|"es"onably if a new rate structure were being 
territory withdraw from joint rate arrangements formerly in '°'""'«d. the logical way would be to make a line-haul rate and 
existence with substantially all the industrially owned lines in '" ^^ * separate terminal charge based upon the amount of 
the territory. The tariffs were to become effective .April 1. 1914. "^"'"^^ performed for each shipper. Even in the present state of 
Complaints made against these tariffs were entered under the "?^. ""^'^ structure there must be a point beyond which an ad- 
commission's docket 4181. which was the number given to the ''"'""*' ^^^^^^ °^'e'' '^e line-haul rate can be ju.stified if additional 
original Industrial Raihmvs case. That proceeding was later '^7'". " '" '■''^' rendered. 

consolidated with investigation and suspension docket 414 in " '"^estigation made in 1910 by the commission shows that 

which proceeding there were suspended tariffs proposing to 'l'*^''^ ^^'""i ** '''^' *""^ ^'^^ industries in official classification ter- 

cancel allowances to 22 of the industrial lines not involved in the ''""''-' ''^^'^^ performed their own switching, either with power 

original case. The effective dates of the tariffs under suspension "'^'"^'^ '^^' ^^^ "'dustry or through an incorporated railroad 

have been extended bv the carriers to July 15. 1915. ""■"*^'' °' controlled by the industry. Of this number 594 per- 

The commission has now made a careful investigation of the ^"rmed the service without any compensation therefor, while only 

points in issue and by means of a series of questions is in pos- '^*^ "^"^ P='"' a""«an"s or divisions by the trunk line. During 

session of full details as to each of the 47 roads involved. , "^ intervening years nearly all of such allowances and divisions 

Because of the varving nature of the operations of the in- ™^^ ^^^" canceled. There remain some industrial lines with 

dustrial lines, the commission wishes to point out the principles "'"'^'' J"'"* '■'"^' '"'^ continued, while to others they are denied 

which must guide those desiring to enter into joint rate ar- ""'l^'' similar circumstances. 

rangements. There must be determined with respect to each . ^"^ "'""'^ ''."^* '" attempting to apply the principles laid down 

of the lines, first, whether the instrumentalitv performing the '" "'^ li'duslnal Railtvays case, have not done so accurately nor 

service is a bona fide common carrier: second, whether the -''K'Sether consistently. The decision of the Supreme Court in 

service which it performs between the point of interchange with ''. ^"^ ^"" '""■*"• *"'' "'^ supplemental report in the Industrial 

the trunk line and point of placement on the line of the in- '^'"'''"'.v-^ '"-f'' ^^2 I. C. C, 129) throw additional light upon the 

dustrial road is plant service or public transportation; third. ■'""»"°" •" the supplemental report in the /iirfajma/ A-fliVwoyj 

whether a cTiarge should be made for such service in addition '""■f''- /he hndings of the original report were modified so as to 

to the line-haul rate applicable to or from points on the rails I""""'"" ^^'^ ^''""'^ '""^* *° arrange, by agreement with such of the 

of the trunk line at the junction. There is also to be con- '"dustrial lines as are common carriers under the test applied 

sidered the larger economic problem whether part of the monev ''-^ '^^ Supreme Court in the Taf Line cases, for a reasonable 

paid to the trunk line carriers for public transportation service '^""ipensation tor such service in the form of switching charges 

is to be used to defray the expense of particular shippers in "r divisions of joint rates. 

conveying their traffic to and from the terminals of the trunk .^"'^ commission will follow the same course in this case and 

line carriers. The Industrial Railtvays case rests largely upon ^"" require that each line which becomes a party to such an ar- 

the principle of placing the cost of service where it properlv rangement hie a full statement of the arrangement entered into, 

belongs. showing specifically the basis of rates to be applied from points 

In ./. T. & S. F. V. Kansas City Stock Yards Company {ii "" ^^^ '"''"strial lines and the basis of the allowances or divisions 

I. C. C. 92) it was held that: " thereof granted under the agreement. Such arrangements are 

, . •■ , , , • u J ""' '" '"■ '"*''e indiscriminately. They are to be arranged in 

ine principal test of ininmon carnage is. whether there is a bona hde .„„;„„;, -.i »i. » ,■ i • 

kit- 1 . •-■ .u ■,■••. . , L- coniormitv with the suggestions of this renort 

holding out coupled with the ability to carry for hire. i\i.i ' ss-juv/i.o ^^i mis icjjui i. 

,,,..,. , . , " hile each of the operations is to be treated in arcordancp 

Many of the lines own no cars and in some instances no loco- •., ., .• i , . i • . '^""'" '" atcoruanee 

„ .• A ■ .. ■ ^ .■ .1 .L I J- ■ "'tn the particular facts relating to it, the ines fall into more 

motives, and maintain no stations other than loading and un- , n i ,■ , 

i„ ,. , , .... .. I . T-u • . 1 1- 1. .1 . "r less wcll-dehned groups. 

loading docks withm the plant. Their tracks he wholly on the -ru .- Z 

land of the industry which they serve, and access to them mav y,^ '"L ^™"f ^' ^ J"^ f"'?'. "Merchandise and com- 
be obtained only through the permission of the controlling in- T^- ''^^,\^'"^' ^^7 '^' ''^^\ <'f '^^ comrolling industries. 
... , / . . ., , , ,. . *. ' hey are of the trunk line type and are as foows ■ 
dustry. In such circumstances the holding out is not genuine. i"iiuws. 

If the service in any instance is a plant service the trunk line .\lgoma (\ntral & llud«on Day 3S0^^ 

carriers can not lawfully compensate the shipper itself, or in- j:??^^ ^^.""itl?' •••,;; •> 

,. . ( hicago \- Illinois Western \s 

directly through its incorporated plant railroad, for the use of Norwood & St. Lawrence ......'..'. 19 

its plant tracks or for switching the shipper's cars over them I owviMe \'"r!e°ver'Riier i', 

V"-^ • ' ■• T r" 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Vol. 59, No. 3 

Ludington & Northern 15 

Kane & Elk 15 

Toledo, Angola & Western 11 

Wharton & Northern 22 

Susquehanna & New York 103 

It will not be necessary to discuss in detail the characteristics 
of these lines. In some instances the joint rates are made by 
adding the local rate of the industrially owned line to the rate 
applicable from the trunk line junction. In other cases the junc- 
tion point rate is extended back to points on the line, but when 
the junction rate is applied from points on the industrial line the 
rate structure in the general territory is based on a blanket sys- 
tem or. at least, a number of points of origin or destination are 
grouped together. As to these lines, there is no question in- 
volved which is within the purview of the commission's juris- 
diction. The divisions of the joint rates are a matter of bargain- 
ing between the interested carriers. It may be that some of these 
lines are operating in violation of the commodities clause of 
section 1 of the act, but proceedings under that clause of the law 
are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Justice. 

In the second group of lines are those extending from lumber 
mills. The control of these lines is vested in the lumber com- 
panies which they serve, and in all respects they fall within the 
principles laid down in the Tap Line cases, except that in that 
case the tap lines were all located within the producing territory 
from which the carriers applied a blanket rate to all important 
markets ; whereas it appears here that no large blanket exists and 
rates on lumber are graded with some regtard to distance. On 
short-haul traffic to many markets in this territory some recog- 
nition is given to the two-line hauls involved from points on the 
ta^ lines. These principles of rate making should be fully con- 
sidered by the trunk lines when re-establishing joint rates with 
the lines here. The principles followed in settling the divisions 
under the second supplemental report in the Tap Line case (31 
I. C. C, 490) should be considered in fixing the divisions with 
these lines. 

The third group of lines includes those the physical operations 
of which are in all respects similar to those recited in such cases 
as the General Electric Company v. N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. Co. 

The only essential difference is that the lines here included have 
been incorporated and hold themselves to . be common carriers. 
In most instances the incorporated industrial line was first con- 
structed as a system of plant tracks, and in many instances the 
tracks are still owned by the industry and leased to the incorpo- 
rated railroad. Usually the plant is located contiguous to the 
rails of a trunk line. In all of these instances there should be 
considered very carefully the test applied by the Supreme Court 
in the Tap Line cases, regarding the bona fide character of the 
common carrier : 

It is the right of the public to use the road's facilities and to demand 
service of it rather than the extent of its business, which is the real criterion 
deterniinative of its character. 

If a railroad within this group is a common carrier and access 
to its rails may be had by the public, there is also to be consid- 
ered whether such a line should be sustained by the shippers it 
serves or whether the expense of maintenance, operation, and in- 
terest on the money invested are to be paid by that part of the 
public which receives no public service or public use from it. In 
other words, it may well be that there should be a charge in ad- 
dition to the line-haul rate for the service upon the tracks of 
^ome of the industrial lines within this group. 

The fourth group of lines resembles closely the lumber tap lines 
with the important exception that they haul commodities other 
than lumber, and thus in some instances fall under the direct 
inhibition of the commodities clause. As appeared in the Tap 
Line case, so also here, the history of these lines shows instances 
in which a system of plant tracks was constructed to serve an 
industry located immediately contiguous to trunk line rails; be- 
cause of various considerations, including a desire for an ade- 
quate car supply and a development of competition which could 
1)0 used as a weapon to obtain divisions of the joint rate for the 
industrial line, the plant tracks were incorporated and connected 
with anoUiar trunk line located at a distance fnra the plant. The 

industrial line having thus developed a line haul and the trunk 
line not contiguous to the plant being desirous of getting the 
traffic of the plant, it afforded divisions of the locality rate to the 
industrial line, and thus extended its facilities to the plant. Under 
such conditions the trunk line which had formerly served the 
plant lost the traffic or in order to retain it afforded the same di- 
vision as did the line at a distance from the plant. The re- 
muneration paid by the distant trunk line may not have been ex- 
cessive for the service performed by the industrial line, but as ap- 
plied to the short distance movement of cars to and from the con- 
tiguous trunk line the same measure of remuneration gave to the 
industrial line earnings which amounted to substantial returns on 
the investment not only in the tracks and facilities outside of the 
plant, but also in the purely plant tracks and sometimes paid for 
a substantial part of the purely industrial operations. Surely in 
such instances it can not be said that the rate structure had pre- 
viously included the service on the plant tracks. It would seem 
that the proper method to pursue in making the rates to such 
plants would be to add to the junction point rate for the service 
extended to the plant from the more distant line and cancel joint 
arrangements with the contiguous line. The industrial road 
should not receive from the more distant trunk line connection 
any compensation as division or allowance which exceeds the 
amount added to the junction point rate. Thus would be pre- 
served the earlier rate adjustment, the relation between the rates 
applicable over the competing trunk lines would be equalized, 
the revenues of the trunk lines would be conserved, and the gen- 
eral rate-paying public would not be burdened with allowances 
and special services for particular shippers. 

In a fifth group the following conditions are shown : An in- 
dustry has plant tracks which could under no conceivable con- 
ditions be considered as having any common-carrier character- 
istics. In order to give to them such a status, a railroad is in- 
corporated, the tracks of the plant are leased to it, and the trunk 
line grants trackage rights and even leases its rails to the indus- 
trially owned railroad corporation. Thereupon the industrial 
railroad publishes tariffs, files them with this commission, makes 
reports, and as a matter of form assumes the appearance of a 
common carrier subject to the act, and the trunk line affords it 
divisions out of the rate applicable to the locality for the same 
service which the industry has previously performed without com- 
pensation. The shipper through its incorporated railroad is thus 
afforded advantages which are denied to other shippers having 
a smaller volume of traffic. For a trunk line carrier to offer its 
facilities by lease or trackage rights, to give an undue advantage 
to a smgle shipper, is unquestionably such a device as is con- 
demned by the act. 

The sixth group is composed of industrial plant tracks which 
are neither owned nor operated by common carriers and are not 
dedicated to public use, the ownership and right of use being in 
the controlling industries which operate them. They ask that 
allowances be paid them out of the locality basis of rates under 
section 15 of the act, upon the theory that they are performing a 
service of transportation which the runk line is obligated to per- 
form under the rate structure. These cases illustrate the pass- 
ing of the necessity for that provision of section 15 under which 
shippers may be compensated by the trunk lines for their facilities 
used in the handling of their own shipments. This legislative 
measure was enacted to give this commission a means of elimi- 
nating certain unjust discriminations. The gradual elimination 
of discriminatory practices by other processes leaves this provision 
of the law to be used as a cloak for various payments which but 
for it would be looked upon as rebates. 

The commission will look to the trunk lines to reform their 
tariffs and file with this commission whatever arrangements they 
may make with the industrial lines here in question in the light 
of this report. .An order will be entered directing the cancellation 
of the tariffs suspended in investigation and suspension docket 
414, and the proceedings in docket 4181 wili be dismissed without 

Commissioner Harlan dissents from the conclusions of the com- 

Digitized by 


July 16. 1915 



mission in this proceeding, and will later file a separate report. 
(34 I. C. C.) 


The commission in the decision under this head (34 I. C. C, 
609) refuses to allow the railroads in central freight association 
and trunk line territories, including also the New Haven, to put 
in effect tariffs proposing spotting charges in connection with 
placing cars on private sidings or tracks of industrial plants. 
These tariffs were filed in compliance with a suggestion in the 
Industrial Railways case (29 I. C. C, 212). They were to have 
become effective on different dates from April 20 to July 15, 
1914, but were suspended. An abstract of the decision follows : 

The proposed spotting charge is 5^ cents per ton. minimum 
$2 per car, and the service for which the charge is proposed is 
defined in the suspended tariffs as follows: 

"Spotting" service is the service beyond a reasonably convenient point of 
interchange between road haul or connecting carrier and industrial plant 
tracks, and includes: 

(o) Une placement of a loaded car which the road haul or connecting 
carrier has transported, or 

(b) The taking out of a loaded car from a particular location in the plant 
for transportation by road haul or connecting carrier. 

<c) The handling of the empty car in the reverse direction. 

The industries to which the charge applies were divided into 
three lists. The basis of selection varied with different carriers, 
but in general the industries seem to have been arbitrarily se- 

It does not appear that the terminal facilities of the respond- 
ents, exclusive of industry spurs, private sidings, and tracks of in- 
dustrial plants, are adequate for all the carload freight which they 
have been accustomed to receive and deliver upon such tracks, 
and respondents do not show that they could provide such ter- 
minal facilities, but some of the protestants testified that if such 
terminal facilities were provided by the carriers they would not 
use them. 

It is admitted by the carriers that the proposed charge and also 
the lists of industries are tentative, and that if the tariffs should 
take effect as filed discrimination would result in that there arc 
many industries not named in the tariffs for which the respond- 
ents perform without an additional charge the same spotting 
service. But while these respondents concede that the proposed 
tariffs can not be justified, they ask the commission to indicate 
how far they may go in imposing spotting charges. 

It has long been the custom of carriers to receive and deliver 
carload freight upon spur tracks leading to private industries at 
convenient points for loading and unloading without imposing 
any charge for that service in addition to the line-haul rate, and 
in the Los Angeles case (18 I. C. C, 310), the commission held 
that where this service is merely a substitute for team-track re- 
ceipt and delivery of carload freight the line-haul rate covers 
the service for the reason that rates generally in this country 
have been constructed upon that basis. The order in that case 
was upheld by the Supreme Court. Los Angeles case (234 U. S., 
293). The mere size or complexity of the industry is not con- 
trolling in determining whether or not the line-haul rate covers 
the receipt or delivery of freight at the door of the plant. 

As existing rates must be deemed to have been constructed 
to cover the customary placement of cars at factory doors, 
whether upon an industry spur or private siding, or upon the 
tracks of an industrial plant, and the outward movement of 
cars from such tracks, without regard to the size or nature 
of the plant, to add a charge now to the line-haul rate for that 
service would be revolutionary. 

While the commission has from time to time called the at- 
tention of the carriers to the possibility of increased revenues 
from certain sources, and has suggested that it might be that 
the carriers ought to make a charge in addition to the line-haul 
rate for some services in connection with the movement of cars 
within industrial plants, for which no such > additional charge 
:s now made, it has never intended to suggest that an additional 
charge would be proper for services which by long continued 

general custom and usage have been treated as covered by the 
line-haul rate. 

In General Electric Company v. N. Y. C. & H. R. (14 I. C. 
C, 237), it was said that common carriers could not be called 
upon as a part of their contract of transportation to make de- 
liveries through a network of interior switching tracks con- 
structed as plant facilities to meet the necessities of the indus- 
try, but the case did not require a decision of that question. 
The point actually decided was that the complainant was not 
entitled to an allowance from the carrier for a service which the 
carrier was ready and willing to perform, and which the com- 
plainant performed because it was not convenient for it to per- 
mit the carrier to perform the service. 

In the Industrial Railways case, the commission also ex- 
pressed the opinion that the line-haul rate does not cover the 
movement of cars incident to the receipt and delivery of car- 
load freight at large industrial plants where the movement is 
through a network of interior tracks, but in that case also the 
question presented was one of allowances, and the commission 
did not undertake to determine the number of tracks over which 
the cars must move prior to their receipt or delivery by the car- 
rier in order to deprive the owner of the property transported of 
the right to an allowance for the service. It did, however, 
recognize the fact that the line-haul rate may cover the service 
(if spotting a car at the factory door on a private siding: 

Under the common law as construed in the practically unanimous decisions 
of the courts, a delivery of carload freight to a shipper having a private 
!iiding is made by shunting the car upon the switch, clear of the main 
tracks. All services upon the siding beyond that point, in placing the car 
for loading or unloading at a particular spot convenient to the shipper, 
are what may be called volunteered services in the sense that they are in 
addition to the main. line haul and in excess of any obligation of service 
by the carrier at common law. Nevertheless, the custom of making deliveries 
at the warehouse or factory door on private sidings is one of long standing 
in this country, and under certain language in the act it is possible that the 
carriers may be required, upon reasonable compensation, to do this spotting, 
as it is called. We find no authority, however, English or American, that 
holds or intimates that the- line carrier, in connection with the main-line haul, 
is under any obligation to spot a car at the factory door on a private siding 
except upon reasonable compensation included in the rate itself or set up 
in the form of a special charge. 

There may be cases in which the spots at which cars are 
placed for loading and unloading in complex industries are so 
located that the request for the receipt and delivery of carload 
freight at such spots could not, in view of general usage, be re- 
garded as reasonable, and where a charge for the spotting 
service in addition to the line-haul rate might therefore be 
justified, but the mere fact that an industry is complex, or that 
it requires an interplant service in addition to the receipt and 
delivery of carload freight, is not sufficient to justify an ad- 
ditional charge for the placing of cars at the door of the in- 
dustrial plant for the receipt or delivery of carload freight. 
The line-haul rate, however, covers only one placement of the 
car for loading or unloading, and an additional charge should 
be made for each additional placement of the car for that pur- 

The mere fact that many individual plants are operated to- 
gether as a single industry does not deprive the industry of 
the right to such a service in the receipt and delivery of car- 
load freight at each of the several plants as that plant would 
be entitled to have if it were operated separately, unless the 
collective operation so far removes the necessity for such a 
service as to make it unreasonable for the industry to demand 
the service. 

To permit the carriers to add to the line-haul rate a charge 
for the movement of cars incident to the receipt and delivery 
of carload freight at industries selected because of their size 
or complexity, or upon some other basis equally uncertain, 
while treating a like service at all other industries as covered 
by the line-haul rate, would result in discrimination of a flagrant 

Especially ought the tracks of the industrial plant to the ex- 
tent that they are used by the carrier for a public service I'e 

Digitized by 




V'oL. 59, No. 3 

treated as a part of its terminal facilities where the carrier does 
not show that it would be possible for it to provide the neces- 
sary terminal facilities in any other way. 

The public interest is served in many ways by permitting 
the carriers to use the tracks of industrial plants as a part of 
their terminal facilities. The exclusively owned terminals of 
the carriers are thereby relieved of a heavy burden under which 
they would either break down completely or be so congested as 
to inconvenience shippers who are compelled to receive and 
deliver their freight in those terminals. The distribution of 
terminals also tends to prevent the undue concentration of in- 
dustries and consequent concentration of population, thus aid- 
ing the solution of one of our social problems. 

With the growth of terminal areas and the consequent in- 
crease of terminal expenses, there may be a growing need for 
a separation of the charges for line hauls from the charges for 
terminal services, and a graduation of charges for terminal serv- 
ices so that each industry within the terminal area will pay in 
proportion to the service it receives in addition to the line haul, 
if such a system should in the future be deemed to he preferable 
to what now obtains; but before that could be done there would 
have to be a separation of the cost of the line haul from the 
cost of the terminal service, and a complete reconstruction of 

The respondents have not justified the suspended tariffs, and 
an order will be entered requiring those tariffs to be canceled. 
The respondents may, however, file new tariffs providing for 
.•spotting charges in those instances in which the terminal serv- 
ices performed exceed the .services which under established cus- 
tom are. or should be. performed f'lr the line-haul rate, in ac- 
cordance with the views expressed in this report. 

Commissioner Harlan dissents from the conclusions of the 
comniissioii in this proceeding and will later file a se|>arate re 


The eleventh annual convention of the International Railway 
General Foremen's .\ssociation was held in the Hotel Sherman. 
Chicago. July 13-16. The convention was opened with prayer 
and the association was welcomed to the city by the mayor o[ 
Chicago. William Hale Thompson. President Scott presented 
an interesting address, speaking in favor of closer co-operation 
between the various mechanical associations as mentioned in 
President Gaines' .iddress at the Master Mechanics' convention. 
The secretary reported a membership of 255 and a cash balance 
of J70.67. 


The size and weight of locomotives have been increased to 
the apparent limit, and it is now the consensus of opinion, that 
greater increase in capacity and speed must come from other 
sources. The possibility of further improvements in steam dis- 
tribution have been recognized, and at the present time no part 
of the modern locomotive is the subject of so much study. <Iis- 
cussion, and experiment as the valve motion. 

It is true that large engines do not develop a drawbar pull 
at high speed at all proportional to their size, when compared 
with the smaller engines. This is probably due to the fact that 
the present valve gears do not take care of the large cylinder 
volumes now being used, and the cylinder pasagcs arc not suit- 
ably designed to allow the locomotive to run at high speed at 
fairly long cut-off. In the last few years, however, important 
improvements in exhaust nozzles, and exhaust passages, in the 
s.iddles have been developed, and this together with the increased 
capacity derived from superheated steam, has covered up the 
defects in steam distribution to a certain extent. 

All of the present valve gears give a very limited opening 
fr ^team admission when working at short cut-off: and the 
oi enings for exhaust are eipially disadvantageous, for although. 
tic .•|)ening is large, it is at its maximum very early in the 

stroke and gradually decreases until at half stroke, where the 
piston speed is at its maximum, it is rarely over f^ in. This 
narrowing of the exhaust port opening accounts for the hij 
back pressure produced. Of course this abnormal back pres- 
sure can be overcome to a certain extent by giving the valves 
exhaust clearance, but this is done at a slight sacrifice in economy 
when engine is running at slow speed. 

The tendency at the present time is to use large cylinders with 
the assumption that the engine is to be worked at a compara- 
tively short cut-oflf. This necessitates large steam and exhaust 
ports, and a valve gear that gives a large port opening for both 
admission and exhaust. It is a well known fact that the quicker 
valves move over the ports the more power derived from the 
steam — possibly due to the loss in power which results froin 
steam condensation when valves move relatively slow over the 
ports. Hence in the late valve gears an effort has been made 
to produce a motion which will give quick admission and re- 
lease of steam. This condition can be brought about, to a cer- 
tain extent, by a long valve travel. 

The most important problem that confronts the motive power 
department at the present time is to bring about economy in 
locomotive operation. The valve motion is next in importance 
to the boiler in determining the efficiency of the locomotive as a 
whole ; hence the vital importance of a proper design, construc- 
tion, and maintenance of this feature, so that some degree of 
economy will be attained. Poor steam distribution results in 
loss of power in the engine, excessive fuel consumption, and an 
increased cost of repairs. One of the most important items of 
expense in locomotive operation is the cost of fuel, and the ques- 
tion of steam distribution is a dominant factor in this. 

In order that the steam distribution in the cylinder may be as 
efficient as possible great care must be exercised in the selection 
of the type and design of the valve to be used. The piston 
valve possesses some advantage over the flat valve for high duty 
service in that it is fully balanced, though the slide valve can 
be quite satisfactorily designed in this respect. In short, it is a 
matter of choice and convenience of construction and main- 
tenance as to which shall be used, though the tendency of modern 
practice is toward the general use of piston valves. 

There is some doubt as to whether the piston valve is really 
more economical in steam consumption than the slide valve, and 
a number of tests have been made, some showing better for one, 
some showing more economy for the other. In 1904 tests were 
made lr>- the Master Mechanics' .Association to determine the 
relative leakage of slide and piston valves. The conclusions de- 
rived from these tests do not seem to favor either type of valve. 
The best piston valve showed a leakage of 268.56 lb. per hour, 
and the best slide valve 34S lb. per hour. The worst case of 
leakage with piston valves was 2.W0 lb, per hour ; and of slide 
\alves 2,610 lb. per hour. Without doubt, the question of valve 
leakage with both slide and piston valves, depends largely upon 
the condition in which they are allowed to run. If the piston 
\alve was given as much attention in the roundhouse as the slide 
valve, the former would probably show the least leakage. 

Slidf I'ahrs. — V\ ith large cylinder dimensions and high steam 
pressures the slide valve becomes unduly large for a proper 
length of port, and even when well balanced creates an excessive 
amount of friction when moved on its seat. .\ slide valve when 
used on a very long cylinder gives undue cylinder clearance due 
to the increased length of ports, and the large steam chests neces- 
s.iry cause more or less steam condensation. This probably ac- 
counts for the high water rate of engines with very large valves, 
and steam chests. In pooled service, cut valves and seats are 
very common on slide valve engines. In fact, it is uncommon 
for engines to run more than 25.000 miles before the valves 
need facing. 

The chief advantage of the sli<le valve lies in the fact that it 
can relieve itself of excess compression by lifting from its seat. 
Hence it is not necessary to provide means for relieving excess 
fressure in the cylinders. 

In the design of the slide valves the balance is of as much im- 

Digitized by 


Jii.Y 16, 1915 



portance as an efficient distribution of steam in the cylinders. 
If the valves are not properly balanced an enormous stress is 
imposed upon the valve gear and transmitting rods in the worl< 
they are called upon to do. In calculating the dimensions of 
stems and rods the designer is obliged to consider the work that 
would have to be performed in case of an accident to the bal- 
ancing strips and lubricating apparatus. 

I'islon I'akcs. — The advantages of the piston valve are as 
Increased port area for both admission and exhaust. 
Ports in cylinder made very straight and direct. 
A simpler, lighter, and cheaper cylinder casting; and a wear- 
ing tace separate trom the cylinder casting that can be cheaply 

Its adaptability to any design of valve gear, since it can be 
placed above the cylinder, between the frame rails, or in any 
other (wsition with equal facility. 

With inside admission valves the steam passages are better 
protected from the cold and radiation, and the steam chest heads 
and packings relieved from all pressure except that of the ex- 
haust steam, which is but a few pounds above that of the at- 
n-.o.sphere and so puts, really, very little stress upon these parts. 
.Accessibility of parts. Peep hole plugs make it possible to get 
port marks without removing valve chamber heads. 

Better balance which makes it easier to handle, and decreases 
the wear and tear on the motion work. 

The relative frictional resistance of the piston valve is much 
less than the slide valve. ( This was proven by tests made on 
the C. B. & Q.). 

The greatest disadvantage under which the piston valve labors 
is its inability to relieve excess pressure in the cylinder port In- 
lifting, after the manner of the slide valve. Many of the weak 
features of the piston valve have been eliminated in the recent 
designs, and where proper care is taken in the maintenance and 
operation of piston valves they give splendid service. 

Piston valve cylinders have considerable advantage over slide 
valve cylinders. The walls lend themselves more readily to 
curved lines than do those of the slide valve. (The avoidance 
of flat walls exposed to steam pressure is one of the most 
important things to be considered in cylinder work). As piston 
valves can be made of any desired length the steam ports can 
be made very short and direct. For this reason also the steam 
chest should be placed as close to the bore as will allow the 
barrel tlange to be turned for the head casing. The piston valve 
cylinder and all its appurtenances weigh somewhat less than a 
tirst class slide valve and its appurtenances of equal capacities. 
Piston valves give flexibility to the design because they can l)e 
located in almost any position with regard to the cylinders. 

.As regards the size of piston valve that should be used tor 
large power there is considerable difference of opinion. E.n- 
ha'istive tests made on the Pennsylvania Railroad showed that 
the piston valve could be largely standardized, and that a 12-in. 
diameter of valve was large enough for cylinders up to 27 in. 
in diameter, when used with superheated steam. Tlie standard 
12-in. diameter of valve was then developed, and with only one 
change in the overall length, it now fits locomotives of 14 dif- 
ferent classes on that road. 

I'ahf Gt-ars.—M the present time four general designs of 
valve i^ears are u.sed in this country. They are: The Stephenson 
link motion ; the Walschaert valve gear : the Baker valve gear, 
and the Southern valve gear. 

For many years the Stephenson link motion was used almost 
exclusively in this country, but with the introduction of the 
very heavy power, for structural reasons, some form of outside 
vnlve gear became imperative. The principal advantages of out- 
side valve gears are : .Accessibility for lubrication, inspection an>l 
repairs ; opportunity for heavy cross bracing between the frames ; 
motion can be made more direct, and with fewer wearing parts, 
and ability to hold their adjustment for a longer length of time. 
The disadvantages of the outside valve gears are: Liabilit) 
of damage fro:ii side swipes; rod work, changing of tires, etc.. 

made more difficult due to the location of outside valve gears, 
and slight distortion of the valve events due to up and down 
movement of the main wheel, and with it the eccentric crank, 
and back end of the eccentric rod. 

.Vside from the matter of good steam distribution, there are 
a numlier of items that must be considered in the selection of 
a valve gear for different classes of service. They are as fol- 
lows : First cost ; cost of maintenance and repairs ; efficiency and 
reliability of service; ability to hold adjustment, and ease of 
handling in the cab. 

Three of the most important features to bt considered, in 
the design and construction of an outside valve gear are: 
Necessity for providing as rigid a support as possible; in the 
provision for reducing wear to a minimum, and in providing 
sufficient lul)rication at every point. 

The advantages to be derived from the high class materials 
for valve gear parts have been recognized, and at the present 
time the tendency is to use steel for these parts. The recent 
Pennsylvania engines have all motion work parts of heat- 
treated steel. Soft steel is used extensively for transmitting 
and other valve gear rods, and the jaws are usually case- 
hardened to give good wearing qualities. Cast steel is only 
adapted for certain parts, and where used should be annealed. 
The American Locomotive Company follows the practice of 
using drop forged motion work parts wherever it is possible 
to do so. Drop forged motion work parts have the advantage 
of re(|uiring very little tinish. and are strong and durable. 

The outside valve gears produce a more uniform steam dis- 
tribution with a lower percentage of preadmission than the 
Stephenson link motion. They hold their adjustment, and 
consequently give a better steam distribution for a longer 
length of time. Constant lead is the characteristic of all wel' 
known outside valve gears. While there is no relial)le data 
availal)le as to the cost of maintenance of the outside valve 
gears, in comparison with the Stephenson link motion, it is 
generally considered that the cost of maintenance of the out- 
side gears is from 60 to 75 per cent less than for the Stephen- 
son gear. 

The Stephenson gear possesses the peculiarity of being 
exceedingly sensitive to a close adjustment of all its parts in 
order tl at a correct action and proper distribution of the 
steam may be obtained. It is the most flexible of any in use 
and can be most readily adapted to irregularities in the run- 
ning and operation of the engine. -At the same time it will 
get out of adjustment very easily, and requires the utmost 
care in its design in order that it may work properly. With 
the link motion in actual service there are three sources of 
error which cause a variation of the same events for the two 
cn<ls of the cylinder, and which must be compromised for in 
some manner. They are: The, location of the eccentric rod 
pins back of the link arc; the angular vibration of the eccen- 
tric rods, and the angular vibration of the connecting rod. To 
a certain extent the latter two compensate the first, but not 
entirely, and to complete the compensation the hanger stud 
is set back of the link arc. 

In certain class of service the variable lead given by the 
Stephenson link motion permits the locomotive to accelerate 
more rapidly and to better adjust itself to different operating 
conditions than is possible with the valve gears giving a 
constant lead. V'ariable lead and flexibility are the charac- 
teristics of the gear. An added advantage of the Stephenson 
motion is that everything is inside where it is well protected 
from damage by a side swipe. For this reason several roails 
are still specifying the Stephenson gear for moderate sized 
switch engines. Switch engines are especially apt to be side 
swiped in congested yards. 

On the other hand. I)ecause of the weight and power of 
modern locomotives, it is almost impossible to get a satisfac- 
tory design of the Stephenson link motion between the 

(This report also included a very clear description of the ^ 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 3 

action of the valve, descriptions of the various special valves 
and valve gears, together with the methods for setting them, 
descriptions of the various valve and cylinder attachments and 
the various power reverse gears now in service. — Editor.] 

The report is signed by: Walter Smith, chairman (C. & 
N. W.); C. A. Barnes (C. & W. I.); G. W. Keller (N. & W.); 
T. M. Dewar (C. & O.); B. F. Harris (So. Pac); J. Miller 
(111. Cent.); N. J. Shasberger (N. Y. C. West); C D. Raflferty 
(K. & M.). and F. Anderson (C. St. P. M. & O.). 


It has been a difficult problem* in connection with the use of 
steel cars to clean the exterior in a satisfactory manner before 
painting. The use of acids for this purpose is not entirely satis- 
factory and this method is also dangerous for the workmen. 
Where sand blasting has been adopted, however, it seems to have 
been productive of remarkably good results. 

The engravings show side elevation and sectional views of a 
sand blast installation which is in successful operation on a large 
system operating a great many steel cars in both passenger and 
freight service. The installation was designed by the Pangbom 
Corporation, Hagerstown, Md., who also manufactured and 
supervised the erecting of the equipment which is known as 
their model "P" car cleaning installation. 

As shown in one of the illustrations the building is 172 ft. 
long, the main part being 55 ft. long and of brick construction, 

while the extensions are of wood and covered with corrugated 
steel sheathing. All the equipment is contained in the main part 
of the building; the sand blasting is done in a compartment 12 
ft. by 17 ft. by 21 ft., and the dust is confined to this space. The 
end extensions keep the entire car indoors at all times. Cars 
are hauled in and out of the building by an electric winch, built 
by the American Engineering Company, Philadelphia, Pa., and 
having a capacity of 6,000 lb. at a speed of 50 ft. per minute. 

Pits are provided, as shown in one of the sections, beneath the 
track on which the car stands and are covered with a grating 
10 ft. wide. When new sand is necessary it is dumped on this 
grating and passes down the sloped sides of the pits to the ele- 
vators, which are of the bucket type and which carry the new 
sand as well as that which falls from the sides of the car dur- 
ing the blasting operations, to the sand separators. These sand 
separators remove any refuse from the sand, the good sand 
passing into the sand bins and the refuse into the waste bins. 
From the sand bins the sand goes to the blasting machines 
which are operated by compressed air, the sand passing from the 
machine to a hose and nozzle in the hands of the operator who 
stands on the platform shown. Canvas curtains, as indicated on 
the drawings are arranged so that the section of the car stand- 
ing over the grating is entirely enclosed. 

The engravings also clearly show the arrangement of the ex- 
haust piping which is designed to remove the dust rapidly from 
the enclosure when blasting is going on. The exhaust fan is 
double and is driven by a 35-hp. motor running at 870 r. p. m. 


Phn of Optra forj Platform. 


Phn of Machintry, Second Floor 

Longitudinal Stclion. 
3tcfiort ^-A. 

Sectional Views Showing the Arrangement of Machinery for Cleaning Steel Cars by Sand Blasting 

Digitized by 


July 16. 1915 



The dust-laden air is exhausted into a dry process screen type 
dust arrester where the dust is completely separated. The dust 
is then delivered to the dust boxes located on the first floor. 
The elevating, separating and blasting machinery is in two 

the short end of the gate is loaded with a counterweight of 
1,000 lb. 

The gate is raised by a push, with little effort, and is lowered 
by pulling on a rope attached to the light end. When down it is 

Side Elevation of the Building for Sand Blasting Steel Cars 

units, one on either side of the car so that both sides can be 
cleaned at once. The sand separators and the elevators are 
driven by 5-hp. electric motors running at 850 r. p. m. 


The Long Island Railroad, which has tried all sorts of ex- 
hortations to curb the spirits of automobilists who approach the 
railway tracks at reckless speed, has concluded to employ some- 
thing stronger than words — a gate which cannot be broken down 
with impunity. At a crossing on the highway leading to Long 
Beach the company has installed gates, one on each side of the 
railroad, made of heavy spruce piles or spars 40 ft. long and 

fastened by a hook. To lower the gate on the side of the rail- 
way farthest from the cabin the attendant must walk across the 
tracks. When the gate is lowered it is 3 ft. 6 in. above the road- 

As showing the necessity of adopting such extraordinary means 
to stop automobile drivers at grade crossings when trains are ap- 
proaching, the company calls attention to the extraordinary fre- 
quency of disasters at its crossings, a fact which has been noted 
in these columns. In the two weeks ending July 10 there were 
a dozen cases where drivers ran through crossing gates let down 
to warn them of approaching trains. With gates of this kind, 
however, there will be a radical change in conditions: and, in the 
language of a New York newspaper, motorists going to Long 

Highway Crossing Gate — Long Island Railroad 

about 10 in. in diameter (12 at the butt, 8 at the tip). These 
gates, shown in the accompanying engraving, are painted witb 
spiral bands of black and white, so that they will attract attention 
a considerable distance off. The one in the foreground is sup- 
ported at the left between two stout posts by a 1-in. iron bolt, 
surrounded by a pipe bushing. 

Beach will no longer be able to get themselves run over l)y Long 
Island trains. 

B.^GD.AD Railw.w. — A tunnel over three miles long, near Bagdje. 
through the Amanus mountains, has been completed, thus con- 
necting the Bagdad Railway on Kiliki plain with .\leppo, in Xorth 

To make the work of raising and lowering as easy as possible, Syria. 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59. No. 3 


A compact, complete flagging outfit for the use of train flag- 
men has been I'.evised by the Sclby Signal Flag Company. St. 
Louis, Mo., and has been used recently on several roads, in- 
cluding the Mobile & Ohio, the Frisco, the Missouri Pacitic, 
the Santa Fc, the Kansas City Southern, the Wabash and the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas. It consists of a heavy galvanized 
sheet steel case divided into three compartments longitudinally. 
One compartment consists of a circular case containing an all- 

Method of Operation with Flag, Fusee or Torpe<?o 

wool flag attached to a wooden staff with ordinary t3ck.<. The 
l)ase of this staff is fitted with wool packer for holding the .staff, 
either extended when in use or telescoped into the protecting 
tube when not in use. 

The lower portion of the signal handle is divided transversely 
into two compartments by a wooden partition. One compartment 
contains three standard 5 and 10 minute fusees and the other 
6 standard torpedoes. Each compartment is fitted with a hinged 
lid which allows only one fusee or torpedo to issue at n time. 

Flag Ready for Use. Lower View Shows Extra Supply Case 

These two compartment.s and that for the flag form llic liandle 
for tile fla? when in use. This case is painted a bright target 
red with flagsjing instructions printed in target yellow. It bear^i 
the standard tradi-mark or monogram of the road, and is con- 
secutively numbered for the purpose of identification rtiid charg- 
nig out. It is provided with a strap, enabling the flagman to 
carry it over his shoulder, leaving both hands free. Ibc en- 
tire case is 3'/. in. in diameter. 22 in. in length and weighs 
2<A lb. 

.\ detachable extra supply case has also been ile^igiud to 

carry 6 additional fusees and 12 additional torpedoes. This 
case is attached to the flag handle by folding hooks. When 
not in use it may be hung on the rear platform of a train. It 
is intended for use where signals are used frequently and where 
the flagman does not have an opportunity to go to the baggage 
car or train box to replenish his supplies. 

Among the advantages claimed for this device are, that 
It provides all the signals a flagman may need in a light port- 
able waterproof case which he may carry with him readily to 
the point of display. There is no opportunity for him to fcjrget 
to take all the necessary signals in case he starts out under 
exciten-.enl or in a hurry. Second, instead of the fusees being 
carried only at night, this flag provides them at all times so 
that they are at hand whenever a flag signal becomes indistinct 
drring unexpected fogs, snow storms, etc. Third, this flag is 
inseparable from the signal handle, precluding the possibility of 
the signals being left behind. F'ourth, instead of the torpedo 
straps being broken off by being tied to lanterns and flags and 
l)eing broken and damaged otherwise, they are protected for ef- 
fective use when needed, eliminating waste and insuring that the 
signals are in proper condition when needed. 


The ball joint illustrated herewith was brought out by the 
Franklin Railway Supply Company. 30 Church street. New York, 
especially for making pipe connections to the main reservoir. 
Many engine failures are caused by the breaking of main reser- 
voir pipe connections due to vibration of the pipes, the effect 
of which is concentrated at the rigid connection in the reser- 
voir. The body of the ball joint is threaded and screwed di- 

Main Reservoir Ball Joint Connection 

rectly into the reservoir and the end of the pipe is screwed into 
the ball member, thus relieving the threaded connections of vi- 
bration stresses. 

The construction of the joint is shown in the engraving. TIic 
body is made in the form of a cylindrical casing in which are 
placed two rubber packing rings an<I two hard babbitt retaining 
rings. The packing rings forn\ the joint with the spherical 
.surface of the ball member and are held in position by a gland 
nut on the casing. 

Imh.w Flel Supplies. — .An experiment is being made of 
carrying coal from the Bengal collieries by rail direct instead of 
as heretofore by sea via Calcutta for the railways in western 
India. Tlie idea is to release shipping for jute and other classes 
of export business which have no alternative means of despatch- 
ing their goods. One of the results of this policy has been an 
enorn-.ous increase in to.d tratV.c in the western sections of the 
Fast Indian K.iilway; in one week over a quarter of a million 
tons of coal have been carried, of which just under half was for 
up-country, this being a record for the line. 

Digitized by 




Maintenance of Way Section 



One large eastern railroad has created the position of super- 
visor of terminal operation and appointed a man whose duty 
it is to standardize the operation of the 
Standudizing different yards on the road by inaugu- 

Method* rating at each of the terminals the good 

of Work methods of all as far as practicable. 

Without such a plan, economies worked 
out at one point are in danger of being overlooked at others, 
and other yards will not benefit from them. The same idea is 
equally applicable to other departments. .A comparison of the 
unit costs of renewing ties, or bridge stringers, for instance, on 
different divisions of the same system, will frequently show- 
wide variations not due to local conditions. The explanation is 
that the methods used are not equally efficient, and it is evident 
that the practices of foremen and supervisors with the better 
records can be adopted on the divisions with higher unit costs 
with resultant economy. On some roads the organizations are 
such that improved methods are quickly introduced all over the 
lines. On most roads this supervision extends only to the 
larger problems, and there is no one whose special duty it is to 
study and compare the minor details of the work, which details 
are nevertheless highly important in the aggregate. The need 
for such supervision and ready exchange of methods is con- 
stantly becoming greater as larger numbers of less experienced 
men are being employed. 

Railway men are only now beginning to realize the wide variety 

of uses to which a locomotive crane may be put with economy. 

It is only within the last four or five 

The Field years that this type of equipment has 

lor come into general use and on only a 

Locomotive Cranes "''^^^ ^^^' ^°^^^ ^'^^ locomotive cranes em- 
ployed to full advantage today. Many 
labor saving devices have been designed for certain definite uses 
and their economy is dependent only on the amount of work 
of that character to be done. It is the versatility of the loco- 
motive crane that gives it such wide use. This is especially 
emphasized in the maintenance of way field where this class o* 
equipment has been most widely used. Where, for instance, the 
picking up of roadway scrap along the line may not alone jus- 
tify the use of a locomotive crane, the fact that it can be em- 
ployed at other times in handling excavations, driving piles, 
loading ties or lumber, handling concrete materials, load- 
ing ballast, etc., will frequently justify its purchase for the 
combined purposes. .-Mso. because of this wide variety of 
uses, the locomotive crane is no longer regarded on many 
roads as a special type of equipment to be moved from 
one division to another for special work, but as many as 40 
are employed on individual roads, most of which are assigned 
to particular divisions. In many cases one or tr.ore locomotive 
cranes are kept busy at single terminals. The adaptaliility of 
equipment of this kind to a wide variety of work is limited 
very largely by the ingenuity of the men in charge. There is so 
much handling of material and other work of a similar nature 
to be done at all times, and the economy of mechanical means 
as compared with manual labor is so generally recognized, that 
the proper utilization of ecjuipment of this type is largely one 
of proper management. Thus, a crane employed in loading 
ballast in the summer can l)c diverted to the handling of storage 
coal in the winter. A definite example of their value is afforded 
on a western road which is contemplating the rearrangement 
of certain track facilities in an important terminal within the 
next few years at a point where new coal handling facilities 

must be provided at once. To avoid the construction of a per- 
manent coaling station where this proposed rearrangement of 
tracks may require its early removal, it is proposed to install 
a locomotive crane feeding a small frame coal storage pocket. 
When the track changes are finally decided upon and permanent 
coal handling facilities provided, the locomotive crane can be 
transferred to other work and the only investment lost will be 
that for the temporary coal pocket. Some of the most important 
uses of a locomotive crane are described in an article elsewheri' 
in this issue, the purpose of this article being not only to call 
attention to the held existing for locomotive cranes, but also 
to aid in securing the greatest efficiency from those already in 

The (lapping of timber guard rails to fit over ties on wooden 
trestles and on open floor steel bridges to hold the ties in place 

and to prevent their bunching in case 

Dapping of derailment, seems to be a relic of 

Timber Guard ^^^ old days when it was considered 

HjJJj necessary to fashion intricate joints in 

timber frames involving the cutting and 
the material reduction of the strength of the various member?. 
Modern tendencies are against this practice. In mill and wooden 
car construction the dovetail has been superseded almost en- 
tirely by metal yokes, hangers and bolts. It is strange, there- 
fore, that only a lew railroads have adopted substitutes for the 
dapped iiuard rail in spite of the fact that several have been de- 
veloped. In a number of cases the substitute has taken the 
form of wood or cast iron spacing blocks between the ties, and 
in other instances lag screws have been used. The dapped guard 
rail is a strong device for the purpose intended. Theoretically 
it is much stronger than the largest lag screw which it would be 
practical)lt to u«e. but its very shape makes it particularly li- 
able to checking and splitting and offers every opportunity for 
decay, not only of the guard rail itself I)ut of the ties as well. 
With the increased use of treated lumber the dapped guard rail, 
which would have to be framed before treatment, is especially 
undesirable when we consider that no other member of a tim- 
ber trestle deck reciuires cutting in advance. It would seem that 
this detail of a wooden bridge ought to receive more consider- 
ation than has l)een given to it in the past, in view of the fact 
that some of the substitute devices that have been suggested are 
cheaper and seem to serve the purpose equally well, if not 
1 letter. 

The operation of the average gravel ballast pit involves a daily 
expenditure of from $100 to $200. .As the output is secured 
only when the steam shovel is working. 
Track Construction it is highly important that all avoidable 
in delays to the shovel be eliminated, thereby 

Gravel Pits increasing the amount of material loaded 

and decreasing the unit cost of loading it. 
.\side from nn efficient pit organization no factor is more 
important than proper track construction and maintenance. 
It is usually not difficult to secure authority for sufficient 
track facilities. The importance of using heavy rail, long 
turnouts .md a relatively high standard of track construc- 
tion throughout is not so generally realized. Too frequently 
these tracks are considered in the class of temporary side tracks 
used only occasionally or for the storing of empty cars, while 
as a matter of fact, the average pit track is subjected to frecjueiit 
service under large road engines and heavily loaded cars, and 

Digitized by 




Vol. 59, No. 3 

does not receive the attention given to main tracks. A derail- 
ment on such a track ties up the shovel and the pit forces and 
in turn breaks up the schedules of the trains on the road. The 
use of heavy rails and fastenings on good ties and the employ- 
ment of a sufficient force to maintain the tracks properly, will 
do much to eliminate such derailments and consequent delays 
and will therefore pay for themselves quickly. The high record 
output secured without any overtime in the operation of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul pit at South Beloit, 111., described 
in another column, is obtained not only because of an efficient 
pit organization but also because of the fact that 75-lb. and 85- 
Ib. rails, No. 10 turnouts and other correspondingly high stand- 
ards of track construction have been used throughout. Money 
spent by the railroads in such a way will yield large returns m 
a season. 


IT is an open question whether in some respects the construc- 
*■ tion of track is not failing to keep pace with the loads placed 
on it. All predictions to the contrary, wheel loads continue to 
increase. A couple of years ago much attention was attracted 
to the new Atlantic type locomotives built by the Pennsylvania 
with a 66,500 lb. load on each driving axle. The Philadelphia & 
Reading is now building four Atlantic type locomotives for use 
in fast passenger service with 73,100 lb. on each driving axle, or 
nearly 10 per cent more than the Pennsylvania locomotives. A 
comparison of 18 recent designs of Mikado locomotives shows 
an average load per driving axle of 57,300 lb. All of these 
locomotives are or soon will be in regular service, and while 
they represent today the heaviest locomotives of these types, 
the history of past developments has shown that the heaviest 
locomotives of one year may not be many years in advance of 
the average. 

In his presidential address before the American Society for 
Testing Materials last month, A. W. Gibbs, chief mechanical en- 
gineer of the Pennsylvania, and chairman of the committee on 
that road engaged in the preparation of new specifications and in 
the design of the 12S-lb. rail section, made the statement that he 
believed the time had arrived for a considerable increase in 
the weight of rail sections. In this he is in agreement with many 
railway men. At present the 100-Ib. rail may be said to be the 
heaviest standard section on any road, the lOl-lb. rails of the 
Lehigh Valley and the Lackawanna, and the 105-lb. rail of the New 
York Central being modifications of the original lOO-Ib. sections. 
The Central Railroad of New Jersey has laid some 135-lb. rails 
during the past three or four years on curves subjected to heavy 
wear, but this action was prompted by a desire to secure a 
longer life from this rail rather than increased strength. The 
first radical departure from the 100-lb. rail section may be said 
to be the 125-lb. section of the Pennsylvania now being rolled 
for the first time in any considerable quantity. The American 
Railway Engineering Association at its last convention, also 
adopted standard sections for weights up to 140 lb., indicating 
the belief of the Rail Committee that sections heavier than the 
100 lb were desirable 

Some engineers object to the use of heavier rails on the 
ground that the mechanical department at once takes advantage 
of this increased strength to design heavier locomotives, losing 
sight of the fact that the function of the two departments is to 
co-ordinate their work so that their railroad may operate most 
economically. If heavier locomotives than those now being 
employed will reduce the cost of operation and if clearances and 
other conditions make their use practicable, it is the duty of the 
engineering department to provide rail and track construction 
which will carry these loads if this can be done at reasonable ex- 
pense. It is this pressure from the operating and mechanical 
departments, evidenced in the form of increased engine or car 
wlieel loads, which is creating the demand for heavier rail 

Letters to the Editor 


New York. 
To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

In the issue of June 18 there appeared a description of the 
Missouri Pacific pumping station at Nevada, Mo., which con- 
sisted of a brick pump house 42 ft. by 48 ft., a three room frame 
dwelling for the pumper, 18,000 ft. of 8-in. discharge pipe, and 
ISO ft. of 10-in. suction pipe and a steel standpipe 24 ft. in diam- 
eter by 45 ft. high, for all of which the railroad paid $31,500. 
The article described the economy in operation of the fuel oil 
engine over the steam operated plant. The writer does not question 
that the fuel oil engine is cheaper, but he does wish to call at- 
tention to the fact that the operating cost given for pumping 
1,000 gal. of water as 1.73 cents for the fuel oil engine and 3.09 
cents for the steam operated plant, is somewhat misleading and 
apt to give one a wrong impression. 

For instance, suppose we assume that the question came up 
as to the advisability of buying water at a cost of 7 cents a 
1,000 gal., or intsatling one's own pumping plant. If an engineer 
weie to use a report such as shown in this article as a basis to 
show that it would be cheaper to pump its own water than to 
purchase it, his deductions would be in error, and the railroad 
would be making a mistake in installing its own pumping plant 
on these figures. 

In the first place, let us figure what the total cost of each 
kind of plant would be. The facilities as outlined above cost 
$31,500. In addition the first cost of the fuel oil engine plant was 
given as follows : 

40 hp. fuel oil engine $2,000.00 

Two 400-gal. pumps 600.00 

Foundations 100.00 

Pipe and connections 200.00 

Ubor 125.00 

.Adding the first cost of the plant 31,500.00 

Total first cost of fuel oil plant $34,525.00 

I'or the steam operated plant, the additional cost was given as : 

45 hp. vertical boiler in place $1,200.00 

Two 400-gal. pumps 600.00 

Foundations 200.00 

Pipe and fittings 200.00 

Labor 200.00 

Boiler feed 150.00 

Heater 200.00 


.Adding the first cost of the plant 31,500.00 

Total first coKt of the steam plant $34,250.00 

The total operating yearly charge for each plant is as follows : 

l-or the guel oil engine, 

I'ixed charges: 

Interest at 5 per cent of $34,525.00 $1,726.00 

Depreciation at 5 per cent of $34.525.00 1.726.00 

Taxes and insurance at 1 per cent 345.00 

Operation (same as in article) : 

3,250 gal. of fuel oil at 3 cents 

114 gal. of lubricating oil at 17 cents. 

110 gal. of coal oil at 3.518 cents 

Labor of maintenance 

Minor repair parts 

Salary of pumper 








Operating cost for 6 months $496.96 

.\s the operating cost for six months equals $496.96 the total operating 
cost for a year equals $993.92. 

Fixed charges $3,797.00 

Operation 993.92 

Total operating charge $4,790.92 for fuel oil plant. 

For the steam operated plant: 

Fixed charges: .. . , 

Interest at 5 per cent of $34,250 $1,712.00 

Depreciation at 5 per cent of $34,250 1,712.00 

Taxes and insurance, 1 per cent 342.00 


Digitized by 


July 16, 1915 



operation (Same as in article) : 

152 tons of coal at $2 per ton $304.00 

Hauling coal 5 miles at $1 per ton 152.00 

Supplies 50.00 

Repairs 100.00 

Salary of pumper 300.00 

Operating cost for 6 months $906.00 

Fixed charges 3,766.00 

Operation 1,812.00 

Total yearly operating charge $5,578.00 

Thus the total operating charge for a fuel oil plant is $4,790 
and for the steam operated plant is $5,578, or a difference of 
$787.08 per year in favor of the fuel oil engine. 

As the capacity of the plant was 5,000,000 gal. per month, or 
60,000,000 gat. per year, the cost of pumping 1,000 gal. with the 
fuel oil engine is $.0798, or nearly 8 cents per 1,000 gal., instead 
of 1.73 cents as given in the article, and for the steam plant the 
cost is $.093, or 9 cents per 1,000 gal., instead of 3.09 cents as 
given before. 

However, in comparing the cost of pumping the water, or 
buying it at '7 cents per 1,000 gal., we must not lose sight of the 
fact that the road would have to furnish the piping and stand- 
pipe in any event, so we deduct from the total first cost of the 
facilities $31,500, the approximate cost of the piping and stand- 
pipe, which we wilt assume cost $4,500, leaving a balance of 
$27,500. But if we install the pumping plant we still will have 
to lay the pipe and furnish the standpipe, so our first cost is 
still $31,500. 

The charges on the expenditure of $4,500 for the piping and 
standpipe in connection with purchasing the water are as follows : 

Interest at 5 per cent on $4,500 $225.00 

Depreciation at 5 per cent, on $4,500 225.00 

Yearly charge $450.00 

This yearly charge gives an additional cost per 1,000 gal. 
equal to J4 of a cent, to be added to the cost of the water pur- 
chased, making the total cost 7^ cents per 1,000 gal. 

In conclusion, the result plainly shows that (assuming it is 
possible to purchase water from some company) it is better and 
cheaper to let the water company furnish the plant and for the 
road to buy the water, even at a cost^of 7 cents per 1,000 gal., 
plus the additional charge of J4 c*"'. then it would be for it to 
install its own plant and pump its own water; for the engineer 
must not let the idea run away with him that because he sees a 
creek of good water running near the right of way. and ap- 
parently serving no purpose, that it will cost practically nothing 
to get this water into the tenders or shops as the case may be. 

C. F. Herincton. 
[Note. — The above is on the assumption that it is possible to 
purchase water in adequate quantity and of the proper quality. 
In all such cases a road should compare the cost of purchasing 
it with the cost of pumping it itself. In many cases, however. 
a road has no alternative but to provide its own pumping plant.— 


Rochester. N. Y. 

To THE Editor of the R.mlway Ace Gazette : 

On page 855 of the issue of April 16, there appeared a short 
article on the effect of canting the low rail on curves. With 
the conditions stated in that article, I believe that the effect on 
the rail, as shown from the photographs, is due more to exces- 
sive elevation than to the canting of the rail. The elevation 
shown for the degree of curvature given is equilibrium eleva- 
tion for a speed of 36!/j miles per hour. While the article 
stated that many trains stop here and that the speed is slow, 
a speed of IS miles per hour would only call for an equilibrium 
elevation of J4 in. ; 20 miles per hour would call for 1 in., and 
30 miles per hour, 2% in. I have seen the same result on rail 
as is shown here, caused by excessive elevation. It is also pos- 
sible that the gage shown has some effect on this flowing of the 
metal. I do not see any reason for having gage -^^ in. wide on 
a 3 deg. 30 min. curve. 

It is possible, of course, to overdo the canting of the rail, but 
the rail should be canted at least enough to permit the wheels 

to cover the entire surface of the head. It is just as objection- 
able to run only on the inside of the head as only on the out- 
side. In this case the metal would flow with the rail insuf- 
ficiently covered or properly covered. Division Enginees. 


Montreal, Que. 
To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

I have read with much interest the article by Charles E. 
Parks on the subject of Accounting for Rail and Ties in the 
issue of March 12, page 470. Having had considerable experi- 
ence in the track department of this company, I endorse the 
statements he makes pertaining to the intricacies of rail and 
tie accounting, and particularly the suggestion of taking a re- 
liable and accurate inventory of the rail on hand on the different 
sections at the beginning of each fiscal year. 

One source from which a great many discrepancies arise is 
that the foremen or supervisors frequently report on hand 
partly worn and relaying rail as scrap, there not being sufficient 
discrimination between these three qualities. At a later date 
when called upon to construct an industrial track, either for 
the company or an industry, it is discovered that a suCcient 
amount of partly worn or relaying rail is not on hand to do 
this work. The result is that the supervisor goes over his sup- 
ply of scrap rail and picks out a sufficient number of good rails 
from this stock to lay the required siding. In his report of this 
work he classifies the rail laid as either partly worn by relaying. 
The consequence is that the amount of scrap rail on hand has 
to be reduced, requiring an arbitrary adjustment. 

In order to avoid this practice more care should be exercised 
by the supervisor in classifying the rail on his territory. In 
reporting the different qualities of rail on hand, closer attention 
should be given to the material classed as scrap. It often hap- 
pens that many rails are turned over to the scrap heap, which 
only require the battered ends to be sawed off to make them 
suitable for relaying purposes. L. C. Fontaine, 

Office of General Superintendent, Grand Trunk Railway. 


Haileyville, Okie. 
To THE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

The article on motion study in track work in the Railway Age 
Gazette of June 18, is worthy of further consideration by our 
railway managers. The training of section men is just as import- 
ant as of any other class of employees and a great deal more 
so in many instances. If the section man is not taught how to 
handle his toots he will not be able to give a good day's work 
and he as well as his fellow laborers are liable to personal in- 
jury therefrom. If he does not know how to hold the spike and 
how to strike it with the maul he may mash his hand or injure 
another employee by a flying spike. Drilling for such efficiency 
among the section men as well as with other maintenance labor- 
ers is one that has not had the attention which it deserve.s. 

But. on the other hand, would it be profitable? What incen- 
tive is there for the men to remain with a road when farmers 
or others offer them more money for a day's work. If the 
position could be made attractive and remunerative enough to 
cause the men to stay with the job we would say that it would be 
a profitable investment to put good men in the field to instruct 
them in the manner of handling their tools and doing their work. 

It is not reasonable to suppose that a gang of men will turn 
out as much work and as good work where they have had no 
training as where they had been schooled along lines in connec- 
tion with their every day work. A carpenter is taught during 
his appenticeship just how to hold a tool and the position to place 
himself in when doing a certain kind of work with a certain 
kind of tool. If the foreman wants to take out a rail or put in 
one and has to take the time to place each man in a certain 
position to secure the full benefit of his power, how much time 
has been lost in so doing? The same applies to any other duty 
on the section. J. L. Coss, 

Despatchcr, C. R. 1. & P. 

Digitized by ^^^^^^p^t.^^ 

Uses of the Locomotive Crane in Railway Service 

This Machine is Solving Many Problems in the Engi- 
neering, Maintenance, Stores and Operating Depjirtments 

One of the llrst extensive uses of a locomotive crane l>y a 
railway was on tile Erie about 1899. the machine handling coal 
with a grab bucket from cars to storage piles and from storage 
to cars for reshipment. From this beginning, its use has spread 
to practically all of the roads in the country, although the eastern 
lilies were much (|uicker to adopt it and with the exception of 
some of the larger roads in the West, as the Chicago. Burling- 
ton & Quincy. the Illinois Central and the Southern Pacilic. the 
largest numbers of these cranes in railway service are still in the 
East. The extent to which they are used at present is indicated 
by the fact that the Erie owns abiut 40 machines, the Illinois 
Central. 31. and the Southern Pacilic. 34. A wic'.e \ariety of 

t^e iioilcr, engine, boom and all hoisting drum.s, clutches, brakes. 
I.e., used in propelling the car, slewing the upper structure atid 
operating the various lifting and control lines. The distinguish- 
ing features as compared with other types of cranes are the high 
power, speed of operati